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1653 Eosst Main Street 
== _Rechester, New York 14609 

QO Edison. fapers 



Thomas E. Jeffrey Theresa M. Collins 
Lisa Gitelman Gregory Field 
Gregory Jankunis ; Aldo E. Salerno 
David W. Hutchings Karen A. Detig 
Leslie Fields Lorie Stock 
Robert Rosenberg 

Director and Editor 

Rutgers, The State University Of New Jersey 
National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site 
New Jersey Historical Commission 
Smithsonian Institution 

University Publications of America 
/ Bethesda, MD 
i 1999 

Edison signature used with permission of McGraw-Edison Company 

Sonnets pean mn 

meaner (eee 

Thomas A. Edison Papers 
Ruigers, The State University 
endorsed by 
National Historical Publications and Records Commission 
18 June 1981 

Copyright © 1999 by Rutgers, The State University 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication including any portion of the guide and index or of 
the microfilm may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any 
means—graphic, electronic, mechanical, or chemical, includingphotocopying, recording or taping, 
or information storage and retrieval systems—without written permission of Rutgers, The State 
University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

The original documents in this edition are from the archives at the Edison National Historic Site 
at West Orange, New Jersey. ; : 

ISBN 0-89093-703-6 

: : : pees are! 7 : ; d 5 
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Robert A. Rosenberg 
Director and Editor 

Thomas E. Jeffrey 
Associate Director and Coeditor 

Paul B. Israel 
Managing Editor, Book Edition 

Helen Endick 
Assistant Director for Administration 

Associate Editors Assistant Editors 
Theresa M. Collins Louis Carlat 
Lisa Gitelman Aldo E. Salerno 
Keith A. Nier 
Research Associates Secretary 
Gregory Jankunis Grace Kurkowski 
Lorie Stock 

Student Assistants 
Amy Cohen Jessica Rosenberg 
Bethany Jankunis Stacey Saelg 
Laura Konrad Wojtek Szymkowiak 
Vishal Nayak Matthew Wosniak 


Rutgers, The State University of New National Park Service 

Jersey John Maounis 
Francis L. Lawrence Maryanne Gerbauckas 
Joseph J. Seneca Roger Durham 
Richard F. Foley George Tselos 
David M. Oshinsky Smithsonian Institution 

New Jersey Historical Commission Bernard Finn 
Howard L. Green Arthur P. Molella 

James Brittain, Georgia Institute of Technology 

R. Frank Colson, University of Southampton 
Louis Galambos, Joins Hopkins University 

Susan Hockey, University of Alberta : 

Thomas Parke Hughes, University of Pennsylvania 

Peter Robinson, Oxford University 
Philip Scranton, Georgia Institute of Technology/Hagley Museum and Library 
Merritt Roe Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 
Charles Edison Fund 

The Hyde and Watson Foundation 
National Trust for the Humanities 
Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation 


National Science Foundation 

National Endowment for the 

National Historical Publications and 
Records Commission 


Alabama Power Company 

Anonymous . 


Atlantic Electric 

Association of Edison Mluminating 

Battelle Memorial Institute 

The Boston Edison Foundation 

Cabot Corporation Foundation, Inc. 

Carolina Power & Light Company 

Consolidated Edison Company of New 
York, Ine. 

Consumers Power Company 

Cooper Industries 

Corning Incorporated 

Duke Power Company 

Entergy Corporation (Middle South 
Electric System) 

Exxon Corporation 

Florida Power & Light Company 

General Electric Foundation 

Gould Inc. Foundation 

Gulf States Utilities Company 

David and Nina Heitz 

Hess Foundation, Inc. 

Idaho Power Company 

IMO Industries 

International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley H. Katz 

Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. 

. Midwest Resources, Ine. 

Minnesota Power 

New Jersey Bell 

New York State Electric & Gas 

North American Philips Corporation 

Philadelphia Electric Company 

Philips Lighting B.V. 

Public Service Electric and Gas Company 

RCA Corporation 

Robert Bosch GmbH 

Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation 

San Diego Gas and Electric 

Savannah Electric and Power Company 

Schering-Plough Foundation 

Texas Utilities Company 

Thomas & Betts Corporation 

Thomson Grand Public 

Transamerica Delaval Inc. 

Westinghouse Foundation 

Wisconsin Public Service Corporation 

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aed, az areas 

A Note on the Sources 

The pages which have been 

filmed are the best copies 
available. Every technical 
effort possible has been 
‘made to ensure legibility. 


Reel duplication of the whole or of 
any part of this film is Prohibited, 
In lieu: of transcripts, however, 
enlarged photocopies of selected 
items contained on these reels 

may be made in order to facilitate 

Seine Malden hil wile 36 


The four scrapbooks in this series cover the period 1901-1904. They 
contain clippings from newspapers, popular magazines, and technical 
journals, along with other printed material. Two scrapbooks from 1901-1902 
pertain to the development, testing, and manufacture of Edison's alkaline 
storage battery. The one selected book includes articles by former Edison 
employee Arthur E. Kennelly and by electrochemist Eugene F. Roeber. The 
other two scrapbooks (not selected) contain material regarding the 
International Correspondence Schools—an organization based in Scranton, 
Pennsylvania, which promoted Edison's phonograph for educational use. 

In addition to these items, the Scrapbook Collection in the Edison 
National Historic Site archives has several books from the period 1899-1910. 
These contain souvenirs, postcards, and holiday greetings collected by Mina 
Miller Edison and others. Two undated scrapbooks contain the original labels 
from Edison's mineral cabinet, indicating the names and origins of the 
samples collected. A finding aid to the archival collection is available. 

i aeeeinen Ce 

Scrapbook, Cat. 44,496 

This scrapbook covers the period January-December 1901. In addition, two loose items 
from September 1902 have been inserted into the book. Included are articles about Edison's 
alkaline storage battery by former associate Arthur E. Kennelly and by electrochemist Eugene F. 
Roeber, along with other battery-related clippings from the Electrical Review, Electrical World and 
Engineer, Western Electrician, and New York Tribune. 

Scrapbook, Cat. 44,495 [not selected] 

This scrapbook covers the period February-August 1901 and relates to the development, 
testing, and manufacture of Edison's alkaline storage battery. The clippings are primarily from daily 
newspapers, but some are from technical journals and popular magazines. Included is material 
pertaining to Edison's storage battery factory at Glen Ridge, New Jersey; his visit to the Sudbury 
region of Ontario; and a conflict with the General Electric Co. over the use of the battery. 

Scrapbook, Cat. 44,493 and Cat. 44,494 [not selected] 

These two scrapbooks probably cover the period 1903-1904, but some of the items may 
be from earlier or later dates. Included are clippings and printed promotional material relating to 
the International Correspondence Schools (I.C.S.)—an organization based on Scranton, 
Pennsylvania, which promoted Edison's phonograph for educational use. The material was 
apparently collected by Nelson C. Durand at |.C.S. before he joined the National Phonograph Co. 
in 1905 as manager of the Commercial Department. Several items from these scrapbooks can be 
found in the Primary Printed Series. 


CL ERA ween SE aT Eee 


Scrapbook, Cat. 44,496 

This scrapbook covers the period January-December 1901. In 
addition, two loose items from September 1902 have been inserted into the 
book. Included are articles about Edison's alkaline storage battery by former 
associate Arthur E. Kennelly and by electrochemist Eugene F. Roeber, along 
with other battery-related clippings from the Electrical Review, Electrical 
World and Engineer, Western Electrician, and New York Tribune. The 
cover is labeled "Edison Storage Battery Newspaper clippings From January 
5, 1901 To ." The pages are unnumbered. Approximately 40 pages have 
been used. 

{1 Ans HBRMOUNTaiN 8 coy 
a etini ctiets : 

By Dr ALE, Kenney," 
fa iskvell known that a piece of good coal contains enough energy, 

gravitation a vertical distance of 2000 miles. Otherwise stated, 
a pound of good coal, when burned in air, liberates about 5.7-hp- 
hoirs of energy, or at the rate of 0.175 Ib, per horse-power-hour, 

engine, and in the best steam engines the consumption of coal instead 
of being one-sixth of a pound per brake horse-power-hour is about 
1% Ibs. while in ordinary fairly large good engines it is between 2 
and 3 Ibs. 

with for many years. The best steam engines of the year 1801 had 
the nineteenth century has been to increase the net or-total efficiency 

A of the best engines from 4 per cent. to 14 per cent. 
The great source of waste in the steam engine is a consequence of 


working substance, such as hydrogen gas, a certain quantity of' heat, 
at the temperature say of melting fead, in a heat-tight cylinder from 
Awhich all thermal waste could be eliminated, and allow the gas to 




gout a piston, with a subsequent retraction, we cannot obtain the full 
mechanical equivalent of the heat energy unless the expansion goes 


> Sas) 

bn indefinitely, with a simultaneous depression of the temperature 
pf the expanded gas down to the theoretically absolute zero of +273 
legs. C. at which there would be no heat left in it, The ratio of the 
working range, to the total ideal range of temperature down to 
Absolute zero, represents the thermodynamic efficiency, and the limita- 
tions of the heat engine, It would seem that any heat engine or energy- 
converting apparatus that involves a rejection of heat at a lower tem- 
perature must be subject to this limitation and disastrous waste. 
The question has therefore often arisen whether the energy can- 
not be extracted from coal without having recourse to the thermo- 
dynamic process, and, therefore, without having to pay such heavy 
tribute to the absolute temperature of 300 degs, C., or 300 degs. above 
absolute zero, at which we happen to live, and below which we are 
iw unable to carry our expansion. 

If, for example, coal were converted into coke, which conversion 
: could be carried on commercially without loss, and perhaps even at 
PF A rgasig as NE : ; 24 : pe a profit, on account of the value of the distillation products; and if 
See os “Ata, K 4 the coke could be consumed in a galvanic battery in the same man- 

a ner that zinc is ordinarily consumed, there would be no stich neces- 

] sary waste of energy, and theoretically almost all of the energy of 

combination between coke-carbon and oxygen could be liberated in 
B the electrical circuit of the apparatus, This would represent the direct 
generation of the energy of coke-carbon into electrical energy. Un- 
fortunately, however, carbon refuses to behave like zinc and burn in 
a voltaic cell. The only known means by which carbon could be 
made to give out its energy in a voltaic cell, in competition with the 
use of coal in the steam engine, is by the formation of either carbon 
monoxide or carbon dioxide; in other words, the same oxidization 
which yields the energy of carbon in the process of combustion must 
take place electro-chemically. The oxygen for this purpose must be 
obtained from some cheap elec- 
trolyte containing oxygen, and 
fay cannot, so far as is known, be ob- 

tained from the atmosphere direct- 
ly, In other words, it is necessary 
8 to rob an electrolyte of oxygen in 
order that the carbon shall com- 
bine with it electrolytically. If the 
oxygen of the electrolyte were but 
feebly held, that is to say, if the 
electrolyte consisted of a chemical 
combination with oxygen so un- 
stable as to require but a negligi- 
bly small amount of energy to tear 
the oxygen away,and if, moreover, 
the substance or substances with 
Awhich the oxygen was unstably 
M linked were capable’ of entering 
into combination with the other plate of the voltaic couple, with but 
Mlittle absorption of energy; then it might be possible for the voltaic 
ell to work with a power output theoretically approaching that of the 
combustion vatue of carbon and oxygen. The union of carbon and 
¥ oxygen in the cell would take place without sensible elevation of 
MH temperature, the clectrolyte would give up its oxygen for the forma- 
fa tion of carbon dioxide, and the products of the cell would have to be 

fresh electrolyte. All this requires the existence of an electrolyte 
possessing the properties of small chemical stability, together with 
the capability of forming suitable chemical combinations at botl 
MM plates of the couple. Moreover, the electrolyte must be so abundant 
as to be very cheap. 

Unfortunately all the electrolytes that are abundant are very stable 
combinations, which require a large amount of energy to tear the 
oxygen away from them, and if, as commonly happens, the energy 
H required to abstract their oxygen is greater than the energy which 

carbon will yield on combining with their oxygen, it is evident that 
& the voltaic cell so constituted would not work. The amount of energy 
which is necessary for the chemical disunion of oxygen from all the 
ordinary electrolytes is fairly well known by thermo-chemical meas- 
turements. An examination of thermo-chemical data confirms the re- 
sults of the very large amount of experimental enquiry made during 
the past century, and leads to the conclusion that there is no cheap 
electrolyte available for the burning of carbon in a yoltaic cell, at 
We ordinary tempcratures, with an efficiency that can compete with the 
@ steam engine. Apparently nothing short of an cpoch-making dis- 

when burned with oxygen, to lift its weight against sea-level ie 

The best known means of securing this energy: in mechanical form }} 
is the heat engine, which is in practice, on a large scale, the steam 

This inefficiency of the steam engine has been known and striven | 

a net efficiency of about 4 per cent, so that the progress made during : 
the apparently definite law of nature that if we deliver up to any fA 

do mechanical work in strokes or cycles by expanding and pushing { 

imervaigctin Wo The probation of 
Blackeceity direct fom Th Combate 


chemically eliminated in some continuous manner, to be replaced by" 


Turning now to the voltaic cell worked at high temperatures, in- 
stead of at ordinary temperatures, although the prospects from 
thermo-chemical data seem equally unfavorable, yet there is some 
hope of success in this direction, if only from the fact that there is 
less experimental knowledge of hot voltaic cells than of cold voltaic 
cells, and there is always hope so long as any reasonably available 
combination has been left untested. The electrolyte would now be a 
fused salt instead of a solution, and must give up oxygen to the car- 
bon for the production of carbon monoxide or dioxide. The remain- 
ing constituents of the electrolyte must be suitably provided for, and 
eliminated at the opposite plate, without serious loss of energy, 

The hot voltaic cell is complicated to some extent by the introduc- 
tion of thermo-electric phenomena, which inevitably accompany the 
contacts of dissimilar matcrials at markedly different temperatures. If 
the cell is a mere thermo-clectric couple, it must do work in the circuit 
by receiving heat, at a high temperature, at one contact, ‘and reject- 
ing heat, at a lower temperature, at another contact, thereby coming 
under the thermodynamic law of temperature limitation, just as does 
a heat engine, besides being subject to additional limitations imposed 
by purely thermo-electric conditions. Consequently, not only is the 
thermo-electric method of obtaining energy from carbon, by allowing 
its combustion heat to operate thermo-clectric couples, likely to be a 
failure in competition with the steam engine, owing to the tempera- 
ture range limitation, but any real voltaic action in which carbon is 
oxidized in a hot electrolyte can succeed only in spite of, and not by 
reason of its accompanying thermo-clectric actions, 

In other words, it would scem that a hot voltaic cell can only be a 
successful competitor with the steam engine on account of its voltaic 
action, and such thermo-electric ‘actions as inevitably occur therein 
must be wasteful for the same reason that the steam engine is waste- 
ful; namely, because the tempera- 
ture range, instead of being be- 
tween the high temperature and ab- 
solute zero of temperature, is ac- 
tually between the high tempera- 
ture and a convenient moderate 
temperature, While, therefore, the 
prospects are not encouraging for 
the production of a hot voltaic cell- 
burning carbon, yet there is hope 
that it may be found, whereas, with 
the cool voltaic cell, the case seems 
to be almost hopeless for the near 

If the energy of burning carbon 
with oxygen cannot be liberated 
electrically in a direct manner, as 
above outlined, yet it may be pos- 
sible to use its chemical potential energy to perform purely chemical 
change in other combinations, and use the resulting products of that 
chemical change for the final development of electrical energy in the 
circuit of voltaic cells. Such exchanges of chemical energy at high 
temperatures are not subject to the thermo-dynamic law of tempera- 
tures, although incidentally much heat energy is usually wasted by 
the furnaces in which such substitution takes place. Theoretically, 
the exchange of chemical energy from carbon to some other sub- 
stance in this manner does not necessarily require a wasteful expen- 
diture of heat, and it is conceivable that the furnaces in which the 
exchange occurs might be made so nearly heat-tight, by gradual im- 
provement, as to waste but little energy. 

Such indirect processes of obtaining energy from carbon are 
already in use and are illustrated in the ordinary voltaic cell burning 
zine. ‘The zine is originally taken in the form of oxide, and heated 
in a closed furnace with carbon; the energy necessary to tear the 
oxygen from the zinc, or reduce the metallic oxide to the metal, is 
supplied by the energy of combustion of carbon with the oxygen, 
and if the retort could be made heat-tight, and the waste of heat in 
raising the temperature of the active substance prevented, the energy 
of carbon would be transferred to the zinc in a fairly considerable 
proportion. Owing, however, to the fact that in practice very con- 
siderable thermal waste docs occur, the metallic zinc, when prepared 
for the voltaic tell, carrics but a very small fraction, usually less 
than 1 per cent of the energy originally possessed by the carbon used 
in the process. Moreover, the labor involved in the operation of ex- 

changing the energy between the carbon and the zine increases the 
ee 8 atenenfaean ac fe walt kenawn. that the voltaic 


battery employing zinc cannot possibly compete with the steam engine 
as a developer of power. 

In this indirect method of transferring the combustion energy of 
carbon to some substance capable of use in a voltaic combination, 
there is probably much more hope of exceeding the efficiency of the 
steam engine, than in obtaining the energy by a direct voltaic method, 
if only for the reason that the experimental field is so much more 
extensive. If, however, a substance or combination of substances 
were found in which, with the aid of carbon, combustion cnergy in an 
improved voltaic cell could be developed so as to attain a final effi- 
ciency exceeding that of the steam engine, it might readily happen 
that the cost of the labor involved in the supply of the active sub- 
stance and in conducting the process might be prohibitively great, so 
that unless the substance were very cheap and the process of energy 
exchange and subsequent voltaic release very simple, no commercial 
realization could. be expected, 

There are consequently two broad avenues in which improvement may: 

“be looked for in utilizing the energy of coal. One is by improving the 
heat engine, and the other is by finding a suitable substance to burn in 
the voltaic cell, either hot or cold, transferring the chemical energy of 
carbon to that substance by purely chemical means in a retort as 
nearly heat-tight as possible, 

So far as the heat engine is concerned, it is reasonable to expect 
improvement inthe apparatus whereby the energy thermodynamic- 
ally convertible may be better conserved, or the efficiency of the 
machine improved, when debited with all the energy that its temper- 
ature range will permit of being converted from heat into mass 
motion. But with the modern steam engine, if these wastes were 
entirely prevented, the efficiency would still be only about 20 per 
cent, and the real difficulty lies in the range of working temperatures, 
What is needed is a greater range of temperature, a lower tempera 
ture of the condenser, and a higher initial temperature of the work 
ing substance, the latter requirement being much the more important 
of the two, In the case of the steam engine, this means higher steam 
-Pressure, and improvements during the past century have been 
steadily made in this direction. A greater difference of temperature and the same engine, however, tends to increase the thermal 
waste by leakage conduction from the hot parts to the cool, and so 
to diminish the relative actual efficiency. This has been, to some ex- 
tent, overcome by coupling three or four seperate engines to one com- 
mon driving shaft and expending the steam successively in the suc- 
cessive engines, thus producing the multiple-expansion, compound 

. engine, The limits of temperature and pressure elevation seem to be 

almost reached for the present in this direction, partly owing to the 
increased difficulties in lubrication at high ternperatures, 

Tn the gas engine, however, the initial temperatures are consider: 
ably higher, and for this reason the thermodynamic efficiency of gas 
engines attains nearly 30 per cent or is considerably above that of the 
steam engine. All that can be said for the future of heat engines is 
that any marked improvements in their efficiency must come from 
an increased range between the limits of the initial and final temper- 
atures, whether this be effected in one engine, or in a plurality of 
associated engines. Improvement in lesser degree may, of course, be 
expected from the diminution of heat wastes in boiler and engine, as 
well as in the reduction of mechanical friction. The steam-turbing 
principle, if successfully adapted to large sizes of engines, would in- 
troduce a great simplification of parts, reduction of weight, with, per- 
haps, some dimintution of these losses, But the steam turbine must be 
as much limited by the temperature range, as the ordinary recipro- 
cating heat engine, 

Apart from the solution of the problem by improvements in feat 
engines, or by the discovery of a suitable working substance in the 
voltaic cetl, there is always the possibility of finding some new me- 
chanism by which the heat energy of carbon atoms can be converted 
into the energy of mass motion. We are still so profoundly ignorant 
of how the energy of carbon is stored relatively to that of oxygen, 
that a discovery of the hidden mechanism of the storage principle 
might lead to a discovery of a new means of releasing it. In other 
words, there is something in a Iump of carbon in conjunction with 
a lump of oxygen, which corresponds either to a bent spring or to 
the motion of the gyrostat, All we know is that when the two sub- 
stances are brought into sufficiently intimate contact, with the aid of 
a high temperature, either the spring is released, or the gyrostatic 
motion is arrested, with the production of jostle-energy among the 
molecules of the substance, or of that particular kind of rapid oscil- 
latory molecular. motion which we assume heat to be. Tt is conceiv- 
able that if we had.a clearer idea of th 

oe PROM 

56 Cedar Sr,- 


pel del 


eine tennant iinniicianaiil 

% ature of the invisible ing a light by heating. 
HEGRHS 7 " ro a a : Pin 

springs, or invisible gyrostats, we might discover some means by 
which the springs might be released or the Gyrostats arrested, with- 
out the production of jostle-energy, and with the direct production 
of some kind of utilizable force, - ‘i 7 
The mere fact that by chemical processes we are able to transfer |"! 
at least a part of the energy of carbon to a different substance in 
chemical form, without first Hiberating it in heat, should encourage 
the hope that we may find a means of transferring it in some forns |: 
other than chemical or thermal, and not until we have a clear know!l- 
edge of the mechanism involved, and a clear conception of its neces |: 
sary limitations, will that hope be destroyed, When we consider that |’ 
the world's annual consumption of coal is roughly 500,000,000 of tons, |: 
the enormous importance. of improving upon the means of obtaining |. 
“the energy from coal is sufficiently apparent, Perhaps the most im- 
portant ultimately, of all problems before the human race, is the dis- 
_covery of an available power supply when the world’s coal shall have 
become exhausted some hundreds of years hence. Every waste of 
this substance, diminishes to that extent the time in which the Pprob- 
lem must be solved, if the future of the race is to be unchecked. 
Meanwhile, however, there is every reason to expect that improve- 
ments will take place in heat-engines, and there is reason to hope 
that if their improvement is not sufficiently rapid, a more efficient 
means of utilizing the energy may be found cither indirectly in a 
voltaic cell, or in some manner not at present conceived of, 

Light without Heat, 

By Pror, R. A. Fessenpen, 

PPARENTLY the most self-suggesting way of getting light 
without heat would have been to have developed eyes which 
could see afl the rays. But with an extremely aggravating 

indifference to the waste of grey matter thereby to be entailed upon 
their descendants, flabby one and backboned one went placidly along, 
developing eyes which would only respond to a quite limited range 
of vibrations, And if this apparent lack of business foresight had been 
pointed out to any particular specimen of wiggling iniquity, he might 
possibly have replied, “Do not tinker with development. In years to 
come, one with a backbone will call your attention to the fact 
that, ‘in the long run, the will of the people is, for the people, bet- 
ter than that of the wisest individual. If we developed such eyes for 
you, they would not be ‘of use, for what you saw with heat rays , 
would be blurred, and’ ultra violet rays don’t go very far. And be- 
sides, as regards X-rays, with the morality of the community in such 
a rudimentary state, I have serious: objections to my neighbors being 
able to sce when I have anything extra good to eat inside me. Con- 
sider our economical friend, the firefly, who serenely oblivious of the 
ineterman’s threats to turn off the gas, titillates at will his abdomen 
up to any desired candle-power, and go and do likewise.” 

But we have been a long time trying to do likewise. x 

How much the sky meant to our predecessors, we can never know. 
Sometimes a long stretch of camp life goes far to give one a faint 
conception and to make him realize, that as we have extended our 
knowledge, we have contracted our firmament. No one now loaks up, 
and we have forgotten the array of the stars, 

From resinous knot to the flame of burning oil cannot have been 
a far step, but for more than forty centuries (how much longer 
we do not know) we rested at this stage. And it is a wonderful thing 
to contemplate, that the generation now passing has been the first, 
since the world began, to be able to neglect the waxing and the waning 
of the moon. And since gas itself is merely a light hydro-carbon, of 
the same general nature as that used for lamps and candles, being 
thus rather an improvement in the means of distributing the material 
than a new method of lighting, we may say that it is only within the 
last twenty-five years that new methods of lighting have come into 

These may be divided into the following classes, (not fundament- 
ally, but merely for the purpose of dealing with them.) 

First—Light produced by heat. p 

Second—Light produced by heat combined with chemical action. 

Three—Light produced by chemical action. } 

To consider the advances already made, and which we may expect 
to be made in the first of these. hee % 

The evolution of the incandescent lamp was a labor so tremendous ! ed 
that no one man could have accomplished it. The method of obtain: 



-{ Edison Storage Battery.~An illustrated abstract of an English 
patent to Edison, dated Nov. 20, 1900. <A translation of practically 
the entire abstract is given in another column of this issue—Central- 
hlatt f, Accum, Marely. 15. _. 

a In view of the deep effect that previous inventions and improves 
‘| ments made by Mr, Edison have had on the arts, the excitement 
: aroused by the report that he is about to Jaunch a new storage bath ‘ 
72 "tery of lesser weight for equipment wort: and of minimized depre- 
- ciation, is quite justified, We are glad, therefore, to be able to pres, 
; sent our readers with an account that they are likely to find very, 
a interesting, of some of his latest Work in this field. The patents that, 

: Mr, Edison has taken out abroad indicate.the lines along which he has, 
f As. working, in the production of a copper-cadmium cell, although! 

jit may be stated that the mere description in the patent does not 
i wholly describe the most recent developments, Mr. Edison having be 
j been busy on improvements up to the very moment at which this! . 

‘note is written. It is understood that Dr. Kennelly is to give ther 
Institute a paper on the subject, and in the meantime Mr. Edigon| | 
; expects to have the battery at the Institute conversazione next week. 
: Considering the need of further modifications in the modern storage 
| battery for purposes not yet brought within its range, it is to be de- 
| Voutly hoped that Mr, Edison has now added another to his long list 
' of triumphs, by success in a field which he himself has chosen for a 
i long time deliberately to neglect, 

gaps eS sa Re ee 

~ Edison’s Work in Storage Batteries, 

Considerable interest has been manifested in the announcement 
that Edison has been working on a new type of storage battery, but 
no definite information has been obtainable concerning the same, 
While the. American Patents have not yet been issued, an English 
patent has, however, been recently granted, an abstract of which 
has just appeared in a German paper, We, therefore, give below a 
nearly literal translation of this abstract, it being the only informa- 
tion which, up to the present time, is available in this country. We 
assume that the accumulator described therein is the one—or one 
among others—on. which Mr. Edison is now working, as it’ answers 
to the description that it'is not a lead accumulator, and that ‘the 
chemical actions in it are quite different from those in the ordinary 
storage battery. tans ‘ 

In some respects the German abstract is not very clear, but the 
general principles’ of the battery can be understood from the article; 
It seems to be fundamentally a modification of the familiar copper 
oxide alkaline accumulator, for which such great claims were made 
a dozen or more years ago, and one form of which was known in 
this country as the Waddell-Entz. battery. One change seems to 

apiece Bn he ee 
greatly increased. . Edison ‘has found that very finely divided cop- 

per forms copper oxide free from water and insoluble in alkaline 

lyes, whereas with the smallest particle of solid copper present or 

upon the pressing together of the finely ‘divided copper, soluble 

hydroxide of copper is formed, Finely divided copper is artificially 

Prepared, preferably by the reduction of the carbonate with hydro- 

gen. As negative electrode, finely divided cadmium is used. This 

and the copper are in a tank of nickel or other metal, such as nickel 

plated iron, i ‘ 

Fig. 1 gives a perspective view of a plate, Fig. 2 a horizontal i 
cross-section of a pair of plates, and Fig. 3 a vertical cross-section’ 
of a cell with two pairs of plates. The plate marked 1 is made of |- 
relatively thin sheet nickel, The lower parts of the plates are con- |.:!. 
nected by insulating rods, 4, passed through the holes, 4; The: pins, |. 
5, in the holes, 5, in the upper parts of the plates are used for the 
electrical connection. On one side of the plates there are reservoirs 
or “pockets” marked, 6, for the electrode metals, : These pockets | 
are best made of perforated nickel sheets or nickel-plated sheets. 
The best method of cleaning the plates is to heat them in a closed |. : 
compartmnt to a red heat, and then reduce the oxide by hydrogen. 
Cadmium in very finely divided, fibrous and vety pure condition, is 
obtained by electrolysis of a week solution of cadmium sulphate |, 
between a thin platinum wire as cathode and ,a;gadmium sheet as 
anode, using a strong current. The deposit ae is removed 

from the cathode from time. to time, and fri the sulphate by 
washing with water. It is then filled into the ckets,” 

Finely divided copper is obtained by the reduction of fine carbon= 
ate with hydrogen. The temperature must be kept as low as the 
completeness of the reduction allows, as otherwise the density of the 3 
copper is increased too much: The finely divided copper thus ob- 
tained is poured under slight pressure into thin blocks which fit the 
“pockets” accurately. To avoid an increase of the density of ‘the 
copper-in parts, the molds must not scratch or otherwise injure the 
plates, The plates are then heated in a closed compartment for 6 

22) 2D 

or 7 hours, to not more than 260 degs, (probably centigrade), until | 
the copper is changed into the black cupric oxide. At higher tem- 
peratures the density is increased too much. The cupric oxide 
blocks are next reduced to metal electrolytically, and are then 
changed into the red cuprous oxide by charging, It would be pos- 
sible to fill the finely divided copper first obtained, directly into the 
pockets; but as it is not fibrous like the cadmium, the connection 



| The Edison “Storage Battery. 4 : 
; In an address delivered before the: 
| Brooklyn Institute recently, Mr. W.+8.: 
: Barstow, general manager of the Edison. 
| IMuminating Company of Brooklyn, gave 
: 1 the following account of Mr. Edison’s’ 
' new storage battery: : 

| “An improvement which will at-once in- 
‘ terest, the electric engincering fraternity 
us well as the public, will be in’ ‘the 
; line of storage batteries. ‘The present 
' storage battery, although superior to that 
; of several years ago, is’ still-a very in- 
; ferior and inefficient piece of apparatus, 
Not only is it costly and heavy in weight, 
i but in portable form its ‘depreciation is 
, rapid, Within the last few months several 
; New types of lead batteries have been de- 
‘ veloped, although none of them has as yet 
been announced. : : 
. “An entire departure from the lead type 
lof battery has recently been invented, 
‘and will soon be announced by Mr. Edi- 
-;60n. — Mr. Edison’s battery contains no 
tlead of any kind, the materials compos- 
‘Ing it are cheap, its weight is ‘only. about 
: one-third of the present battery, and its 
i epreciation low. Although it will’ be 
j found, when a description of it is seen, | 
. {that not what may be called a new 
. | discovery, it is, nevertheless, a sucecsaful 
‘development of what many have turned 
/ aside as useless, In fact, this is true of 
.; many of Mr. Edison’s inventions. The 
j Rew typo of battery -will be announced 
Within the next few weeks,” a 

eee ot 
consist in having. the copper more finely divided, ahd in the use of 
cadmium instead of zinc, The battery seems, apparently, to be iden- 
tical with an accumulator described in a Swedish patent to Schmidt 
and Junger. There appears to be a misprint concerning the volt- 
age, which is given as 44, but this is probably a misprint for 0.44, 
which would be @ little more than a fifth of the voltage of the ordi- 
nary accumulator. This voltage corresponds approximately to that, 
required by theory. If this is correct, it would, therefore, have to 
have five times thie ampere-hour capacity per pound of cell to be 
the equivalent of the lead accumulator as to ‘weight. Mr. Edison is 
understood to‘have said that he cuts the weight of the cell in two 
for equivalent work. Judging from the extract from the patent, 
Great care is necessary to have the copper extremely finely divided, 

. or otherwise it is claimed: the copper will dissolve. 

The abstract, of which the following is a translation, is from the 
Centralblatt fuer Accumulatoren und Elementenkunde, The trans- 
lation is as follows: The present accumulators are too heavy, be- 
cause much solution is required. In this new storage battery the 
electrolyte remains unchanged, so that only a small quantity of it 
is required. As ‘depolarizer, the lower oxide of copper is used; 

\that is, the red oxide. In the older cells of this general type (re- 

ferring presumably to the alkaline copper accumulator) soluble 
copper salt is said to be formed, which transfers copper to the zinc 
and thus produces rapid deterioration by local action, Efforts were : 
made to prevent the circulation of this salt by surrounding. the posi- 
tive electrode with a porous material, but these experiments -were 
unsuccessful because this material did not prevent the circulation 

“entirely, and was destroyed gradually by’ the strong, alkali A more- , 
‘over, much liquid was required _and_the resistance 

Bayan ey Maeaeesty ee ie 
On 5 i wis i 

between the particles is not close cnough, so that it is not as good |. °:) 

for the purpose as when treated in the way just described, 

After the pockets have been filled and the plates of equal sign have 
been connected together, they are placed in a case, 7, which contains 
as electrolyte a 10 per cent solution of pure hydroxide of sodium. 
During the charging of the cell, cuprous oxide is formed and water 
is decomposed. During the discharge, cadmium oxide is formed and ;: 
water is regenerated. As only a very small amount of liquid is re- '. 
quired, it is: sufficient to place thin sheets of asbestos or another ' 
light, powerful material which is not attacked by alkalies, between 
the plates and to moisten with the electrolyte. The internal resis- 
tance is very small. The materials are not attacked, and there is no 
local action between the cadmium and the nickel. The case, 7, may 
be made of nickel or other metal, for instance iron, the interior of 
which is nickel plated. The case may be sealed for liquids, the open- 
ing, 9, being required only for the gases which are formed when the 
céll is overcharged. : i 

It may be added that not only has Mr, Edison stated that he would 
reduce the weight of the modern storage battery by one-half, but 
that he would reduce the depreciation to a tenth—to virtually 
nothing. — i 

3 ae 

‘ ; i on 5 : aes Copper-Cadmium Batteries. 

To the Editers of Electrical World and Engineer: ; : 
Sirs—In view of the interest displayed by the electrical public: 
‘tin the new Edison copper-cadmium-alkaline storage battery, it may) 
Inot be out of place to call attention to the fact that, assuming the : 
‘battery to be’ successful in general, and quite free from any serious 
{ tendency to rapidly depreciate, yet even so, Mr, Edison's claims are : 
‘not extraordinary, because his promise is to double the output of the}: 


ae \ : “Manchester chloride,”"or to give the output of ‘the “Manchester 
ee : = oa ‘chloride” battery with half the weight. This, I say, is no great in- 
ney F : ‘vention, because the battery above cited has an output value equal to 
ae ; 3 amperes per pound at best. There are several batteries now to be a 

Thad that «lo double this work, as, for illustration, batteries like the; 

oD F {“Gould” special, of the Plante genus, While there are batteries off a 

oa ‘the Faure genus, such as “Taylor,” “Sperry” and others that pro- : 

‘ jduce nearly three times that output; or, in reality, nearly g0 per cent 

‘ ‘ : {more than Mr. Edison promises. This being so, Mr. Edison prom-, 

: ‘ises nothing unless it is to do better in the way of depreciation, and : 

‘promises of this nature, especially before they are substantiated by], a or 

. ‘at least a year of service, are rather to be discounted, There are . 

i formidable difficulties to be strmounted in the battery of the school 

. ‘to which Mr. Edison's battery belongs, and while it is to be hoped 

- ithat the Edison battery will improve with age, rather than de- 

ipreciate, yet even:so the public will, in the judgment of the writer,| 

’ , ‘pe’ perfectly SAIS, “eve Warranted; in giving"me lead-sulplititic aCnt : : 

types of batteries some further consideration before banking on the ie . 

. new possibility. I{.for no other reason, then because “we know the 
4 devil we have,” : Tuos, J. Fay. 

F . ‘(The copper-cadimum battery is but one step in Mr. Edison's 4 
po eaas ; As \vork, and is the only portion so far made public—Ens, E,W. & E] | : ‘ in 

Gd hid < 




easel Hist died Bette : ite 
On pages 360 and 361 of this issue of the’ Western 
"Electrician is given Dr. Kennelly's paper on “The * 
New Edison Storage Battery,” delivered at the an- 
nual meeting of the American Institute of Elec. [- 
trical Engincers in New York on Tuesday, May 2ist. | 

ae . . ; , ‘To lay this interesting and valuable description be- 
; : fore the readers of this journal, it was necessary to 
‘telegraph the full text of 3,000 words from New 
York. This was done, as the interest in Edisow’s 
latest. work has been very great. Dr, Kennelly is j 
a careful engincer and a close friend of the great | 

is 2) inventor, and his description may be accepted as 
<e authoritative. It will be seen that the new Edison 
cell is a nickel-iron one of exceptional lightness, 
Now that electrical men know how the battery is 
made, the actual performance of the cell will be 
Fawaited with keen interest 

ei : pines & = 


I take pleasure in bringing to the notice of the 
lustitite this evening a novel type of storage bat- 
tery, recently invented by Mr, Edison, It is well 
known that the history of the storage cell is essen- 
tially that of the lead cell, discovered hy Planté 

‘tin 18Co, in which lead peroxide is the depolarizing 

Substance, An enormous amount of labor has, in 

-{the aggregate, been expended upon the improve- 

ment of this cell in the hands of experimentalists, 
As a result of that labor, the storage battery has at 
last become a recognized adjunct to direct-current 
central stations, but it has limitations that seen, 
to withstand further attempts toward improvement. 
OF recent years hardly any success has been met 
with in the direction of reducing its weight for a 

[given energy of storage capacity without detriment 

to endurance, and this weight is the great draw- 

«back of the storage battery in electric storage-battery . 

traction, and has been the principal obstacle to its 
advance in this direction for the last 20 years, 

In practice the storage energy per unit mass of 
the modern Iead battery is from four to six watt 
hours peF pound of battery (88 to 13.23 watt-hours 
per kilogram). Expressed in another way, 2 bat- 
tery weighs from 1245 to 186.5 pounds per horse- 
power-hour at its terminals (75.5 to 113.4 kilos per 
kilowatt-hour), or, if its stored energy avdilable at 
terminals were all expended in gravitational work, 

.Ja battery could raise its own weight through a ver- 

tical distance of from two to three ‘miles (3.2 to 
48 kilometers), é 

While it is. possible to increase the energy per 
unit mass by making the electrodes very light, yet 
this is always found to be followed by a very heavy 
deterioration, Many attempts have also been made 
to perfect storage cells of the alkaline-zincate type, 
hut the great difficulty of depositing zine’in coherent 
form from the solution, as well as the lack of a 
depolarizer that shall be insoluble in: the electrolyte, 
has stood in the way of this cell's success, 

Mr, Edison set himself the task of finding a cell 

‘| which should possess the following advantages: (1) 

Absence of deterioration by work; (2) large storage 
capacity per unit of mass; (3) capability of being 
rapidly charged and discharged; (4) capability of 
withstanding careless treatment; (5) inexpensive- 

Mr, Edison believes that the cell now shown may 
claim the advantages in a very satisfactory degree, 
The negative pole, or positive element, correspond- 
ing to the zine of a primary cell, or the spongy lead 
of a secondary -cell, is iron.. The positive pole, or 
negative clement, corresponding to the carbon of a 
primary cell, or lead peroxide of a secondary cell, 
is a superoxide of nickel, believed to have the for- 
ula NiO: The cell is therefore a nickel-iron cell, 
a name which suggests the structural material, nickel- 
steel. : . 

The electrolyte is potash, viz. an aqueous solution 
containing from 10 to 4o per cent, by weight, but. 
preferably 20 per cent., of potassium hydroxide, the 
freezing temperature of which is 20 degrees below 
zero F., or —30 degrees C, The initinl voltage of dis- 
charge after recent. charge is 1.5 volts. The mean 
voltage of full discharge is approximately 1.1 volts, 
The normal discharging current rate per unit area of 
active clement (positive or negative) is 60 milliam- 
peres to the square inch, or 80.64 amperes to the 
square foot, or 0.93 the square decimeter, 

The storage capacity of the cell per unit of total mass 
of the cell is 1.4 watt-hours per pound, or 30.85 watt- 
hours per kilo. Expressing the same statement in 
‘another way, the weight of battery per unit of elec- 
‘tric energy at terminals is 53.3 pounds per electrical 
horsepower-hour, or 32.4 kilos per kilowatt-hour, 
Or the battery gives energy at its terminals sufficient 
to lift its own weight through a vertical distance of 

approximately seven’ miles, or 11.26 kilometers, 

The mean normat discharging power rate per unit 
mass of total cell is 4 watts per pound, or 8.82 watts 
per kilo, corresponding to a normal discharge period 
of 3% hours. ‘The cell may, however, be discharged 
ata relatively high rate, or approximately one hour, 
corresponding to a discharging power rate per unit 
of total cell mass of 12 watts per pound, or 26.46 
watts per kilo. 

Charging and discharging rates are alike; that is 
to say, the cell may be charged at the normal rate 
in 3% hours, or it may be charged at a relatively 
high rate in one hour, with no apparent detriment 
beyond a somewhat flowered electrical charge effi- 
ciency. In other words, the cet! does not appear to 

aper presented at the anual meeting of ihe Amotican 

rnenane of Electrical Eng'neers in New York on May 2t, t901, 


By Artnur E. Kennenry, 
(By telegraph to the Western Hlectrician] 


be injured by overcharging or discharging, and only 
suffers in electrical efficiency under such treatment. 
The positive and negative plates are mechanically 
alike, and can scarcely he distinguished by the eye. 
They differ only in the chemical contents of their 
pockets, ‘The samples exhibited were intended for 
automobile, batteries, and illustrate the construction, 
Each plate is formed of a comparatively thin sheet 
of steel, 0.61 millimeter in thickness, in which rectan- 
gular holes are stamped so as to leave a grid or frame 
somewhat resembling a window frame, In the plate 
shown there are three rows of eight such restangular 
holes or recesses, or 24 recesses in all, Each open- 
ing or recess is filled with a pocket or shallow box. 
containing the active material, These boxes cor- 
respond to the panes of glass in the window-frame 
analogy. The panes, instead of being thinner than 
the frame, as in an actual window, are thicker than 
the’ frame, or project slightly beyond the surface 
of the steel grid. They are perforated with numer- 
ous sinall holes to admit the electrolyte, but en- 
tirely conceal the contained active material from 
view. All that meets the eye, therefore, in any of 
the plates is the steel frame and its embedded “win- 
dows” of perforated steel, 
The active material is made in the form of rectan- 
gular cakes or briquets, and one ‘stich briquet is 
lodged in. each pocket or “window pane” of the 
plate, Each of the plates therefore supports or con- 
tains 24 briquets of active material, all in. rigid 
contact with its own substance. Each briquet is 
placed in a shallow, closely-fitting, nickel-plated box 
of thin, perforated, crucible steel, cut from a léng 
strip of that material, 0.003 inch (0.075 millimeter) 
thick, A cover or lid of the same material is then 
Jaid over it, so that the briquet is closely envel- 
oped by the sides and watls of its perforated steel 
box, The boxes are then placed in the Openings or 
holes in the nickel-plated stect grid, and closely fit 
the same. The assembled plate is then placed in a 
hydraulic press, and subjected to a total pressure 
sof about roo tons, ‘This pressure not only tightly 
closes the boxes, but it also forces their metal sides 
over the adjacent sides of the recesses in the steel 
grid, thus clamping the whole mass into a single 
solid and rigid steel plate, with the hollow “window 
panes” full of active material, The nickel-plating of 
both grids and boxes aids in securing good, perma- 
nent electric connections between them, The finished 
plate has a grid thickness of 0.024 inch (0.61 milli- 
meter) and a “window” or pocket thickness of 0.1 inch: 

(25 millimeters). This is the maximum thickness of ! 
the plate at any point, but, being of steel, the plate : 

has ample rigidity, 

The positive briquets (zines of a primary cell) 
are made by mixing a finely divided compound of 
iron, obtained hy a speciat chemical process, with 
a_nearly equal volume of thin flakes of graphite. 
The graphite does not enter into any of the chemical 
actions, but increases the conductivity of the briquets, 
The graphite is divided into very thin lamina by a 
chemical process, and these are passed through siey 
of screens so as to leave a size ‘or area of flake that 
is much larger than the area of the perforation in the | 
stecl windows, The mixture is then pressed into 
briquets in a mold under a hydraulic pressure of 
about two tons per square inch. ‘The briquets haye 
a surface area of nearly three by % inch on each 
face, The negative briquets (carbon of a primary 
cell) are made by similarly mixing a finely divided 
compound of nickel, obtained by- special chemical 
nicans, with nearly equal bulk of fine flakes of graph- 
ite, and solidifying the mixture in a mold into 
briquets of the same size as above, -A suitable num- 
her of positive and negative plates are assembled 

together, being separated from one another only by 7 

a thin sheet of perforated hard rubber, 

The assembled plates are placed in a vessel, or ex- | 

ternal containing-cell, of sticet steel, containing the 
potash solution, which, of course, does not attack - 
steel, There was, however, much difficulty froin 
the action of the potash on the soldered scams of the 
steel containing-vessel. After many trials, how- 
ever, Mr. Edison found a solder which seems to 
be entirely unaffected by the alkali. In charging, 
the current is, of course, sent into the positive pole 
and its attached negative nickel plate, through the 
electrolyte, and into the positive plate of the iron 
compound which carries the negative pole, 

This current deoxidizes or reduces the compound 
to spongy, mietallic iron and carries the oxygen 
through the ‘film of electrolyte to the nickel com- 
pound, oxidizing it to the hyperoxide of nickel, NiO: 
a higher oxide than the peroxide. In other word. 


the charging current simply carries oxygen He ed 
opposite direction against the forces of chemical aftin : 
ity, from the iron to the nickel, and stores the ener 
in the ‘reduced iron, which is, of course, unaffected 
aud passive in the presence of the potash solution. 
On discharge, the current passes from the positive 
pole through the external circuit to the negative po! es 
ait its attached iron or positive plate, and then 
throngh the solution to the negative or superoxide 
In go doing, the oxygen moves back ngainst 
the current:and partially reduces the nickel ae 
oxide, NiO; while oxidizing the spongy tron. Hi 
energy of burning of the iron and oxygen, W hich 
t would be developed as heat in the ordinary chemi af 
process, is now liberated in the circtit as elcetrica 
energy. . 

ooh cell is an oxygen-lift. Charging pulls the 
oxygen away from the iron and delivers it tem- 
porarily to the nickel. The condition is then stable, 
until the circuit of the cell is completed, Discharge 
then allows the oxygen to fall back from the nickel 
to the iron with the natural aftinity of iron and 


‘netfon is very different from that which takes 
' place in the lead storage Here, neglecting com 
tions, the action is usually cere for a4 
cal purposes as being represented by the equation, 
PLO, 4 ILSO: -+ Ph = PbSOs + 21,0 -+ PSO, 
+ 100 watt-hours, where the left-hand side repre- 
sents the condition of charge, and the right-hand side 
the condition of discharge. Here oxygen is not sim- 
3 . 7 : ply transferred in discharge from the peroxide to 
the spongy lead, but the solution is changed A(theoret- 
) from an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid to 
plain water. Of course the discharge could not prac- 
tically be carried to the point of denuding the solu- 
tion of all sulphuric acid, and a surplusage of acid 
mitst be used, ‘The equation gives a more theoretic 
- outline of admittedly very complex reactions. In 
at other words, the specific gravity of the sulphuric 
acid solution falls during the discharge, and_ the 

_. solution enters into the chemical combination, The- 

oretically, for every 44s grammes of active material 
' on both "plates, 196 grammes of sulphuric acid are 
reqttired to effect the combination, or 44 per cent, 
by weight of the active elements, and in practice 
it is usual to allow a weight of sulphuric acid nearly 
equal to half the weight of the elements or about 
one-quarter of the total weight of the cell. 

In the new Edison cell, on the other hand, the 
theoretical action of the potash solution is merely 
to provide the proper channel through which the 

5 ions may travel in one direction or the other 
—positive plate to negative plate in’ charge, and 
negative plate to positive plate in discharge, Con- 
sequently, the amount of solution needs only to be 
sufficient to fulfit: mechanical requirements. It is 
helieved that the weight of solution will in practice 
be only about 20 per cent. of the plate weight, or 
about 14 per cent. of the cell weight, In fact, the 
cell may be worked in the same manner as the so- 
called primary (dry) cells. Morcover, if the solu- 
tion should escape, or be carried away by gasing in 
charging, the only detriment seems to he the loss 
of active surface therchy occasioned, and it will only 
be necessary to fill up the cells to the proper level 
with walter from time to time, as evaporation or gas- 
ing may lower the level. For the same reasons the 
specific gravity of the electrolyte does not appre- 
ciably vary during charge and discharge. 

. The briquets of active material slightly expand on 
receiving oxygen, and slightly contract on delivering 
it; that is to say, the iron briquets contract and the 
nickel briquets expand during charge, while on dis- 
charge the iron briquets expand and the nickel 
briquets contract, ‘The expansions and contractions 
of the briquets appear to be well within the elastic 
limits of the spring steel containing-boxes, and con- 
sequently the electric contact is always secure, The’ 
covers or sides of the window pockets. merely ap-| 
proach to, or recede from, cach other slightly during 
charge and discharge, Fortunately, steel is the metal 
which possesses this mechanical elasticity 
marked degree. 

The action of the charging and discharging cur- 
rent upon the briquets seems to be transferred from 
their external surfaces inward in a manner similar 
to the transfer of carbon and oxygen in the process 
of making malleable cast iron in the-furnace, on the 
principle of cementation. No active material has been 
found to be cj led from the briquets through the win- 
dow perfora ious, even under deliberate overcharging 
and discharging. Such gas as is thereby produced 
makes its appearance on the external surface of the 
windows. If the nickel compound had no affinity for 
oxygen, so that energy was neither developed nor 

} Th 

(Le Poy 

Zrb 27 




ZL Sf 67 

_and the 

in al. 

absorbed in the deoxidation or further oxidation of 
that substance, then the energy entirely that 
due. tox.the «energy of combination of oxygen and 
Stated to be 79.7. watt-hours, 

ra ” 

and representing | 

¢ force theoretically obt inable of 
1.47 volts, If the combination of oxygen with the 
nickel compound be exothermic or energy-releasing, 
then the watt-hours delivered (and the elestromelye 
force) will be lessened by the cnergy iocesstelly 
paid back to break up the combination, If, on the 
other hand, the combination is endothermic or ene 
ergy-absorbing, then the watt-hours delivered (and 
the electromotive force) will be increas edd by the 
energy restored on breaking up the combination, 

Since the superoxide scems not to have, been 
known hitherto, no information concerning its en- 
ergy of combination is obtainable, ‘The clectromo- 
tive force of the cell seems to be so near to that of 
the union of iron and oxygen as to suggest that the 
nickel ‘superoxide is not far from being neutral, or 
that the nickel compound has but litte affinity for 
oxygen, although the superoxide appears to be quite 
stable in the cell. ; : 

The new cell dacs not scem to be appreciably in- 
fluenced by changes of temperature, and should stand 
a very low temperature without detriment. The elec- 
trolyte—potash—does not attack any of the ingredi- 
ents of cell, nor are any of the ingredients soluble 
therein, No local action occurs in the ecll so far as 
has yet been observed, since the electromotive foree is 
below that necessary to decompose water, ‘I he cell 
may be fully discharged to the practical zero point of 
electromotive force without detriment. In fact, a 
cell has not only been completely discharged, Dut ree 
charged in the reverse, or wrong, direction, and after 
bringing it back to its originally charged state hy 
proper restoration of direction of charging current, 
the storage capacity remained unaffected, It would 
seem, therefore, that the cell should be capable of 
withstanding mutch abuse. : 

Mr. Edison states that “the negative plate (nickel) 
either charged or discharged, can be removed from 
a working cell, and dried in the air for a week; with- 
out appreciably injuring it, and when the plate is 
finally replaced in the cell its charge is practically 

an_ clectromotiv: 

undiminished.” The positive (iron) plate, if sim- i : 
ilarly removed from the cel! would be likewise unin- 

jured, but it soon loses its charge hy the oxidation 
of spongy iron with accompanying liberation of heat 
and appreciable rise of temperature extending over 
a period of several hours. On replacing -the elec. 
trode, however, in the cell, the storage capacity is 
unaffected on recharge. “ 

As regards cost, Mr. Edison believes that after 
factory facilities, now in course of preparation, have 

been completed, he will be able to furnish the cells |) 

at a price per kilowatt-hour no greater than the pre- 
vailing price of lead cells. 

Having now considered the action and properties 
of the cell, a brief description may be given of the 
difficulties encountered in developing it. 

The phenomenon of passivity has probably kept |, 

inventors from finding this cell in the past, Mr. 
Edison believes that of all the very numerous com- 
pounds of iron, and of which he has tried many 
hundreds, the particular compound which he pre- 
pares is perhaps the only one capable of being used. 

If the dried hydrates or oxides of iron, native or ; 

artificial, are subject to electrolytic reducing action 
in any alkaline solution, they remain inert and un; 
affected, On the other hand, if finely divided iron 
obtained by reducing a compound of iron under 
the action of a reducing agent, stich as hydrogen or 
carbonic monoxide, is subjected to electrolytic oxida-, 
tion in an alkaline solution, it is inert and cannot 
be oxidized. 
State. The same difficulty of passivity affects the 
use of nickel or the negative element. Finely di- 
vided nickel, reduced from a nickel compound, re- 
mains inactive when subjected to electrolytic oxygen 
in an alkaline solution. The monoxide and the black 
oxide or peroxide are also inert. No oxide of nickel 
is active or can be made active by electrolytic action, 
peroxide does not act as a depolarizer. 


It assumes the well-known passive |. 

Mr. Edisén has given the world what 
_ promises to be another epoch-making in- 

vention. ; ae 
‘This remarkable man has signalized his 
return to the field of electrical invention 
{by ‘the announcement of the long-sought 
and ‘urgently needed light storage bat- 
tery, and has accomplished his result after 
the manner that marks all really great 
inventions—through means of tho great- 
est aimplicity, In Dr. Kennelly’s paper (a 
masterpiece of simple and lucid state- 
“! ment), reprinted elsewhere in this issue, 
will be found an account of the method— 
iron ‘and nickel-oxide plates in a solution 
of potash—whereby the weight-elficiency 
of the accumulator has been increased two 
‘and one-half times, And this method has 
been almost under the hands of investiga- 
tors for twenty years, yet has remained un- 
discovered ! 

To put it in plain English, this means 
that for the same weight storage 
battery should do two and one-half times 
‘ag much work as present types. In addi- 

tion to this signal achievement the 
veteran inventor has also announced a bat- 

significant depreciation and a low first cost, | 
Mr. Edison has produced no invention I 
of broader utility in the electrical field 

of industry. It is hard to foresee all the 

may look a little way and sce the noiseless | 

tery having a high discharge rate, an in- | 

since incandescent lighting was evolved |: 
from the busy brain of the same pioneer : 

| meaning of this improvement. But we |. - 

then read his paper 
hatlery, as follows’: 

rsfO£ the Institute, this evening, 


nent of this coll'-{n. the 

ment, Of recent years, 

“ing {ts weight for a 
capacity, without 


Tyr or Meranic Cen Useo with tie 
Episox Storage Barreny, 

mass of tho modorn lead battery, is from four 
to six watt-hours per pound of battery (8.8 
to 13.23 watt-hours per kilogramme). Bx- 
pressed In another way, a battery welghs 
from 124.5 to 186.5 pounds per horse-power- 
hour at [ts terminals (76.6 to 1134 kilos 
» |per Kilowatt-hour); or, if its stored energy 
“available at terminals were all expended in 
Jeravitattonal work, a battery could raise its 
‘jown welght through a vertical distance of 
. {from two to three miles (3.2 to 4.8 kilo- 

cily, the suppression of the horse, and the ; 
automobile a factor of economic impor- | 

fected battery means the solution of many ! 

the new art of electric navigation. Tlec- | 
tric’ ‘tugboats will give new life to our ! 
canals, and with electric ferryboats will | 
revolutionize our harbors. Electric tor- | 
/pedo boats of awiftness and secrecy will ; 
make present naval armaments of doubt- | 
ful. protection. ; 

foothold in its carcer of industrial con-) 

The new constilition lopted after 
discussion. ‘Ihe reports of the secretary 
and_ treasurer were read and showed a 
total membership of 1,260 .and_a cash 
bahince of $1,451.48.-" Dr. A. E. Kennelly 

tunce in general transportation, ‘lho por- i " 

: difficult” fraction problems, the betterment e : 
of electric lighting and the foundation of ‘. 

The invention gives electricily a new. ;- 



While it is possible to increase the 
energy por unit mass by making the clec- 
trodes very light, yet this is always found 
to be followed by a very heavy deterioration, 

Many attempts have also been made to 

erfect storage cells of the alkaline-zincate 
{type, but the great difficulty of depositing 
inc in coherent form from the solution, os 
well as the Inck of a depolarizer that shall 
oe he insoluble in tho electrolyte, has stood in 
ithe way of this cell's success, dons 

Mr. Edison set himself the task of finding 
ff cell which should possess the. following 

1. Absence of deterioration by work. 

* 2. Large storage capacity per unit of mass. 

. 8. Capability of being rapidly charged and 


* 4, Capability of 

5. Inexpenslveness. 

He-belloves that the cell here shown may 
claim these advantages in a very satisfactory 

The negative polo or positive element, cor- 
responding to the zinc of a primary cell-or 
the spongy lead-of a secondary cell, 1s fron. 
The positive pole or negative element, cor- 
responding to the carbon of a primary cell 
or lead peroxide of 2 secondary cell, is a 
superoxide of nickel belleved to have the 
formula NiO,, The cell fs therefore a nickel- 
iron cell, a namo which suggests tho struc- 

withstanding  caroless 

on the Hdison storage 

I tako pleastre In bringing to the notlee 

a novel type 
jot storage battory, recently Invented by Mr, 

It $s woll known that the history of the 
storage coll §s essentially that of the lead 
cell discovered by Planté in 1860, in which 
lead peroxide {5 the depolarizing substance, 
[An cnormous amount of labor has, {n tho 
Mgeregate, beon expended upon the improve- 

g ‘ hands of experl- 
Imentalists, As a result of that: labor, the 
Storago battery has at last become a recog: 
mized adjunct to’ direct-current central sta- 
tlons, but {t has limftations that seom to 
withstand further attempts toward Improve- 
hardly any success 
has beon mot with in the direction of reduc. 
given energy-atorage 
detriment to endurance, 
and this weight {s the grent drawback of the 
storage battory In electric storage traction, 
and has been the principal obstacle to its 
advance In this direction for the past 20 

In practice, the storage energy por unit 

ural mit ful—nickol-steel, . ‘Tia oloetrolyt 
ria, J. Th cH 

1s potash; viz, an aqueous solution contatn.: 
{ng from 10 to 40 per cont by welght,’ hut; 
preferably 20 per cent of Potasslum hydrox. 
opine frecring temperature of which s| 
2 Srees below zoro Fahre 3 7 
g)¢es centigrade, is be 

The inital voltage of discharge -atter! .. . 
recent chargo fs 1.6 volts. The a voltage’ a 
ot full discharge tg approximately 1.1 volts} 2 
The normal discharging current rate pers 7 
unit area of active element (positive, or} 
hegative) Is go Milemperes., 9. g gy tuner 8 

eq inch, by. tua? o 
6] auupers "ny 
9.93 iq. deoiniete Tee The storage capacity of the 
‘cell per unit of total mass of the 
coll ig 14 watt-hours per pound = or 
80.85 watt-hours por Kilo, Expressing the)” 
same statement fn another way, the Wwolght! 
of battery por unit of electric energy at ter-, 
minals 1s 53,3 pounds per electrical horse- 
power-hour or 32.4 Illos por Kilowatt-hour, Or: 
the battery gives onergy at its terminals sufi. 
elent to lift its own wolght through a vert! 
eal distance of approximately 7 miles or! 
11.26 kilometres. ‘The mean normal dls. 
charging power-rate per unit mass of total} 
cell {gs 4 watts per pound or 8.82 watts por! 
kllo, Corresponding to a normal discharge '-° 
perlod of three and one-half hours, The call, 
may, however, bo discharged at a relatively 
high rate, In approximately one hour, Cor-! 
responding to a discharging power-rate per 
unit of total cell mass of 12 watts per pound 
or 26.46 watts per kilo, Charging and dis-| E 
charging rates are alike. That is to! vor 
say, the cell may be charged at tho} . 
normal rate in three and one-half ;,, « 
hours; or, it may be charged at a} 
relutively high rate in one hour, with no ap-; 
parent detriment beyond a somewhat lowered | 
electrical charge oflictency. In other words, 
the cell does not appear to be injured by}: 
over-charging or discharging, and only suf- 
fore electrical efficiency under such trent-! 

The positive and negative plates aro me-/ 
chanically alike, and can scarcely be distin. 
gulshed by the eye, ‘hoy differ only in the 
chemical contents of their pockets. The} 
samples here exhibited, which are intonded | 
for automobile batteries, illustrate the con-:.’ 
struction, Each plate is formed of 2 com- 
paratively thin sheet of steel, 0.024 inch 
(0.61 mm.) in thicknoss, out of which rec i 
tanguiar holes are stamped, so as to leaver. 
a grid or frame somewhat resembling: a 
window-frame. In the plate here shown, 
there are three rows of elght such ree 
langular. holes or recesses, or 24 recesses In 
all. : 

Each opening or recess is filled with a 
pocket or snallow box containing the active 
material. These boxes correspond to the 
panes of glass In the window-frame analogy. 
The panes Instead of bolng thinner than the} : 
frame, as in an actual window, are thicker; 
than the frame, or project slightly beyond ; 
the surface of the steel grid. ‘They are per- 
forated with numerous small holes to admit! 
the electrolyte, but entirely conceal the con-' 
tained active material from view. All that 
meets the eye, therefore, in any of the plates, 
is the stecl frame, and its embedded “win: 
dows” of perforated steel. 4 

The active material fs made in the form of | 
rectangular cakes or briquettes, and one such 
briquette is lodged in each pocket or “win- . 
dow pane” of the plate. Each of the plates | 
shown, therefore, supports, or contains, 24 |. 
briquettes of active material, all in rigid 
contact with Its own substance. 

Each briquette is placed in a shallow, . 
closely fitting nickel-plated box of thin per: 
forated cructble steel, cut from a long striy 
of that material 0.003 fnch. (0,075 mm.) H 
thick. A cover or Id of the’same material ; 
fs then laid over it, so that the briquette Is 
closely enveloped by the sides and walls of { 
its perforated steel box. The boxes are then 
placed in the openings or holes in the nickel- 
Plated steel grid, and closely fit the same. 
The assembled plate 1s then placed In a hy- 
draulic press, and subjected to a total press- Z 
ure of about 100 tons, This pressure not |<: 

* | age cell, the electric automodil 
* Smoothness of running and con 

{weight and depreci: 
: {caps it like a verit 

~ | Curiously enough, the substances 

sates ERAT 

Whee aisy Go yt se 

| THE New Eptson StoraGe CeéLL. 

| Tt was with great interest that we have seen the facts concerning 

| Mr. Edison's new storage cell definitely set forth in the paper upon 
this subject read this week before the American Institute of Elcctri- 
‘cal Engineers, and reproduced in this issue. So many inaccurate 
| notions have been formed of late concerning this cell, partly owing 
‘to a certain German patent recently granted to Mr. Edison for a 

cadmiwum storage cell, that it is gratifying to receive a clear and prac- 
‘tical authorized statement of the facts, 

| ‘The great advantage of the new cell is that it is structurally com- 
posed of steel instead of the eternal Jead of the past, a relatively weak 
‘and heavy metal, Mr, Edison is said to have observed some years 
i ago that if the Creator had intended that lead should be used in a 
storage cell, he would not have given to that metal its high specific 
° gravity, With steet plates the structure of the cell can be designed 
i for strength and rigidity with the minimum mass of inactive material, 
Another advantage of the cell is its absence of “formation,” or the 
‘period of incubation through which the leaden cell has to pass in 
‘order to develop its storage capacity. We understand that when the 
: chemical salts are inserted in the receptacles of the plates, they are 
{ready for charging in the ordinary way, which is an obvious advan- 
4 tage. There is one disadvantage about steel for plates, however, and 

‘that is that it cannot be cut or molded with the same facility as lead, |. 

“and that special dies and tools are necessary for the stamping and fill- 
ing of the plates. This means, of course, some extra delay in the prep- 

aration of the cell for the market, It would seem that all the meas- |: 

‘urements and experience collected upon this cell under Mr, Edison's 
direction and supervision within the last six months, have been made’ 
on smail plates containing each a single pocket or briquette of active 

“material, and that although the machines for cutting and pressing |. 
‘larger, or multiple-briquette plates, are in course of manufacture, the | . 

‘full-sized cells have not yet made their appearance, 

°. Although the em. £ of the new nickel-iron cell is only a little more 

. than half that of the lead cell, yet if 14 watts per pound of cell can be 

obtained from it, the nickel-iron cell will deliver at least twice as 

_ Much electrical energy as the same weight of lead cells of which we 

: have reliable data based on extended use, Of course, pasted lead cells 

* can be made to give, when new, even more than 14 watts per pound; 

but their lives under active work would be short and have not tha 
merit of being even merry. The fact that the alkaline solution of the 
i cell does not enter into chemical combination, but remains chemically 
; unaltered during charge and discharge, is another advantage, Part of 
' the fall ine. m, f£ of the lead cell during discharge must be attributed 
‘ to local chemical exhaustion of the acid solution in the pores of the 
: plates, Although it will not be possible to gauge the degree of 
5 charge or discharge of the new cell by means of the specific-gravity 
~ indicator, yet the voltmeter may perhaps give sufficiently this impor- 

tant information. As for the change from an acid to an alk: 

: aline elec- 
‘trolyte, there is but little to be said. One can destroy carpets, clothes 
. and epidermis, almost equally 

iS Bor a5 

pi y effectually with acid as alkali, The 
alkali will probably, however, have to be kept out of free communica- 
ion with the air, or it will 

' ; absorb atmospheric carbonic dioxide, to 
. ats own detriment, and the grict of the user, 


We are glad that Mr. 

, Edison has once more turned his great in- 
! ventive talents to cleetric: 

iv ; ‘al problems. The Storage battery for trac- 
tive purposes is a crying need of the day. We understand that this 

new cell j H 
! ell is the result of more than half a year’s research on his part, 

“t : : 
‘ not including the work of his assistants, With a good, reliable stor- 

i le can distance all the competition of 

. Steam and gasoline for city work, The ‘nois. 

elessness, cleantiness, 
Werience of the electric automobile 
preference to-day if it were not for the 
ation of the leaden Storage battery, which handi- 
it able old man of the sea on the back of Sindbad the 
sailor. We sincerely hope that Mr, Edison has thrown off the incubus, 
entering into the action of the cell 
The grids or Plates are of stecl, The 
f nickel and iron, the two most 
while Oxygen, 
¢ permeability, 

{would easily give it the 

are all magnetic substances, 
active materials are oxides 0 
netizable known substances, 
i also a r atively high magneti 

the active transfer has 

of Arts. Proceedings: Institute of Civil Engineers, Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, Royal Society, Physical Society, ‘Royal Astronomi- 
cal Society, ete; Philosophical Magazine, Philosophical Transactions, 
Philosophical Journal, Repertory of Arts, Repertory of Patent In- 
ventions, Revista Telegrafica, Reports of British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Scientific american, Science, Telegraphic 
Journal and Electrical Review, Telegrapher, Telegrafi Italiana, Zeit- 
schrift, Angenandte Elektricitat, Zetzche Electreschen Telegrafica, 
Zeitschrift Telegraphen Verein, 

It is the intention of the Institute to prepare a catalogue of the li- 
brary upon a much more elaborate scale than any Hitherto attempted, 
in which the titles of all except the later and better-known works 
will be followed by a note giving an indication of the contents, or, 
in the case of the rare old volumes dealing only incidentally with elec- 
tricity, the reason for their presence in an electrical library. 


The New Edison Storage Battery.* 

By Dr. Artiur E, Kennety, : 

T is welt known that the history of the storagecell is essentially 
that of the lead cell discovered by Plante in 1860, in which lead 
peroxide is the depolarizing substance, An enormous amount of 

labor has, in the aggregate, been expended upon the improvement of 
this cell in the hands of experimentalists, As a result of that labor, 
the storage battery has at last become a recognized adjunct to direct- 
current central stations, but it has limitations that seem to withstand 
further attempts toward improvement, Of recent years, hardly any 
success has been met with in the direction of reducing its weight for 
a given energy-storage capacity, without detriment to endurance, and 
this weight is the great drawback of the storage battery in electric 
storage traction, and has been the principal obstacle to its advance in 
this direction for the past 20 years, 1 

In practice, the storage energy per unit mass of ithe modern lead 
battery, is from 4 to 6 watt-hours per pound of battery (8.8 to 13.23 
watt-hours per kilogramme. Expressed in another way, a battery 
weighs from 124.5 to 186.5 Ibs. per horse-power-hour at its terminals 
(75.5 to 113.4 kilos per kilowatt-hour) ; of, if its stored energy avail- 

Fics, 1 To §.—Grios, Briquette AND Briguerte Pockets, Eorson Storace Battery, 

able at terminals were all expended in gravitationat work, a battery 
could raise its own weight through a vertical distance of from two 
to three miles (3.2 to 4.8 kilometers). ; 

While it is possible to increase the energy per unit mass by making 
the electrodes very light, yet this is always found to be followed by 
a very heavy deterioration. - 7 7 

Many attempts have also been made to perfect storage cells of the 
alkaline-zincate type, but the great difficulty of depositing zine in co- 
herent form from the solution, as well as the lack of a depolarizer 
that shall be insoluble in the electrolyte, has stood in the way of this 
cell’s success. ‘ 

Mr. Edison set himself the task of finding a cell which should pos- 
sess the following advantages: 

1. Absence of deterioration by work. 

2. Large storage capacity per unit of mass. : : 

3. Capability of being rapidly charged and discharged. 

- sented at the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the American In- 
nition ‘Electrical Engineers, New York, May 21st, t90t. 

4. Capability of withstanding careless treatment. 
5. Inexpensiveness, : 
He believes that the cell here shown may claim these advantages in 
a very satisfactory degree. The negative pole, or positive element, 

secondary cell, is iron. The positive pole or negative element, corre- 
sponding to the carbon of a primary cell, or lead peroxide of a sec- { 
ondary cell, is a superoxide of nickel believed to have the formula / 
NiO: The cell is therefore a nickel-iron cell, a name which suggests | 
the structural material—nickel-st¥el. The electrolyte is potash; viz. ; 
an aqueous solution containing from 10 to 40 per cent by weight, but { 
preferably 20 per cent of potassiym hydroxide, the freezing tempera- | 
ture of which is 20 degs, belowyzero F, or—zo degs. C. | 

The initial voltage of discharge after recent charge is...... +15 volts 
The mean yoltage of full discharge is approximately........1.1 volts 
The normal discharging current rate per unit area of ‘active element 
ha ‘ ¥ milllamperes 
(positive or negative) is .......ceceeeeesece see 60 ime ; 

amperes . 
Tietteeeereeeseseeneeeteesse ees B6q  ABEEEE 

NOUN e eee eee eee een eeeeesesesuen sens Ou Amperes 
93 8q. decimeter, 

The storage capacity of the cell per unit of total mass of the cell 
Scsccsvcaane ++14 watt-hours per pound of battery 
(an seeeseredoveeee3085 watt-hours per kilo 

Expressing the same statement in another way, the weight of battery 
per unit of electric energy at terminals is.. -53.3lbs. per e. h. p, hour 
Weeererereerererecerserseeecrreerers32q4 kilos per kilowatt-hour 

Or the battery gives energy at its terminals sufficient to lift its own 
weight through a vertical distance of approximately, 

7 miles or 11,26 kilometers, 

The mean normal discharging power-rate per unit mass of total cell 
iS.seee steecsenseosed Watts per pound or 8,82 watts per kilo 

Corresponding to a normal discharge period of.......+40. +34 hours 

The cell may, however, be discharged at 2 relatively high rate, in 
approximately ......cscsseccpecsecesecceeecseveovscesveeed HOUF 

Corresponding to a discharging power rate per unit of total cell mass 

Of. veseseseeeeees eevee sE2 Watts per pound or 26.46 watts per kilo, 



Charging and discharging rates are alike. That is to say, the cell 
may be charged at the normal rate in 334 hours; or, it may be charged 
at a relatively high rate in one hour, with no apparent detriment be- 

yond a somewhat lowered electrical charge efficiency, In other words, }- 

the cell does not appear to be injured by overcharging or discharging, 
and only suffers in clectrical efficiency under such treatment. 

The positive and negative plates are mechanically alike, and can 
scarcely be distinguished by the eye. They differ only in the chemical 
contents of their pockets, The samples here exhibited, which are in- 
tended for automobile batteries, illustrate the construction. Each 
plate is formed of a comparatively thin sheet of steel, 0.024 inch (0.61 
mm) in thickness, in which rectangular holes'are stamped, so as to 
leave a grid or frame somewhat resembling a window-frame. In the 
plate here shown, there are three rows of eight rectangular holes or 
recesses, or 24 recesses in all, 

Each opening or recess is filled with a pocket or shallow box con- 
taining the active material, These boxes correspond to the panes of 
glass in the window-frame analogy, The panes instead of being thin- 

corresponding to the zinc of a primary cell, or the spongy lead of a { 

| tue New Epson STORAGE Cétt. 7 

It was with great interest that we have seen the facts concerning, 
| Mr, Edison's new storage cell definitely set forth in the paper upon 
this subject read this week before the American Institute of Electri- 
ical Engineers, and reproduced in this issue. So many inaccurate 
inotions have been formed of late concerning this cell, partly owing 
!to a certain German patent recently granted to Mr. Edison for a 
_ cadmium storage cell, that it is gratifying to receive a clear and prac- 
‘tical authorized statement of the facts. eh > \ 

ner than the frame, as in an actual window, are thicker than the of both grids and boxes aids in securing good permanent electric con- : 
frame, or project slightly beyond the surface of the steel grid. They nections between them. The finished plate has a grid thickness of |.’ 
are perforated with numerous small holes to admit the electrolyte, but 0.024 inch (0.56 mm.), and a “window” or pocket thickness of or inch |< 
(25 mm.). This is the maximum thick- 
_ ness of the plate at any point, but being 
of steel, the plate has ample rigidity, a 
The positive briquettes (zines of a pri- a 
mary cell) are made by mixing a finely | 
divided compound of iron obtained bya ; 
special chemical process with a nearly | 
equal volume of thin flakes of graphite. | 
The graphite does not enter into any of 
the chemical actions, but assists the con- 
ductivity of the briquettes. The graphite | 

The great advantage of the new cell is that it is structurally com-| | - eee 
: posed of steel instead of the eternal lead of the past, a relatively weal! , : ace 
‘and heavy metal, Mr, Edison is said to have observed some years ’ : : 
' ago that if the Creator had intended that lead should be used in al : Me Rest eS ys - 
storage cell, he would not have given to that metal its high specific ’ : 
" gravity, With stecl plates the structure of the cell can be designed 

si is divided into very thin lamine by a 

| for strength and rigidity with the minimum mass of inactive material, |. 7 ’ : chemical process, and these are passed 

S aa Another advantage of the cell is its absence of “formation,” or the a . through sieves or screens so as to leave a 

. bs Ss ‘period of incubation through which the leaden cell has to pass in : size or area of flake that is much larger 
\ . = . ‘order to develop its storage capacity. We understand that when the : ok ported Pee ee 

MeN, 7 : : -chemical salts are inserted in the receptacles of the plates, they are |) —~ : os pressed into briquettes in a mold, under 
Sock {ready for charging in the ordinary way, which is an obvious adyan- . a hydraulic pressure of about two tons 

' “tage. There is one disadvantage about steel for plates, however, and | «+ > 6 per square inch, The briquettes have a 

: ‘that is that it cannot be cut or molded with the same facility as lead, : surface area of nearly 3 inches by 14 

\ ; “and that special dies and tools are necessary for the stamping and fill- pe Laat aaare uettes (carbon of a 

’ , ut ing of the plates, This means, of course, sonic extra delay in the prep- primary call) are nde by similarly mix- 

aration of the cell for the market. It would seem that all the meas- |: 
‘urements and experience collected upon this cell under Mr, Edison's 
direction and supervision within the last six months, have been made’ 

ing a finely divided compound of nickel, 
" obtained by special chemical means, with 



Ss wi a nearly equal bulk of fine flakes of 
ae fo . . & : raphite, and solidifying the mixture in 
es . ‘ es -on small plates containing each a single pocket or briquette of active . ’ ; entirely conceal the contained active material from view. All that a mold into briquettes of ike ae size a Above 8 
i . “3 \tmaterial, and that although the machines for cutting and pressing |. meets the eye, therefore, in any of the plates, is the steel frame, and A suitable number of positive and negative plates are assembled 
: : larger, or multiple-briquette plates, are in course of manufacture, the |... its embedded “windows” of perforated steel, together, being separated from one another only by a thin sheet of 
; : ; full-sized cells have not yet made their appearance, me pate x , The active material is made in the form of rectangular cakes or perforated hard rubber. 
i \ H . ‘ briquettes, and one such briquette is lodged in each pocket or “win- The assembled plates are placed in a vessel or external cell of 

: dow pane” of the plate. Each of the plates shown, therefore, sup- sheet steel containing the Potash solution, which, of course, does 
. Although thee, m. £, of the new nickel-iron cell is only a little more 

: ' Ports, or contains, 24 briquettes of active material, all in rigid con- not attack steel, There was, however, much difficulty from the 
a . than half that of the lead cell, yet if 14 watts per pound of cell can be : tact with its own substance, - action of the potash on the soldered seams of the steel containing 
5 , ; : obtained from it, the nickel-iron cell will deliver at least twice as i Each briquette is placed in a shallow, closely fitting nickel-plated vessel. After many trials, however, Mr. Edison found a solder 
much electrical energy as the same weight of lead cells of which we : ; box ‘ thin, Rais oy eae ae ra from a ied ae of that ma- ia Pear tes alee Pies seams pie Silecihs 

, have reliable data based on extended use, OF course, pasted lead cells ha? cae “ ce terial 0.003 inch (0.075 mm.) thick. A cover or lid of the same ma- Beret cre cubnenk: 18; Of: course, P pote. 

. terial is then Iaid over it, so that the briquette is closely enveloped by and its attached negative nickel-plate, through the electrolyte, and 
‘ean be made to give, when new, even more than 14 watts per pound; 

but their lives under active work would be short and have not tha 7 

_ merit of being even merry. The fact that the alkaline solution of the | 1 : y 

i cell does not enter into chemical combination, but remains chemically ue ers 3M 

: unaltered during charge and discharge, is another advantage, Part of aie em AD u q 
} { : the fall ine, m. f. of the lead cell during discharge must be attributed . . Eo i 

‘ to local chemical exhaustion of the acid solution in the Pores of the aes : “ y : 
plates, Although it will not be Possible to gauge the degree of " Pak ie 
- charge or discharge of the new cell by means of the specific. : whe: a 
~ indicator, yet the voltmeter may perhaps give sufficiently this impor- mie 
: tant information. As for the change from an acid to an alkaline elec- - 
ey trolyte, there is but little to be said. One can destroy carnets, clothes 
: and epidermis, almost equally effectually with acid as alkali, The |. ce fake 
. Ges alkali will Probably, however, have to be kept out of free communica- pe a 

. tion with the air, or it will absorb atnospheric carbonic dioxide, to ia 
ats own detriment, and the grief of the user. 

=| { SEE 
ee oe ie ee ee ees. i a 



: We are glad that Mr. Edison has one 
| ventive talents to electrical Problems. 
j tive purposes is a crying need of the d 

¢ more turned his great in- 
The storage battery for trace a ee 

‘ jay. We understand that this 
; New cell is the result of more than half a year’s research on his part, 

{ not including the work of his assistants, With 4 good, reliable stor- 
age cell, the electric automobile can distance all the competition of 

S | 
ys ve : steam and gasoline for city work, The ‘noiselessness, cleanliness, | 0+. |. * 

Fic. 7.—Discuarce Curve or Eptson Experimental Storace Cet. 

the sides and walls of its perforated steel box. The boxes are then into the positive plate of the iron compound which carries the nega- 
placed in the openings or holes in the nickel-plated steel grid, and tive pole, This current deoxidizes or reduces the pain to 
closely fit the same. The assembled plate is then placed in a hydraulic spongy metallic iron and carries the oxygen through the film ae = 
press, and subjected to a total pressure of about 100 tons. This pres- trolyte to the nickel compound, oxidizing it to the beatae le i 

sure not only tightly closes the boxes, but it also forces their metal nickel Ni 0s, a higher oxide than the peroxide. Tn other ee 3, t e 
sides over the adjacent sides of the recesses in the steel grid, thus charging current simply carries oxygen in ie Aubdeele eek 
clamping the whole mass into a single solid and rigid steel plate with against the forces of chemical affinity, from t ie hagas the ni ws 
the hollow “window panes” full of active material. The nickel-plating and stores the energy in the reduced iron, which is, of course, unaf- 

| smoothness of rinning ai veri i 
cee nee ig and convenience of the electric automobile 
S H asily give it the preference to-day if it were not for the 

i he 8 | weight and depreciation of the leaden storage battery, which handi- 
: seaps it like a veritable old man of the se: 

sailor. We sincerely hope that Mr. 
Curiously enough, the substances 
| are all magnetic substances, 
active materials are oxides o 
netizable known substances, 
also a Telatively high magneti 

‘a on the back of Sindbad the 
Edison has thrown off the incubus, 
entering into the action of the cell 

The grids or plates are ‘of steel. The 
f nickel and iron, 

while oxygen, 

the two most mag- 
the active transfer has 

MMOS ee Cewek 
: “ 


| fected and passive in the presence of the potash solution. On dis- 
| charge, the current passes from the positive pole through the ex- 
<i ternal circuit to the negative pole, and its attached iron or positive 
5 plate, and then through the solution to the negative or superoxide 
“ plate. In so doing the oxygen moves back against the current and 
partially reduces the nickel superoxide Ni 0; while oxidizing a 
, spongy iron, ‘The energy of burning of the iron and oxygen whic 
“would be developed as heat in the ordinary chemical process is now 
liberated in the circuit as electrical energy. a 
The cell is an oxygen-lift, Charging-pulls the oxygen away from 
‘the iron and delivers it temporarily to the nickel. ‘The condition is 
‘then stable, until the circuit of the cell is completed, Discharge then 
‘allows the oxygen to fall back from the nickel to the iron with the 
‘natural affinity of iron and oxygen. . ; 
This action is very different from that which takes place in the lead 
' storage cell. Here, neglecting complications, the action is usually Tee 
garded for practical purposes as being represented by the equation 

PLO: + 2H:SO 1+ Pb os 2Pb SOv+2H0 -+- 100 watt-hours, 

where the left-hand side represents the condition of charge and the 
ight-hand side the condition of discharge. Here oxygen is not sim- 
; : ‘ply transferred in discharge from the peroxide to the spongy lead, but 
a : the solution is changed (theoretically) from an aqucous solution of 

“sulphuric acid to plain water. Of course, the discharge could not 

‘practically be carried to the point of denuding the solution of all 

sulphuric acid, and a surplusage of acid must be used, The equation 

gives a mere theoretical outline of admittedly very complex reactions. 

In other words, the specific gravity of the sulphuric acid solution falls 

during the discharge, and the solution enters into the chemical com- 

bination. Theoretically, for every 445 grammes of active material 

on both plates, 196 grammes of sulphuric acid are required to effect 

: the combination, or 44 per cent by weight of the active elements, and 

in practice it is usual to allow a weight of sulphuric acid nearly equal 

‘to half the weight of the elements, or about one-quarter of the total 
- weight of the cell. 

In the new Edison cell, on the other hand, the theoretical action of 
the potash solution is merely to provide the proper channel through 
which the oxygen ions may travel in one direction or the other— 
positive plate to negative plate in charge, and negative plate to posi- 
tive plate in discharge, Consequently, the amount of solution needs 
only to be sufficient tovfulfill mechanical requirements, It is believed 
that the weight of solution will in practice be only about 20 per cent 

of the plate weight or about 14 per cent of the cell weight. In fact, 
the cell may be worked in the same manner as the so-called primary 
“dry-cells.” Morcover, if the solution should escape, or be carried 
away, by gasing in charging, the only detriment seems tobe the loss 
of active surface thereby occasioned, and it will only be necessary to 
fill up the cells to the proper level with water from time to time, as 
evaporation or gasing may lower the level, .For the same reasons the 
specific gravity of the electrolyte does not appreciably vary during 
charge and discharge. 
The briquettes of active material slightly expand on receiving 
oxygen, and slightly contract on delivering it, that is to say, the iron 
: briquettes contract and the nickel briquettes expand during charge, 
rae . While on discharge the iron briquettes expand and the nickel briquettes 
*. contract. The level of the solution is in this way scarcely affected. The 
, expansions and contractions of the briquettes appear to be well within 
» the clastic limits of the spring-stecl containing boxes, and conse- 
quently the electric contact is always secure. The covers or sides of 
the window pockets merely approach to or recede from each other 
slightly during charge and discharge. Fortunately, steel is the metal 
which possesses this mechanical elasticity in a marked degree, 

The action of the charging and discharging current upon the 
briquettes seems to be transferred from their external surfaces in- 
wards in a manner similar to the transfer of carbon and oxygen in 

‘the process of making malleable cast-iron in the furnace on the prin- 

i ae of cementation, No active material has been found to be ejected 

} from the briquettes through the window perforations, even under the 
j deliberate overcharging and discharging, Such'gas as is thereby 
Hl produced makes its appearance on the external surface of the 
| windows, ' 
: i the nickel compound had no affinity for oxygen, 
was neither developed nor absorbed in the deoxidation of further 
+ loxidation of that substance, then the energy would be entirely that 
‘due to the energy of combination or oxygen and iron, stated to be 

so that energy 

‘79.7 watt-hours, and representing ane. m f., theoretically obtainable, 
jot 147 volts. Tf the combination of oxygen with the nickel com- 

aM battery. The property is 200 by 580 fect. On the property are sev- 

pound be exothermic or energy-re! leasing, then the watt-hours’ de- 
Hivered (and thé e, m. £.) will be lessened by the energy necessarily |: 
paid back to break up the combination. ; rat 

If, on the other hand, the combination is endothermic or cnergy- 
absorbing, then the watt-hours delivered (and the e, m. £.) will be}: | 
increased by the energy restored on breaking up the combination, 
Since the superoxide seems not to have been known hitherto, no in- 
formation concerning its energy of combination is obtainable. The ‘ 
ce. m. f. of the cell seems to be so near to that of the union of iron 
and oxygen as to suggest that the nickel superoxide is not far from 
being neutral, or that the nickel compound has but Tittle affinity for 
oxygen, although the superoxide appears to be quite stable in the 
cell. : 

The new cell docs not seem to be appreciably influenced by changes 
of temperature, and should stand a very low temperature without 
detriment. The electrolyte—potash—does not attack any of the in- 
gredients of the cell, nor-are any of the ingredients soluble therein. 
No local action occurs in the cell so far as has yet been observed 
since the e. m. f. is below that necessary to decompose water, 

The cell may be fully discharged to the practical zero point of 
e. m. f, without detriment. In fact, a cell has not only been com- 
pletely discharged, but recharged in the reverse or wrong direction, |’ 
and after bringing it back to its originally charged state by proper 
restoration of the direction of charging current, the storage capacity |° 
remained unaffected, It would seem, therefore, that the cell should 
be capable of withstanding much abuse. 2% 

Diagrams are shown on screen giving the curves of discharge of 
experimental cells, 

Mr. Edison states that “the negative plate (nickel) either charged 
or discharged, can be removed from a working cell, and dried in the 
air for a week, without appreciably injuring it, and when the plate |. 
is finally replaced in the cell its charge is practically undiminished. 

The positive (iron) plate, if similarly removed from the cell wilt 
be likewise uninjured, but it soon loses its charge by the oxidation 
of the spongy iron with accompanying liberation of heat and appre- 
ciable rise of temperature extending over a period of several hours, 
On replacing the electrode, however, in the cell the storage capacity 
is unaffected on recharge. é 

As regards cost, Mr. Edison believes that after factory facilities 
now in course of preparation have been completed, he willbe able 
to furnish the cells at a price per kilowatt-hour not greater than the 
Prevailing-price of-lead cells, * 

Having now considered the action and properties of the cell, a 
brief description may be giyen of the difficulties encountered in 
developing it. ey : 

The phenomenon of passivity has probably kept inventors from 
finding this cell in the past. Mr, Edison believes that of all the very 
numerous compounds of iron, and of which he has tried many hun- 
dreds, the particular compound which he prepares, is perhaps ths 
only one capable of being used in this way. : 

Tf the dried hydrates, or oxides of iron native or artificial, are 
subjected to electrolytic reducing action in any alkaline solution, 
they remain inert and unaffected. 

On the other hand, if finely divided iron obtained by reducing a 
compound of iron under the action of a reducing agent, such as 
hydrogen, or carbon monoxide is subjected to electrolytic oxida- | ‘ 
tion in an alkaline solution it is inert and cannot be oxidized, It 
assumes the well-known passive state, 5 

The same difficulty of passivity affects the use of nickel or the 
negative element, Finely divided nickel, reduced from a nickel com- 
pound, remains inactive when subjected to electrolytic oxygen in an 
alkaline solution, The monoxide and the black-oxide or peroxide 
are also inert, No oxide of nickel is active or can be made active |. 
by electrolytic action, and the peroxide docs not act as a depolarizer. 


« Newark, N. J., papers of incorporation of the Edison 
ery Company were filed last week; capital, $r 

i which is to manufacture the new lightweigh 
cue ceed by Thomas A. Edison. 

FAgo; Walter I, Mallory and W. E. Giln ; Y 

a the incorporators. An immense plant is tee eens ee Me 
> pany at.Glen Ridge, N. J. where the battery will be manufactured, pe 

Storage Bat-| 
000,000, the purpose: 
t storage battery re-l 
Herman E, Dick, of Chi- 

; Phar CGttener aa it ee ait : 4 
WANT NO EDISON FACTORYMs, Thomas A. Edison's pec 
‘chase of the Hayden mill in Glen Ridge, |, tor oon de 

is : N. J., for use in manufac-!, - 
turing his new storage battery, has filled 

ing 1 a the Glen Ridge Park As-: 
sociation with alarm, The association’s fears were embodied in a‘ 

; communication sent to the Borough Council last week, and the latter: ‘: 
., | body, becoming frightened, voted in favor of issuing $35,000 worth of : 

‘ bonds to be used in purchasing the property for park purposes, Ai.) 
special election will be called at the earliest possible date to obtain: | 
‘. |the approval of the voters, “About two years ago,” said the com-':” 

‘-..“ jmunication to the Council, “the citizens of this place decided to form). 
: -|an association known as the Glen Ridge Park Association for the! 

Purpose of acquiring real estate, This was for the purpose of. pres. 
serving this section of the glen. The reasons for the application to’. 
the Council are especially pressing just now. Thomas A. Edison has 
‘jacquired the property known as the Hayden mill, and the advent of! 
ya large number of workingmen may cause the erection of a business: 
structure of an objectionable character in the immediate vicinity of 
the works and park, and the beautiful rural appearance of the neig! 
borhood may be seriously menaced thereby.” ee = 


fattery.—An cditorial note refuting the extravagant prophe- \. 
“| cies of newspapers regarding the general replacement of the horse by’, 
the Edison battery for traction. Nickel, which is used for the posi- { 
tive plate, is neither low in price nor available in unlimited amounts |‘ 
for commercial use. The present price of nickel is 50 to 60 cents per 
et: ge Hi _Pound,. w! restricts the use of nickel for the treatment of steel to|. 
een Ae ‘ mt , {'"igh-class work. The Edison battery seems, by its price, restricted |. : 
, ye ah 20 special purposes,—Eng, News, June 6. : 

SamRaatehs ae Fan 

a Neh Se Elsewhere in this issue we print an article by Dr, E. F. Roeber, | 
giving a theoretical discussion of the electro-chemical principles em- ue : 
bodied in the Edison storage battery, recently described in a paper. 
read before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The | 
a article furnishes an’ excellent example of the manner in which the 
~ {modern electro-chemicat theories may be applied to the consideration 

| of storage batteries, and in this respect alone is of direct value in 
° -view of the little attention that has been given to these theories in 
es this country, and the criticism to which they nevertheless have 
‘Tbeen subjected, Lack of information in full detail concerning the 
Edison battery--acquaintance with which appears at present to be 
confined only to those connected with Mr. Edison’s laboratory— 
necessarily causes Dr. Roeber’s article to be somewhat, hypothetical 
in its premises, but the coneliisions coincide with the claims made | 
for the battery in at least two very important points, One of these ie 
is that the concentration of the electrolyte as a whole is not changed; a 
and the other, that while the concentration in the neighborhood 7 

the plates is subject to change, diffusion is necessarily more rapid in 
this type of battery than in the lead type. 


| County Court House, New Jersey,.records the sale of the.Hayden 

| ‘estate in Bloomfield Avenue, Glen Ridge, to Thomas A, Edison, for 
$19,000. The land is part of a plot on which Mr. Edison intends 

}. to erect a plant for the. manufacture of his recently invented storage 

Jj eral brick buildings, which are to be removed within a week or so. 
‘| Ground then will be broken for the factory. Wealthy residents: of 
1 Glen Ridge do not want a factory on the site and have used every 
| effort to prevent Mr. 

Edison from obtaining control of thé property. 

‘ Hi Rae 

—"Oir Fheoretical Concentration Changes in the New 
Edison Battery. 

By E. F, Roeper, Pit.D, 
N this article I intend to draw some conclusions from the mod- 
I ern theory of the electrolysis of aqueous solutions regarding 
1 the working of the new Edison battery, As I have had no op- 

able either to confirm or to refute my results, It seems to me, how- 
ever, quite legitimate and interesting to discuss the processes in the 
new Edison cell from the point of view of a theory which, in the 
opinion of many, gives a good description and explanation of a large 
number of electro-chemical facts. / . 

The following research refers not only to the Edison nickel-iron 
cell, but to the general type of cell of which the new Edison cell is 
a special example, This general type may be characterized as a cell 
in which the chemical process during charge and discharge consists 
in the transport of oxygen from one plate to the other, while the 
chemical composition and the total concentration of the electrolyte 
(i, ¢, the ratio of the total number of molectiles of the dissolved 
electrolyte to the total number of water molecules) remain un- 

I have defined the “total concentration” of the electrolyte in this 
exact way, to avoid a misunderstanding. This misunderstanding 
would be to assume that the electrolyte is not changed at all, From 
all electro-chemical facts, however, we know that an electrolyte al- 
ways undergoes concentration changes during electrolysis. If the 
“total concentration,” as defined above, does not change, there are 
nevertheless concentration changes in the different parts of the elec- 
trolyte; either the concentration of the solution increases at the 
anode and decreases at the cathode, or it decreases at the anode and 
increases at the cathode. It will be shown presently that Hittorf's 
theory leads to such conclusions for the Edison battery, and the nu- 
merical data will be given. These changes of concentration, how- 
ever, must have some influence upon the practical working of the 
Edison cell. This may be concluded from the analogy with the lead 
accumulator, where the concentration changes in the porous plates 
are of the greatest importance for the behavior of the battery. 

It may be of advantage to give a brief review of a few characteris- 
tic examples of the general type of the Edison cell. 

Silver-Copper Battery.—This somewhat expensive, but theoreti- 
cally very interesting battery has been devised by Mr, E, W. Jungner 
(German Patent 110,210, March 31, 1899; see also Centralblatt f, 
Accum, 1%, Elementenkunde, April 15, 1900, and’ Elektrochemische 
Zeitschrift, August, 1900). The positive plate is peroxyde of silver 
in a finely divided state, the negative plate copper ina finely divided 
State, the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxyde, 
The discharge consists of two steps, the chemical reactions during 
these two steps being represented respectively by the equations 

Ay: Osa Cu= Age O+CitsO 


Ags O + 2Cu= Ags + Cus 0 

The ec, m. f, of the first step corresponds to the difference between 
the formation heats of dg: O: (from Ags O and O) and Cis O (from 
2Cuand 0). Thee. m. f. of the second step corresponds to the dif- 

and Cu: O (from 2 Cu and 0), 
Copper-Cadmium Cell.—This is an older cell of Mr. Edison, which 
was described in the ELecrricat Wortp AND Enatnerr, April 6, 1901, 
Nickel-lron Cell—This is the new cell of Mr. Edison, described 

Ennerr, May 23, 1901). The positive plate is a “compound of 
nickel” in a finely divided state, the negative plate is a “compound 
+ of iron” in a finely divided state, the electrolyte is an aqueous solu- 
{ tion of potassium hydroxide. If the “compound of iron” at the be- 
t ginning of the discharge is expressed by Fe and the “compound of 
q nickel” by NiOm-where Fe and NiO: may not represent the exact 
i chemical composition, but are simply convenient signs—the chemical 
| action during discharge is given by the formula 

NiOs-+ Fe =NiO-+ FeO (1) 
It will be seen that in all examples of this type of battery during 
the discharge the positive plate is reduced from a higher state of 

oxidation to a lower state of oxidation, and the negative plate is 
4 oxidized from a lower state of oxidation to a higher state of oxida- 


portunity of making any experiments with the cell I have been un- . 

ference between the formation heats of 4g: O (from alg: and O) ° 

in Dr. A. E. Kennelly's Institute Paper (Enecrrican Wortp anp. 

4 pg a 
tion, while the chemical composition of the electrolyte is not changed.’ 
The electrolyte in all these batteries is an aqueous solution of potas- 
sium hydroxide, or of sodium hydroxide, or, gencrally speaking, of 
“any metallic hydrate ae in bi and having a metallic radicle 
vhi ecomposes water” (Jungner). , 
ie Ceacalod which followed Dr. Kennelly’s paper, Mr. CJ. 

Reed has pointed out the following features which make this gen- 
eral type of battery extremely interesting. The capacity of the cell 
is not limited by the quantity of the electrolyte. Very little electro- 
lyte is therefore required in it, the electrodes can be brought near 
together, and the resistance and the weight are thereby diminished, 
Further, the resistance of this type of cell will tend to remain con- 
stant to a far greater degree than that of the lead accumulator, In 
the latter lead sulphate is formed during discharge, which is a far 
poorer conductor than the oxides in the Edison cell. Finally, Mr. 
Reed pointed out that with this type of cell there is a possibility to 
charge it by a non-electric method, i, e., to reduce the one plate and 
oxidize the other plate outside of the jar by a non-electric method, 

transforming heat and chemical energ} from other sources into 
electrical energy—an instrument for an indirect process of get- 
ting electrical energy, possibly out of carbon, and perhaps a very 
economical process. 

Now, the question arises: What is the action of the electrolyte 
during charge and discharge? What is the mechanism by which the 
electrolyte transports oxygen from one plate to the other plate? To 
discuss this question, I will assume as fundamental hypothesis the 
so-called “theory of electrolytic dissociation.” According to this 
theory, there is in an aqueous solution of KOH a certain number 

gram ion K being charged with 96,540 coulombs of positive clec- 
tricity and each univalent gram ion O H being charged with 96,540 
coulombs of negative electricity; 1 gram ion means so many grams 
as the equivalent weight indicates, The degree of ionization (i, ¢, 
the ratio of the number of molecules K OH, split up into ions, to 
the total number of molecules K OH, dissolved in the water), de- 
pends upon the concentration and may be determined by Arrhenius’ 
method by a measurement of the electric conductivity. Only the 
charged ions K and OH are active in the conduction of electricity 
through the electrolyte. The water molecules and the neutral K OH 
molecules which are not split up into ions, are inactive. When 96,- 
§40 ampere-scconds flow through the electrolyte, 1 positive gram ion 
is set free at the cathode and gives off its charge and 1 negative gram 
idris set free at the anode and gives off its charge so that indeed 
96,540 coulombs of positive electricity have been transported from 
the anode to the cathode; or when 1 ampere-second flows through the 

electrolyte, =0.0000104 positive gram ions and o.ooco104 neg- 

ative gram ions are set free. This is nothing else than Faraday's 
law, which states that o.cooo104 gram equivalents K OH are decom- 
posed by 1 ampere-second. 

Tf we apply this scheme*to the new Edison battery we find that 
when in discharging it gives off 296,540 ampere-seconds, two 
gram fons O H become free at the Fe plate and two gram ions K 
at the NiO; plate, The chemical reactions at each plate may then 
be represented by the following formulas: 


Ni0:+2K+Hi:O=Ni0+2KOH (3) 

The summation of these two formulas gives, of course, again equa- 
tion (1), but these two formulas show more than equation (1). It 
will be seen from (2) and (3) that in the dischrage of 2X 96,540 
ampere-seconds the chemical reactions at the electrodes cause the 
formation of one molecule of water at the Fe plate, and the con- 
sumption of one molecule of water at the Ni Os plate, so that the 
solution at the Fe plate thereby becomes less concentrated, and that 
at the NiO; plate more concentrated, A 

For the chemical reactions (2) and (3) we assumed that 2 ions 
O H and 2 ions K are svt free at the iron and nickel plate, respec- 
tively. How did they come there? The theory assumes that they 
have come there by migration, that ail positive K ions have migrated 
with a certain speed in the direction of the current, and all O H ions 
with a certain speed in the opposite direction. The question of the 
relative speeds of the two kinds of ions was first discussed by 
Hittorf. Let us assume we have at the beginning of the electrolysis 
m ions K and m ions O H in the solution. To get a convenient me- 







22) 2D 



. Paes Sass: Mary 

it might be supposed that the mieasurements of specific gravity have 
been made in the liquid in the middle Part of the cell between the 
two plates, . 

From the point of view of our theory there appear to be reasons 
why the diffusion shotld act more quickly in the Edison battery than 
in the lead accumulator, The diffusion is the greater, the greater the 
differences of concentration and the nearer the places of different con- 
centration, In the lead accumulator the solution in the middle part 
of the cell, while not altered by the immediate action of the current, 
diffuses to both sides, as at both sides the concentration has de- 
creased, In the Edison cell there is practically no middle part of the 
cell, and the places of the concentration differences in the pores of the 
two plates are very near together, so that diffusion brings the solution 
from the pores of the nickel plate, where the concentration increases 
to the pores of the iron plate, where the concentration decreases, 

There is another, apparently very important point. We know that 
the form of the charge and discharge curves of the lead storage bat- 
tery, and the whole question of the “reversibility” of its action, are 
intimately connected with the concentration changes in the pores of 
the two plates (sec the book quoted above by Dr, Dolezalel, Chapters 
VUI, and IX.). The question naturally arises: Are the concentra- 
tion changes which must occur in the Edison battery according to 
the theory given in this article of an analogous importance for the 
working of the Edison cell? But it scems to me premature to at- 
tempt an answer to this question as long as experimental data are 
lacking regarding the influence of the concentration of the solution 
upon the em. f. of the cell and especially upon the em. f.’s at both 
terminals separately. 

By E. C, Rozerrs, 

HE interest excited by the demonstration before the American 
T Institute of Electrical Engineers, at its recent Conversazione, 
of the mercury lamp of Mr. Peter Cooper Hewitt, has made 
it seem worth while to call attention to another research carried out 
along similar lines by L. Arons, in Berlin, In Wiedemann’s Annalen' 
he published a description of what 
he called a mereury are light (das 
Quicksilber Lichtbogen). He 
says of it, “While studying gas- 
vous conduction I discovered an 
extraordinarily good arrangement 
for maintaining an are between 
mercury electrodes for long peri- 
ods and without any of the usual 
troubles incident to such cases.” 
The apparatus usually took the 
form shown in the drawing. Here 
the short leg of an L-shaped 
tube is sealed off, and provided 
with an electrode. The other end 
of the tube is. open, and is con- 
nected to a mercury reservoir by a 
rubber tube. The tube is exhausted 
to a vacuum corresponding to a 
pressure of 1 or 2 mm. of mercury. 
When in use the electrodes are 
connected through a controlling 
resistance to a, source capable of 
maintaining a difference of poten- 
tial of about 100 volts. In starting the are, the mercury is raised in 
the tube by means of the reservoir till it flows over into the short leg. 
It is then immediately lowered. As soon as the mercury breaks at 
the top, a brilliant discharge passes from one electrode to the other. 
Its color is a greenish white, In two later papers* he gives‘the fol- 
lowing results: , 

1, At currents between § and 9 amperes the voltage drop is prin- 
cipally dependent on the length of the tube. Experiment showed that 
the drop per cm. was approximately .6 volt for a current of 6.5 am- 
peres, The electrode loss is 8 volts at the anode and 6 volts at the 

2. The specific conductivity of the vapor is 6x 10, which is & 

1 [Vied. Ann., 1892, page 767. ( 

3 Wied, Ann., 1895, page 625, 



ne Aaa shee! 

times as great as that 

3. The temperature of the discharge was great enough to melt thin 
platinum wire at the center of the tube, The average temperature 
was 470 degs. C. above that of the room, while computation based 
on Warburg's experiments’ showed that at the center, with a cur- 
rent of 6.5 amperes, the temperature should reach 4600 degs. C. 


Storage Battery Patents, 

Among the patents of June 4 are three issued to W. J. Buckley 
on novel forms of storage batteries, One of these is a high-ten- 
sion battery—that is, one in which the e m. f. of each pair of 
plates is added to that of its neighbor, a number of pairs being con- 
tained in a receptacle commen to all the clements, The receptacle is 
divided into compartments by liquid-tight metallic partitions; on 
one side of a partition and in metallic connection therewith is a 
positive plate and on the other side a negative plate. These plates 
do not quite extend to the bottom of the teceptacle, so that the 
electrolyte in’ a single compartment is in communication with the 
two partitions of that compartment and the two sides of both plates 
therein, Another patent describes a battery formed of a number of 
similar plates, separated by a continuous metal band around the 
edges of cach pajr. Any flat plate or grid may be used having a solid 
metal core or otherwise made liquid tight, should the various ele- 
ments be included in a serial circuit, When, however, the battery 

$s are intended to be placed in a cell having an electrolyte com- 

"to all the plates, as when in parallel circuit, then the liquid- 
_ quality of the plates is not essential. In the space formed be- 
tween plates by the separating metal band is placed powdered or gran- 
war carbon, such as wood charcoal. The inventor states he has found 
that the charcoal used as a separator has the quality of absorbing 
Gases to a high degree. The gas is readily absorbed as fast as 
evolved, and while the charcoal is to some extent an electrical con- 
ductor, and while it is also true that there is a natural electrical po- 
tential difference between the carbon and the metallic electrodes, 
which difference may produce a slight local action in the cell, yet he 
States that the benefit derived from the tse of charcoal over-balances 
this objection, . 

A third Buckley patent describes a battery formed of super- 
posed trays separated by -an insulating materint in the form of a 
grid. Small notches are cut in the tops of the grid cross bars to 
ive passage to the electrolyte, The grid compartments are filled 
with coke and oxide of lead. A number of such tray elements are 
nested to form a cell. The lower tray rests in a wood support the 
shape of the bottom of the tray, and a similar one, but convex, fits 
into the upper tray, the two being bolted together. A patent issued 
on the same date to G. W. Hough, describes a battery consisting of 
plates of semi-circular form, with pockets formed by cross ribs for the 
active material, which is filled’in flush with the tops of the ribs. 
The plates are sct up in a horizontal position, the negatives 
forming one half-cylindrical pile, and the positives another similar 
pile, the whole forming approximately a cylinder, with the two piles 
electrically separated, Conducting lugs are cast to the edges of each 

A patent issued on the same date to C. L. R. E, Menges, The 
Hague, Holland, describes a+ storage battery of cellular con- 
struction, in cach compartment of which are plates of only one 
polarity. In its simplest form, the receptacle consists of a number 
of chambers separated by non-conducting permeable partitions, In 
one chamber there are two positives, one in contact with each parti- 
tion, and in cach of the adjacent chamber two negatives in con- 
tact with the respective partitions, and so on. Ina practical cell the 
non-condticting permeable partitions may consist of a supporting 

‘piece of insulating material with perforations and channels: covered 

by a porous non-conducting substance, and ‘with active material on 
both sides. In a patent issued June 11 to V. G. Apple a “two-cell 
integral unit” battery is described. A lead or alloy case or box is 
divided in the center by a partition of similar material, thus forming 
two compartments. The interior surfaces of each compartment is 
provided with indentations for containing active material, space for 
‘the electrolyte being left after the active material is applied. Each 
of such cells we give four volts, A patent granted June 18 to Wilson 
H, Abbey and Jacob Altmos describes an element formed of a corru- 

* Wied, Anu., Vol. 58, page 77, and Vol. 62, page 569. ° 


The Edison Storage Battery, 

_ We reproduce below from th 

Vsb¥ Ph 

e June issue of our Engli ‘ Sea 

Porary, The Electro-Chemist and Metallurgist bud falar 

Mate wala appears to be the full specifications of an English pats, 

a ly ae to Edison, and relating to the type of cell which.» 

ts he sul ject ofa Paper recently read by Mr. A. E, Kennelly| ~ 
etore the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 

In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a face view of one of the plates for 
Supporting the elements, having pockets or receptacles, and show- 
ing the front wall partly broken away; Fig. 2 is a section on the line 
2~2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a plan showing two of the plates forming a 
Single combination, and Fig. 4 is an enlarged detailed section, 

Each Plate is formed with two walls 1 and 2 of very. thin sheet 
nickel. (say, about 125 mm. in thickness) bent around a horizontal 
‘frame 3, from which extends the vertical spacing frames 4, 4, to all 
of which frames the sheet is secured by nickel rivets to form a strong, 
rigid, hollow plate with pockets or receptacles between the vertical ; 
frames 4, 4. The walls 1 and 2 of the plates are perforated with | 
small holes arranged very close together and about 75 mm, apart.” 
These holes may be punched in the plates as shown, but they are 
preferably formed by merely stretching the metal without removing 
it, forming burrs projecting inwardly from each hole, thereby 
: greatly increasing the area for contact between the metal and the 
be ak ; active material, Nickel is preferably used in the construction of the 
—- Ae plates, as it is not electrically oxidizable in an alkaline solution, but 
iron may be employed if carefully and perfectly plated with nickel, 
or the frames 3 and 4, instead of being made of nickel or of nickel- 

[very dificult, partly by reason of the fact that the thickness iF sO- 
: {lution layer is reduced to a mere film in which diffusion and con 
ee york of ionic concentration, and partly 

' vection rapidly undo the w : ; 
Sherpani ‘ jal concentration differences would necessarily oc- 
} because superfic pe 

\ i nati ned, even if the ions 
{ cur by the electro-chemical combinations formed, 

| did not move past one another, In other words, concentration dif- 
4 . 
: ft “! 1d if 

| ferences at the surfaces o the electrodes would occur even i ni 

place, since the liberation of potassium at the 
while the 

an 9 eR tt iy Vee Re ee 
bagi we on vere eu apisae increases the bulk, and, electrode for the purpose which has 

mixed with graphite, produces considerable pressure on the nickel oxide nor cobalt oxide is iably ej ine ; 
walls of the plate, thereby preventing any disturbance of the initial electrolyte. Roth give esis the pagers oe ace 
State of the mass, fiven when internal gas is strongly generated by preferable on account of its cheapness. I thueeiore fe nee je 
overcharging. The object in using the monosulphide is to secure precipitate the hydrated oxide of the metal sty, nickel which, ue 
the greatest amoiint of iron oxide in the smallest space and in the is slowly dried at ordi temperatures, being then seine dai 4 
Peculiar form cApable of being’ reduced to the metallic state clec- passed through a en having about a micshes Hee ure ill 
trolytically.. Dfied oxides of iron are not reducible to any extent meter, Seven pris by weight of the powdered findrate are ieed 
by the current; spongy iron reduced by hydrogen from different with three parts by weight of flake grephite, and inoistened with 
iron salts is pxidizable only to a slight extent by the current; iron small quantity of water, the dampened mass being inserted in the 
hydrates arg, very bulky and difficult of use without drying, which pockets or receptacles of the proper plates in small quantities at a 
operation {fects some obscure change therein to render them nearly time, and being thoroughly tamped at each accession, Finally the 
inert in the Presence of a reducing current; and bulky ferric hydrox- mass is covered with a Jayer of asbestos held in place by a plate of 
ide-is capable only of slight reduction, In fact, the only oxide of — nickel secured in position hy nickel wires, a ; 

heretofore been applied, Neither: 

; jonic migration took 
abel ou aes tends to form more potash at that surface, ; 
' tiberation of hydroxyl at the iron surface tends to decompose ap 

“Tat that surface, the combined action being a tendency to increase the 
| concentration at the nickel and diminish it at the iron. 

The reliability of Hittorf’s theory is, however, already established 

upon general electrolytic experience, and is readily rendered ap- $ described in explains 

Edison at Buffalo. 

‘Those who are interested in the elec- 
rien) display at the Buffalo Bxposition 

Pol 594A 
Sage FF 

} parent in thick layers of electrolyte not subjected to the ee 
of secondary electro-chemical compounds at the clectrades. It wou 

seem, for example, that the concentration differences that 
manifest themselves round copper electrodes in copper sul- 
phate solution; or those which occur around zinc electrodes in 
i zine sulphate solution, can only be accounted for on Hittorf’s hy- 
{ pothesis of a difference between the speed at which the anions and 
} cations run past one another, and the deductions from that theory 

a number of chemical supporting theories. In the case of the lead 
| storage cell difference of concentration at the electrodes due to dif-_ 
| ferences in speed of ionic migration are completely masked by the 

changes in concentration due to:the absorption of hydric sulphate 
; from the solution owing to electro-chemical decomposition. The 
| change in density of the electrolyte, as a whole, makes it difficult 
i to determine variations of density in different parts. Moreover, the 
variations of density duc to electro-chemical decomposition and com- 
| bination are large by comparison with the changes duc to migration. 

have not only led to fresh discoveries, but are also supplemented by 

'\ {strip of sheet nickel 7 secured in place by nickel wires 8, The cle- 
. ment thus formed is subjected to electrolytic oxidation in a solution 

plated tron, may be made of hard rubber or other inert material, to 
which the perforated shect is riveted. A.number of. insulated anaes 
ing blocks 5, 5 are secured to the plates to prevent them from touch- 
ing when immersed: ~ a 

In the manufacture of the new oxidizable element, monosulphide 
of iron is first preferably taken and crushed so that the particles will 
Pass through a screen having about 6.4 openings per square milli- 
meter, and about eight parts by weight thereof are mixed with about 
two parts by weight of flake graphite, the particles of which are 
somewhat larger than the perforations in the plates, This mixture 
1s moistened with a 20 per cent solution of potassic hydroxide, and 
the dampened mass is packed into the pockets or receptacles of the 
Proper plates by a suitable tamping tool, after which a wad of as- 
bestos fibre 6, about 6 millimeters in thickness, is introduced into 
the pocket or receptacle above the mass, being held in position by a | 

lof potassic liydroxide, sulphur being set free and combining with 
the alkali to form a potassium salt, which diffuses out of the mass, 
land the iron being converted to an hydroxide thereof. The diffusion 
jof the alkaline sulphur compound is facilitated by alternately re- 
versing the oxidizing current to subject the contents of the plate to 
successive oxidation and reduction until the whole of the sulphur 

‘fis eliminated. The element will then be ready for use when the 

or when monohydrate is produced by boiling ordinary ferric hydrate 

iron capable of reduction Appears to be that produced as explained ing the make-up of the oxidizable clement. These plates are then 

immersed in a solution of potassic hydroxide in water, and sub- 
jected for a considerable time to an oxidizing current of about 8 
milliamperes per square centimeter of surface, thereby converting 
the first oxide to a higher oxide, whereupon the clement is ready for 
use. The object of employing graphite is to offer a great extent 
of surface against which nearly the whole of the oxide is in contact, 
this being necessary since the electrolytic reduction and oxidation 
do not extend toa great distance from the conducting surface against 
which the oxide is in contact, although the higher oxides of nickel 
and cobalt seem to be conductors, Graphite is neither affected by 

electrolytic oxidization, nor is there local action between it and the ; 

oxides, Nickel hydrates instead of other nickel compounds are pref- 
erably used because they are casily prepared, and by absorption of the 
liquid they swell within the pockets to insure intimate contact and 
stability, while they are not reduced to the metallic state elec- 

The elements are preferably utilized together in a solution of 25 
per cent of potassic hydroxide in water. Owing to obscure reac 
tions when the battery is discharged, and to a change of resistance 
in the electrodes, the voltage of the improved cell is invariable, but 
averages 1 volt, rising as high as 1.38 volts when freshly charged. 
The battery can be over-charged, fully discharged, or even reversed 
and charged in the opposite direction without injury. Over-gassing 
does not disturb the initial state of the clements, All the ingre- 

will be pleagéd to learn that arrangements 
have been perfected with Mr. Edison for 
the exhibition of his two most recent 

iron has been reduced to the metallic state, Since iron does not 

{decompose water, there is no local action between it and the graph- dients are insoluble, The plates are unattacked by electrolytic oxi- 
hitched Tees oe atte a ate eh SE MC SFAPA~ 

dation, and the whole operation is independent of the strength of 
the solution; so that the battery is of great permanence and of re~ 
markably light weight, 

d very! valuable inventions—the new | cell is, therefore, that while variations of concentration tend to oce 
rm : cur at the electrode surfaces during charge and discharge, yet owing 

tery and the thermophile. ick 
ren ae machines can be made | * ; to the thinness of the solution layer these variations can readily 
ready they will be installed in the Blec- "| cancel and annul each other by diffusion, leaving the solution, as a 

tricity Building, where all who cesire may whole, in a constant condition with respect to mass, volume, density 
see and examine them. and chemical composition. The only ultimate changes in fact which 
; transpire during the cyclic operation of the cell are changes in the 
' oxygen contents of the active substances on the electrodes. This 




| The great point of simplicty in the operation of the new Edison 




A German translation of this patent is also contained in the Cen- 
tralblatt fucr Accumulatoren und Elementen-Kunde, June 15, to 
which the editor of that journal adds the following critical note: 

“The patent in its essential parts combines only known elements. 
Higher nickel oxydes have been used by Michalowski for the posi- 
tive plates, and iron was long ago proposed for the negative plates, 
Only the constructive details and the formation are new.” 

References are made to patents of Michalowski and of the Ac- . 
cumulatorwerke System Pollak. Michalowski (German patent, ; 
April 19, 1899) patents the use of peroxide of nickel NixOs as posi- 
tive plate in an alkaline cell with zinc as negative plate. He forms 
the nickel plates as follows: He heats a metallic nickel plate in pure 
oxygen or in gases containing oxygen, to a temperature above 300 
degs. C., below the red heat temperature; the oxydizing action is 
accelerated by applying a high pressure to the gases. Not only the 
for many hours in water; but in the latter case the increased bulk ordinary oxygen, however, but also nascent oxygen causes a good 
prevents the introduction of as much iron into the pockets as with oxydation of nickel at a temperature above 300 degs, As the oxyda- 
the hydroxide obtained by the oxidation of the monosulphide. By tion does not enter deeply below the surface, the unattacked metal 
forming the oxide in the first instance, as explained, from the mono- remains as a support of the active mags and guarantees good con- 
sulphide, the oxide is secured in very compact form and capable ductivity and good adhesion. Nascent oxygen is obtained by eat: 
of being perfectly reducible by the current. Furthermore, finely ing with oxydizing reagents, which give off their oxygen between 
divided iron obtained as described, when subjected to electrolytic 300 and Goo degs., such as nitrates, chlorates and others, Ammons 
oxidation, docs not form a soluble ferrate. The improved oxidiz- ium nitrate is especially ndapted, because this salt does es pon ie 
ing element is therefore absolutely permanent, so that the electrolyte residue after the heating. Porous nickel is impregnated wi 

simplicity is not attained in other storage batteries and is not ap- 
proached in any voltaic cell, since in all cases the solution is chem-- 
ically altered by the action and discharge of the cell. 

It is this simplicity of ultimate action which makes the Edison 

: storage cell a special type of voltatc apparatus, and which also sup- 

TIONS, ports-the hope of our reaching a chemically regenerative cell of this 

We published on page t10g of last week's issuc, an interesting type, the transfer of oxygen in charging being then effected by some 

* paper by Dr, Rocber on the application of Hittorf’s theory of ionic purely thermo-chemical process. The efficiency, of this imaginary 

velocities to the phenomena appearing in the new Edison storage process of furnace charging would not be subject to the thermo- 

cell. It is there shown that although the density of the solution dynamic temperature limitations of heat engines, could probably be 

as a whole remains unchanged during charge and discharge, yct brought to a relatively high value, and might enable electrical energy 

that differences in concentration tend to form in the electrolyte at to be obtained from coal. As regards the changes in the e. m. f | 

“+ the electrode stirfaces and that stich differences are at least partly «which make their appearance in the Edison cell at a certain stage of { 

"! due to differences in ionic velocity. While the deductions from Hit- discharge, it seems likely that such change is associated with a is not changed at any stage of the working, fused salt and heated cautiously; after this treatment has been ie | 
_ torf's theory are correctly stated, yet the corroboration of that theory change in the chemical conditions of the active materials, rather than As to the improved oxygen storing element, the inventor has dis- peated several times all pores of the nickel are bu Sania lies 

by observations of the phenomena in the new Edison cell is rendered with changes in concentration density of the electrolyte. covered that the lower oxides of nickel and cobalt, when in ‘contact solid oxide, It is also possible to oxydize nickel wi > | 



ce i 


: : eee et eee ae. haiins, : ‘ A : ‘che i ‘te, containin 
sore Sea open geereeenenione 3 : : aa bd inate Be ; : allie Seger dae ee with a conductor in an alkaline solution, can be almost wholly raised gen by using the nickel as an near ee Sad fain 
: . : ; Pg Niche ye ee ‘@ toa higher stage of oxidation electrolytically, which higher oxides oxygen, eee and 600 degs. This also g Hq 
revert to the lower stage by reduction with extreme case, and he has _ pact cover of oxide. ; ha 3 ative, which 
therefore constructed an oxygen storing clement which is capable of Accumulator plates of iron, pay see we a sin made | 
great capacity, of less weight, and of higher permanency than any are claimed to be very solid and to have a high capacity, ; 

* =. het 
We published on page 1105 of last week’s issuc, an interesting 
« paper by Dr. Rocber on the application of Hittorf’s theory of ionic 
velocities to the phenomena appearing in the new Edison storage 
cell. It is there shown that although the density of the solution 
as a whole remains unchanged ‘during charge and discharge, yet 
that differences in concentration tend to form in the electrolyte at 
*! the electrode surfaces and that such differences are at Icast partly 
“! due to differences in ionic velocity, While the deductions from Hit- 
torf’s theory are correctly stated, yet the corroboration of that theory 
; by observations of the phenomena in the new Edison cell is rendered 

Edison at Buffalo. 

"hose who are interested in the elee- 
ital display at the Buffnlo Exposition 
‘will be pleaséd to learn that arrangements 
have been perfected with Mr. Edison for 
the exhibition of his two most alti 
and very’ valuable inventions—tho new 
storage battery and the thermophile. 
As soon as these machines can be ted 
ready they will be installed in the 0) ee: 
tricity Building, where all who cesire may 
-see and examine them. 

wake mheeees 6 Fs biggie ernie - 

a Cyery difficult, partly by reason of 
~} Jution layer is reduced to a mere 

t vection rapidly undo the work 

! because superficial concentration diffe 
cur by the electro-chemical combinations 
did not move past one another, 
| ferences at the surfaces of th 
ionic migrati 
nickel surface tends to form more potash at that s 
liberation of hydroxy! at the ir 

“} at that sw ion being : 
| i at the iron. 
‘ concentration at the nickel and diminish it 

upon gener 
parent in thick layers of electrolyte 
of secondary electro-chemical compou 
seem, for example, 
manifest themselves 

phate solution; or those which occ! ; aaa 
zine sulphate solution, can only be accounted for o 

pothesis of a difference between the speed at whieh the ae 

cations run past one another, and the deductions pee eh 
have not only led to fresh discoveries, but are also supp! ee i 
a number of chemical supporting theories. In the case i aie 
storage cell difference of concentration at teat E — 

e! in speed of ionic migration are co: : 

ace in aecittton due to-the absorption of hydric igre 
from the solution owing to electro-chemical ee eae 
change in density of the electrolyte, as a whole, makes it ie 
to determine variations of density in different parts. ceauane " : 
variations of density due to electro-chemical decomposition an com 

bination are large by comparison with the changes due to migration. 


the fact that the thickness of so- 
film in which diffusion and con- 
of ionic concentration, and partly 
1 differences would necessarily oc- 
formed, even if the ions 

In other words, concentration dif- 
en if no 

ec electrodes would occur ev 

i i i f potassium at the 
ince the Jiberation o' , 
aenrepats surface, while the 

on surface tends to decompose potash 
ombined action being a tendency to increase the 
rface, the combined action being a tendency to incr 

The reliability of Hittorf’s theory is, however, already established 

‘ | ‘ap 
al electrolytic experience, and is readily rendered ap 
: not subjected to the formation 

nds at the electrodes. It would 
that the concentration differences that 
round copper electrodes in copper sul- 
ur around zinc electrodes in 

The great point of simplicty in the operation of the new Edison 
cell is, therefore, that while variations of concentration tend to Oe 
cur at the electrode surfaces during charge and discharge, yet owing 
to the thinness of the solution layer these variations can readily 
cancel and annul each other by diffusion, leaving the solution, as a 
whole, in a constant condition with respect to mass, volume, density 
and chemical composition. The only ultimate changes in fact which 

transpire during the cyclic operation of the cell are changes in the 
oxygen contents of the active substances on the aati This 
simplicity is not attained in other storage batteries and 1s: not ap- 
| proached in any voltaic cell, since in all cases the solution is chem-- 

ically altered by the action and discharge of the cell. 

with changes in concentration density of the electrolyte. 

The Edison ‘Storage Battery. 

_ We reproduce below. from 
porary, The Electro-Chemist 
view, what appears to be the 
ent recently granted to Edison, 
formed the subject of a paper 
before the American Institute 

the June issue of our English conte, 
ad Metallurgist bnd Metatlurgical Re, 
full specifications of an English pat: 
and relating to the type of cell which, 
recently read by Mr, A. E, Kennelly| ” 
of Electrical Engineers, 

“In the drawings, Fig, 
supporting the elements, 
ing the front wall partly 
2—2 of Fig, 1; Fig. 3 is 
single combination, and 

Each plate is formed with 
nickel, (say, about 
‘frame 3, from whi 
of which frames th 
rigid, hollow plate 

I is a face view of one of the plates for 
having pockets or receptacles, and show- 
broken away; Fig, 2 is a section on the Hine 
i two of the plates forming a 
4 is an enlarged detailed section, 
i two walls 1 and 2 of very. thin sheet 
+125 mm. in thickness) bent around a horizontal 
ich extends the vertical spacing frames 4, 4, to all 
¢ sheet is secured by nickel rivets to form a strong, 
with pockets or receptacles between th 
Ils 1 and 2 of the plates are perforated with 
very close together and about 75 mm, apart.” 
punched in the plates as shown, but they are 
merely stretching the metal without removing 
rojecting inwardly from each hole, thereby 
€ area for contact between the metal and the 
referably used in the construction of the 
ly oxidizable in an alkaline solution, but 
‘arefully and perfectly plated with nickel, 
instead of being made of nickel or of nickel- 
er or other inert material, to 
iveted. A-number of insulated spac- 
he plates to prevent them from touch- 

a plan showin, 

small holes arranged 
These holes may be 
Preferably formed by 
it, forming burrs p 
greatly increasing th 
active material, 
plates, as it is not electrical! 
iron may be employed if ¢: 
or the frames 3 and 4 
may be made of hard rubb 
which the perforated sheet is r 
ing blocks 5, 5 are secured to th 
ing when immersed, ~ 
In the manufacture of: 
of iron is first preferably 
Pass through a sereen hy; 
meter, and about cight parts 
two parts by weight of flak 
somewhat larger than the pel 
is moistened with a 20 per cent solution 
the dampened mass is Packed into the po 
Proper plates by a suitable tamping tool, 
bestos fibre 6, about 6 millimeters in thi 

the new oxidizable clement, monosulphide 
taken and crushed so that the particles will 
§ about 6.4 openings per square milli- 
y weight thereof are mixed with about 
¢ graphite, the particles of which are 
tforations in the plates. This mixture | 
of potassic hydroxide, and 
ckets or receptacles of the 
after which a wad of as- 
ickness, is introduced into 

ic oxidation in a solution 
sulphur being set free and combining with 
which diffuses out of the mass, 
ydroxide thereof, The diffusion 
cilitated by alternately re- 
ject the contents of the plate to 
until the whole of the sulphur 
en be ready for use when the 
Since iron does not 
there is no local. action between it and the graph- 

lof the alkaline sulphur comp 

versing the oxidizing current to sub: 
successive oxidation and reduction 
“fis eliminated. The element will th 
iron has been reduced to the metal 
lecompose water, 
,etatadrcea otha boca 

It is this simplicity of ultimate action which makes the Edison 
storage cell a special type of voltaic apparatus, and which also sup- 
ports the hope of our reaching a chemically regencrative cell of this 
type, the transfer of oxygen in charging being then effected by some, 
purely thermo-chemical process. The efficiency, of this imaginary 
process of furnace charging would not be subject to the thermo- 
dynamic temperature limitations of heat engines, could probably be 
brought to a relatively high value, and might enable electrical energy 
to be obtained from coal. As regards the changes in the cm. f. 
‘which make their appearance in the Edison cell at a certain stage of 
discharge, it seems likely that such change is associated with a 
change in the chemical conditions of the active materials, rather than 

Pi a eee ae ee a 

by the Accumulatorenwerke System Pollak, according to a German 
patent of Aug, 17, 1898. Iron powder or compounds of oxygen with 
iron are compressed while wet, and are then heated, so that they 
come into a porous but solid state, The electrodes are then formed 
electrolytically, in an alkaline solution, for instance, NaOH. The 
iron powder or the oxygen compounds of iron are generally mois- 
tened with nitric acid or another oxidizing agent, and are afterward 
compressed. The oxydizing agent is then removed by heating to a 
ted heat, or in any other manner, As electrolyte with electrodes of 
this kind, such solutions’ can be used which cither form insoluble 
compounds or none at all, with the electrodes as, for instance, alka- 
lines, bichromate of Potassium, phosphoric acid, ete, 

From these patents it is evident that the “passive state” had not 
kept inventors from using nickel oxyde and iron plates in batteries, 
as had been claimed, On the other hand, the cell, described above, 
of Michalowski, is not of the type of the new Edison battery. 
Michalowski uses zinc as negative electrode, and zinc dissolves, 
The Michalowski cell is therefore of the type of the old Edison-Le- 
dJande cell, Furthermore, Michalowski speaks of Ni.Os plates, while 
Dr. Kennelly, in his Paper on the new Edison cell, expressly states 
that the charged nickel plate in the Edison cell is nickel hyperoxide 
NiO,, a higher oxide than the peroxide, 

Interuban Trolleys in Indiana, 

pea Ds ‘ 

There are now 200 miles of interurban electric road out of Indi- 
‘anapolis, connecting with the principal cities of the Indiana gas belt, 
and there are in round numbers 1000 miles Projected at present for 
Indiana, The interurban roads afford an hour schedule for pas- 
Sengers, and less frequent freight hauls into the city, and are heavily 
patronized by the farmers along the line and the residents of the 
towns and cities which they connect. That they are successful in 
their efforts to get business is evidenced in the efforts of the rail- 
‘roads, whose tracks are now paralleled by the electric lines, Where 
there are parallel lines the railway companies have cut the local 
rates and have put a better train service into operation. Some ob- 
Servers believe that the solution of the difficulty can only be by the 
‘death or absorption of the interurban lines, or the abandonment by 
the railways of their local business. At present there scems to be 
hardly enough business for both. There are those who hold that 
the railroads will absorb the electric lines, but there is no tendency 
‘observable in the present situation that will justify such a conten- 
tion. Both sides are Preparing to fight, and of the contest, in its 
initial stages, no accurate forecast of the outcome can be made, 

A likely development is a combination of the major part of the in- 
terurban lines in the hands of a single syndicate, The Elkins-Widener 
People have lately acquired the Union Traction Company’s tines, 
‘which are the most extensive in the central part of the State. They 
also contro! the Indianapolis Street Railway Company and the Cin- 
‘cinnati street lines. Out of Cincinnati they control a line going 

north into Indiana, Lately they are reported to have acquired the ° 

Indianapolis and Greenfield line. There is at present a line pro- 
jected from Greenfield to Dayton, Ohio, which will complete the 
chain from Indianapolis to Dayton, and lines which will ultimately 
connect Chicago and Cincinnati by way of Indianapolis are talked of, 
It is believed that before many years the Union Traction Company 
will absorb most ef these traction companies, and that there will be 
2 unified system connecting Indiana, Ohio, and Iilinois, 

The last Indiana Legislature made it possible for this outburst of 
traction building to occur by giving the traction companies the same 
tight of eminent domain, allowing them to condemn land, as the 
Tailroads. In this way companies which have been unable to get 
tights of way over the highways are now getting private rights of 
way. The road between Indianapolis and Logansport, which has 
been retarded for two years for this reason, is one that shows the 
utility of the last Legislature. The Indianapolis News publishes a 
map showing the present and projected trolley lines in the vicinity 
of that city. They are so numerous as to present the appearance 
of a spider’s web, with Indianapolis as the central point. The News 
says: “That the railroads feel that they are to be confronted by a 
powerful rival is apparent from the effort the Big Four, the I, & V., 
and the J. &-M. & I. companies are already making to meet compe- 
tition. It is believed by many that the railroads will eventually be 
forced into buying up the electric lines in order to save themselves, 
as it is not thought they can continue the competition for long when 
the odds in operating expenses are so heavily against them. It is 

" even now rumored that some of the steam roads are interested in the 

franchises that are being obtained for Tar wa 

ste that will parallel 
Data on New York Con 

Justice Earl, of the Court of Appeals, sit 
hearing last week in the fight being 
Pporations in this city against the constituti 
Tax law. The case of the Consolidated Teleg 
way Company, of New York, was heard, Willi 


‘eferee, gave a 
‘ny large cor- 
he Franchise 
ctrical Sub. 

N \, Secretary 
and treasurer, testified that the original capita fcern war 
$3,000,000, of which amount $732,000 has been ¢ ‘T patents 
and property acquired by the proceeds of the sal ‘he mar. 
ket value of which, at the Present timt, he decta * $3 per 
share, There are outstanding $4,225,000 if bo. 000 in 
stock and $545,405 in unpaid coupons of the com} owns 

142 miles of subway, of which only part is earnin, The 
State Board of Tax Commissioners has assessed the\ 

erty at $5,000,000, but the company appealed to the & oe 
asking that the amount be teduced to $1,000,000, ant rec 
itself in default on its bonded indebtedness to the exte cog 
in interest. Last year the company’s operating expense, f 

said, fell $12,000 short of the earnings. 

Since 1898, he said, there has been only one sale of th 
bonds, which were then purchased by the New York Gas 
Light & Power Company, The company's stock, he said, 
the par value of $100. The balance sheet of the company 
would show a deficit of about $48,000 for 1900, ‘ 

Edwin R. Quinby, the engineer of construction of the subw 
pany, testified to the cheaper methods of construction that a 
sible to-day, chiefly through: the substitution of vitrified clay ft 
in the manufacture of ducts. While the original cost of con 
tion was about $2,000,000, the company having been compelle 
the city to lay many conduits from which it received no income w 
ever, the system could be reproduced now, he believed, for about 

Wisconsin Independent Tetephone Meeting. 

At La Crosse, Wis. last week the Wisconsin independent tele- 
phone companies had a meeting, there being delegates present from 
26 companies in the State. The meeting was held in the city, council 
chamber, when Mayor Boschert welcomed President Hutchinson 
and his associates, and the president made an interesting address, 
Mr. R. S. Abbott read a paper on telephone conditions in Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin, During the afternoon a visit was paid to the 
new La Crosse telephone exchange. 

At the second day’s session a hot disctission relative to the rela- 
tions with the Bell company occurred, The matter came up on a mo- 
tion to exclude all members who are in any way affiliated with the , 
Bell people. The discussion showed a unanimity of determination 
to fight to the bitter end, A resolution was passed that all com- 
panies having any business relations with the Bell company be disci- 
plined. A resolution was also passed that a committee of grievances 
be appointed to thoroughly investigate all cases where independent 
companics arc, or are suspected of affiliating with the Wisconsin 
(Bell) Telephone Company, 3 etn 

A resolution to establish uniform toll charges all over the State 
was passed unanimously. A committee was appointed to take charge 
of the matter, and it is thought probable that a big reduction of toll 
rates will be made in the committee's report. ‘ 

Mr. Burch, of Madison, read an interesting paper on the main: | 
tainance of the best telephone service and many important idea : 
were brought before the convention in this way. The convention : 
adjourned at nooi, to meet again next February in pee 
They expressed themselves as highly pleased with the reception an i 
entertainment they had received in this city. 

° i 
Tunnel Under the Narrows. 

i | 
Tunneling the Narrows of New York Harbor for an| 
electric road is now proposed. The. New Jersey & ow eam| 
Junction Railroad Company, which was first proposed by oe al 
Wiman, and which increased its capital stock to $10,000,000 asl 
January, has begun active work. The purpose of the pee is a 
run a double steel tube tunnel under the Narrows, build 14) os les | 
railroad on Staten Island, and connect with several trunk te Ht 
New Jersey across the Kill Von Kull bridge. The estimated co 

of the tunnel is $3,500,000. : 

TI REA ers. oe / 
Sa eas Te aT fink het 



2.) JD 





substance. Possibly there is only a single 
primary radiation, the rest being second- 
ary effects, as the cathode Tays generate 
the X-rays and these in turn gencrate 
their complex secondary radiations, 

‘The chemical nature of the radio-active 
substances or elements is still little under- 
stood, nor is it surprising when one con- 
siders the difliculty of working with sub- 
stances occurring in such minute quanti- 
ties as these, Only one new element, 
radium, is definitely established. Hof- 
mann and Strauss thought they had 
isolated another new radio-active element, 
but while still claiming the new element, 
they now admit that it is not radio-active, 

The question of the source of energy in 
these radintiong is yet unanswered. Is 
the energy potential in an unstable molee- 

,; ular or atomic structure, or is it sup- 
"plied continuously by outside sources? In 
the first case, how long will the energy 
last? In either case, is it 2 property that 
matter in general may under proper condi- 
tions assume, or is it, as it scoms, restricted 
to a very few peculiar elements? Heat or 
cold, high or low Pressure, has little in- 
fluence on the emission of the Tays. Mme. 
". Curie once put forth the hypothesis that 
perliaps the radiation js induced in the 
radio-active elements by a sort of trans- 
cendental radiation more penetrating than 
the X-rays and pervading all our space. 
Professor Geitel found that if so, the ex- 
iting radiations penetrate easily hun- 
» dreds of yards of tock, for radium was 
> still active at the bottom of the deepest 
; mine to whieh he had access, Finally, 
the study of the radio-netive substances 
will surely lead to a better knowledge of 
that which ie the subject of much of the 
5 physical research of to-day, the intimate 

; structure of matter, 
: ee: 

‘ : Electrica 

4 Patents 

For some time Mr. Edison has been 
working to improve galvanic or storage 
* batteries, with a view to increasing the 
permaneney of the same while dcereasing 
the weight. 'T'o this end he devised a cell 
wherein the mnetals, cadmium and copper, 
are employed as the elements in an alka- 
line electrolyte, whereby a Very permanent 
cell was secured, having the initial and 
final states of the electrolyte the same. 
Furthermore, it was capable of storing a | 
greater amountof energy per pound per cell 
thanbatteries commercially nsed before that 
timo for the same degree of durability. 
Not satisfied with this, however, he has 
been seeking, by. a great many experi- 
“ments, for an’ element or compound cap. 
Fo wee. 



able o: 3 
lyte, the heat of formation of whose oxide 
should be as low or lower than that of 
oxide of mercury. In this he has been 
successful, the result being the discovery 
of an clement for furnishing the oxygen 
to the oxidizable element on discharge with 
even greater freedom than oxide of mer- 
cury. At the same time, the new clement 
is leas expensive, is of Joss weight, but 
greater permanency and greater insolu- 
bility in the electrolyte, He has+ been 
granted a broad patent on his new ele- 
ment, and the following extract from his 
patent specification clearly describes the 
method of manufacturing the same: 

2.8 8 o_o 


Ebigon’s Storack Barreny Puare, 

“Tn the manufacture of my new oxidizable 
element for use in. a reversible galvanic 
cell I first preferab) y_ take monosulphide 
of iron and reduce it by a crushing opera 
tion until the particles thereof may be 
passed through Sercen having about 
410,000 openings per square inch, and I 
intimately mix about cight parts, by 
weight, of the powdered _monosulphide 
with about two parts, by Weight, of flake 
graphite of a size considerably larger than 
the perforations in the walls of the pock- 
ets or receptacles, Flake graphite being 
exceedingly thin and of large area gives 
an extensive conducting surface in pro- 

nd weight. 'This mix. and dit 

ned with a 20 Per cent 

f being used in an alkaline electro- 


or’ receptacles of the proper plates by a 
suitable tamping tool. Owing to the want 
of flexibility of the graphite, the mixture 
packs to a hard, porous mass. The effect 
of electrolytic gasing, therefore, does not 
disintegrate the mass ng a whole when 
Properly compressed, After cach pocket 
or receptacle has been tightly packed with 
the muss almost to its top, a wad of asbes- 
tos fibre about a quarter of an inch in 
thickness is introduced into the pocket or 
receptacle above the mass, and on top of 
this packing is placed a strip of sheet 
nickel entirely covering the asbestos 
and filling the mouth of the poeket, which 
strip is permanently secured in position 
by nickel wires threaded through the 
openings near the top of the pocket, as 
shown in the illustration, The cele- 

ment thus formed ‘is subjected to clectro- |. 

lytic oxidization in a solution of potassic 
hydroxide, whereby sulphur will be set 
free and combining with the alkali forms 
a sulphide of potassium, which diffuses out 
of the.mass, while the iron ig converted to 
4 ferrous oxide thereof. This diffusion of 
the alkaline sulphide out of the plate ig 

hastened and facilitated by subjecting thef- 

contents of the plate to alternate oxida- 
tion and reduction by alternately revers- 
ing the oxidizing current, and by several 
of these operations the whole of the sul- 
phur will be eliminated and the element 
Will be ready for use after the iron has 
been reduced to thé metallic state. Since 
iron does not decompose water, there will 
obviously bo no local action between it 
and the graphite. ‘'The oxide formed from 
the sulphide increases in bulk and being| 
" intermediately mixed with the graphite 
Produces ° considerable pressure on: the 
walls of the plate, which prevents any dis- 
turbance of the initial state of the mass, 
even when it is subjected to strong gasing 
within the pores by overcharging the ele- 
ment electrically. ‘The object of using the 
monosulphide ig to secure the greatest 
amount of iron oxide in the ‘smallest space 
and in a form capable of being reduced 
to the metallic state . electrolytically; 
My attempts to utilize iron as.the oxidiz- 
able element in an alkaline reversiple bat. 
tery were for a long time frustrated by 
the 'faets, determined only after exhaustive 
experiments, that dried oxides of iron were 
not reducible to any extent by the current 3 
that spongy iron reduced by hydrogen 
from different iron salts was not oxidizable 
to any considerable extent by the current; 
that the hydrates of iron w 

"Tho long extract from the patent sp 

fication covering the new form of storage 
battery due to Mr. Thomas A. Edison, 
which appears.on another: page of this 
issue, ig an exceedingly interesting ac- 




{count of difficult dnd ingenious labors car- 

tied to a practical conclusion, Perhaps 
this specification gives a better idea of the |. 
difficulty encountered in the design of this | 
battery than any, statement that ‘has yet 

been made concerning it. eer 
‘| The cell seems to be entirely different 
from others that have preceded it and the 
-|result of its practical application is await- iW ; 
ed with deepest interest by every one who | aad 

has to do with accumulators in any form. 

The promise held out by the somewhat 

short and incomplete description con- 
tained in Dr. Kennelly’s ‘original paper 
describing this type of cell—that the new . 
battery would possess extraordinary advan- |- ; 
tages over other forms—scoms to be well |...’ 
borne out by the patent specification re- ! ae 
ferred to. - It is to be hoped that we shall |: 

soon have full data of service testa of | 


. ones ‘prief article. 
r Edison Battery.—Hiovert.—A brie! 

of the Jungner battery, 

these cells under the conditions ordinarily 
mot in practice, especially in connection |- 
with automobile service, °° J 


“The German patent 
ar to the new Edi- 

vhich is ‘somewhat ‘simi ; ae 
canieant by Siemens & Halske. He give: 

son cell, is said to have b 
‘in a diagram Pagel a 
ide, sodium hydroxi serene 
he canabcsividies is too sinalf to exercise ai iP 
With the new Edison cell, the cc ae ph aon 
indicate the progress of a esd Q a 
aiderenes at the terminals will a pe it 
y than. in the old, a 
ortant revealer ee 
clang and discharge voltages will be r 

acter of these curves Ww ill be very import: 

The contents of the 

saiey8 scsi 
urves for the conductivities of potassiu 

ic aci difference 
huric acid. The d 
Oe ee ant influence. 

e ble 

Will presumably be unal b 
pies The potential 
pe become a more in- 
haracteristic curve of 
quired at all rates The char- 
ant for all questions of regu- 


an *, ity, due 
lala an a eet here will be local variations in density, dv 

iquid is constant, but t ‘ea 
ie migration of the ions and to the reduction a 

lectrodes. “It is not unlikely, therefore, that one o 
of t : thin flakes of graphite which 
shh e is to assist in minimizing 
Th re said to increase the erngeenid ae 

aor fer exclusively to clectric conduc! - : 
al earable that local action is absent or very 

f polished iron w 
Cubes of p Fai 

oxides, ete. 

ash cells. 

d oxidation at the 
f the functions 
Mr. Edison mixes with the 
local variations in density. 
of the briquettes, but this 
He says that it is 
small in these pot- 

sealed up in 
ich Faraday had seal I 
: They must have contained 

i were seen by him 30 years . nd apparently free from 
alkali w te bright and app: 

were qui! 

ir surfaces : 
ae ik He remarks, how 

| evidence of local action. 
thin framework in swhich 
very small degree of loca’ nok 
finally makes a few remarks on 

rT as whi vever, shows noth 
ich, however, 
. some formula hich, hee h 

pand q must be siel in 

er, that the eee 
Edison sets his briquettes will ena at 
1 action to produce disintegration. han 
“probable chemistry,” and giv ; 
ing but that oxygen 1s 
{1 acts, as is claimed, 

a ef 21. 
EES ee rm his formulas.—Lond. Elec, Rev., June 
a eee 


Bits ¢ Aen. 

RY.—It is stated that several prom- 

ee talists have become i 


is sai 

iven as bonus to the sul 

$1,000,000 stock , 

t Schwab and 
Edison and a few of his : 

and Samuel R. 

. who, it 
000 of the 

Only $300, 

din the $1,000,000 company 
utside.of Mr. 

d, including Presiden 



ited States Steel Corporation, 
I Mek. Twombly, $200,000, 


$300,000 being g' 

ison has organ 
for the $300,000 bonds. 

of the Un 
d to any one 0 

nt capi 
aya smaller amount. 

0,000 together 


h' Mr. Edi 
tor Gary, 

ave $: 

‘close friends, the 

‘has been issue 



: f binky ferric oxide was not capable of any 
: # considerable reduction by the current, and, 
finally, that ferrous oxide, though easily 
él reducible, was very difficult to prepare on‘ 
‘ft account of atmospheric oxidation. The 
i formation of the ferrous oxide, in the first 

\ instance, within the pockets or receptacles 

#| did. away ‘with the objections.due to the - 

?) bitlk’of the hydrates, while the oxide thus 
| formed'is perfectly reducible-by the cur- 
4 i rent.’- Instead of forming the oxide in this 
k alkaline solution, it will be obvious that 
; i salts of iron, like ferrous chloride, may be 
Hacked with the graphite and when placed 
tin an alkaline solution form chloride of 
iflthe alkali and ferrous oxide of iron, the 
A alkaline chloride diffusing out of the mass. 
4 The results, however, are not so good as 
“{when the sulphide of iron is used, since 
the quantity of finely divided iron. pro- 
‘\\ fduced thereby is considerably less and is 
“ falso less porous, offering, therefore, a re- 
‘ fduced opportunity for the solution to 
Ypenetrate the mass and lowering, in con- 
| f'sequence, its current-condueting capacity. 
“iMctallic iron, even, when finely divided, 
2 flas produced by electrolytic reduction, does 
i ino of itself oxidize in solutions of the fixed 
alkalies, and the oxide of iron is not appre- 
iciably soluble. Compact, dense or non- 
‘porous iron—i, 6, iron having relatively 
t large particles—when subjected to a 
pjpowertal electrolytic oxidation forms 
‘Ja gmall quantity of a soluble ferrate of the 
Elatkali and dissolves in the electrolyte. On 
‘Lithe other hand, finely divided iron ob- 
tained as described when subjected to elec- 
ritrolytie oxidation does not form a solu- 
ble ferrate, but is converted into the in- 
soluble ferrous oxide. My improved oxidiz- 
able clement is, therefore, absolutely per- 
Ke manent, go that in the operation of the 
y4 battery the electrolyte is not changed at 
E any stage of the working, and absolutely 
hi no deterioration of the iron clement takes 
| place. Having described the advantages 
ij and characteristics of and the preferred 
4 manner of making the oxidizable clement, 
Bi reference will now be made to the pre- 
Fi ferred oxygen furnishing or storing cle- 
Hy ment of the cell. I have discovered by 
i experiment that the lower oxides of nickel 
fj and cobalt when in contact with a con- 

f structed an oxygen-storing element capa- 

i ble of great capacity, of light weight and 

% of high permanence. Neither the oxide 

way by: oxidizing the monosulphide in an- 

of nickel nor of cobalt is :ppreciably solu- 
ble in an alkaline .clectrolyte, and: both 
nickel and cobalt :give:nearly the same 
voltage in use; but since nickel is less ex- 
pensive than cobalt I prefer to use the 
former element for the purpose. ‘The 
preferred process for making the oxygen- 
storing clement consists in first precipitat- 
-ing either the monoxide or black hydrated 
dioxide. of the: metal—say nickel—in the 
usual'way,iwashing the precipitate free 
from.the products of the reaction; filter- 
ing off the liquid and drying off the pre- 
eipitate. The resulting dried hydrated 
oxide is then powdered very fine and is 
ready for use, ither oxide may be used 
with the same results. ‘The process above 
outlined applies to cobalt as well as to 
nickel. About seven parts, by weight, of 
the finely powdered hydrate and three 
parts, by weight, of flake graphite are then 
‘intimately mixed and moistened with a 
small quantity of a strong solution of 
potassic hydroxide, so as to dampen the 
mass, which is then inserted in the pockets 
or receptacles of the proper plates in small 
quantities at a time and thoroughly 
tamped at edch accession. Finally’ the 
mass is covered with a Jayer of asbestos, 

‘held in place by a plate of nickel secured 

in position by nickel wires, as I have de- 
scribed in explaining the make-up of the 
oxidizable element. The plates, the pock- 
ets of which are thus supplied with the 
mixture of the hydrated oxide and graph- 
ite, are then immersed in a solution of 
potassic hydroxide in water and subjected 
for a considerable time to an oxidizing 
current of about 50 milliamperes per 
square inch of surface, during which the 
oxide is either raised to a higher stage of 
oxidation than the black oxide (Ni,0;) 
or else acts as an absorber of oxygen in 
some manner unknown to me. Whatever 
the action may be, the oxide so treated acts 
as a most efficient oxygen-storing element 
for commercial use in a galvanic battery. 
The object of employing graphite, which 
is not affected by electrolytic oxidation, 
is to offer a great extent of surface against 
which the whole of the oxide is in con- 
tact, a large conducting surface being nec- 
essary, since the electrolytic reduction and 
oxidation for practical purposes only ex- 
tend a small distance from the conducting 
surface against which the oxide is in con- 
tact. This is admirably effected by the 
use of graphite in its micaceous form, the 
proportions indicated being such as to 
practically insure that the electrolytic 
action need not penetrate a greater dis- 
tance from the contact surface than the 
thickness of a’ single particle of the 
powdered oxide. - Furthermore, there-is no 
local action between the nickel.or cobalt 

oxides and the graphite. The reason: why 
nickel hydrate is preferably used instedd 
of other compounds of nickel is that the 
metal ‘itself when finally divided (as ob- 
tained by reducing a nickel compound by 
hydrogen or electrolysis) is not oxidizable 
to any considerable extent when subjected 
to electrolytic oxidation in an alkaline 
solution. ‘I'he sulphide of nickel is not de- 
composed by electrolysis under the.condi- 
tions of battery work, and the sulphide of 
cobalt only imperfectly. Hence the hy- 
Grates are the most available compounds 
for use, since they do not become inert to 
the same extent as hydrates of the oxides 
of iron after drying, they are easily pre- 
pared, and by absorbing the solution they 
swell within the pockets or receptacles so 
as to insure intimate contact and stability. 
During the charging of the cell the absorp- 
tion of oxygen by the oxide of nickel or 
cobalt causes the oxide to further swell 
and bulge the pockets or receptacles out- 
wardly, and on discharge 2 proportionate 
contraction takes place. In order that the 
walls of the pockets or receptacles may al- 
ways maintain the desirable intimate con- 
tact with the active material, the pockets 
are, as stated, made of some highly elastic 
metal, such as hard rolled sheet nickel, so 
that at each contraction of the mass the 
pocket walls will by their elasticity keep 
in contact therewith. Having constructed 

the two elements of the battery as above’ 

explained, they are preferably utilized to- 
gether in a solution of 25 per cent of 
potassic hydroxide in water and the cell 
is ready for use, and when charged the 
iron is in the metallic form and the nickel 
or cobalt oxide is raised to the superperox- 
ide stage described, : 
“Owing to several’ obscure reactions 
which take place when the battery is dis- 
charged, and also to a change of resistance 
within the electrodes, the voltage is varia- 
ble; but the average voltage over the whole 
discharge is about one volt, rising as high 
as 1.32 volts, and sometimes higher, when 
freshly charged. My improved battery 
can be overcharged, fully discharged, or 
even reversed and charged in the opposite 
direction without any injury. Over-gas- 

- ing does not disturb the initial state of 

the materials in the pockets, all the ingre- 
dients are insoluble, the supporting plates 

‘are unattacked by electrolytic oxidation, 

and the whole operation is independent of 
the strength of the solution, so that the 
battery is of great permanence, while at 
the same time more energy will be stored 
per unit of weight than with any perma- 
nent practical combination heretofore sug- 
gested. I have constructed o battery as 
above described which gives an available 
storago capacity of one horse-power-hour 
for 73 pounds weight; but it may be 
made lighter without destroying its per- 
manent character. The specific magnetic 
metals are iron, nickel and cobalt. By the 
expression “oxide of ‘a specific magnetic 
metal other than iron” as employed in my 
claims, I mean oxide of nice oxide of 
cobalt or 2 combination of such oxides. 
By the use of that expression it is my pur- 

ose to embrace and include generically * 


_ son cell, is said to have been bought by 

“> ,/'The long extract from the patent speci- | 
‘fication covering the new form of storage | 
battery duo to Mr. Thomas A, Edison, | 
which appeays.on another’ page of this 
‘fissue, is an exceedingly interesting ac- | 
--Jeount of difficult dnd ingenious labors car- | . 
tied to a practical conclusion, Perhaps 
.{this specification gives a botter iden‘of the 
difficulty encountered in the design of this 
-lbattery than any, statement that lias yet 
{been made concerning it, Chess, 
The cell seems to be entirely different 
- {from others that have preceded it and the 
" ,fresult of its practical application is await- 
.. Jed with deepest interest by every one who 
‘-{has to do with accumulators in any form. 
‘|The promise held out by the somewhat 
short and incomplete description con- 
jtained in Dr, Kennolly’s ‘original paper 
describing this type of ccll—that the new 
battery would possess extraordinary advan- | 
tages over other forms—scems to be well 
borne out by the patent specification re- ;- 
ferred to. - It is to be hoped that we shall 
soon have full data of service tests of} 
these cells under the conditions ordinarily | 

met in practice, especially in ‘connection|-.... « ee 
with automobile gerviee, 72 ds 


ja eis ! 
tees at : 

Leena F 

Py oNR - 
Edison Battery—Hinnert.—A brief arti le, | pate 
of the Jungner battery, which is ES iatike ne es 
tive curves for the conductivities of potassium 
de and sulphuric acid. The difference 
Il to exercise an important influence. 
I presumably be unable 

in a diagram compara’ : 
hydroxide, sodium hydroxi 
in the conductivities is ne sys basen 
i w Edison ceil, the hy: er W ) b 
papeanspr progress of a charge and discharge. The potential 
difference at the terminals will in the new type become a more 
portant revealer than in the old, and the Se ae dar: 
charge and discharge voltages will be required at all rates : el 
acter of these curves will be very important for all areper ath 
lation, and also for that of the efficiency. The contents i ak w Poe 
liquid is constant, but there will be local variations em ca u te 
to the migration of the ions and to the reduction and oe rei cps 
electrodes. “It is not unlikely, therefore, that one oO! athe an ss 
of the thin flakes of graphite which Mr. Edison mixes uaadieh 
oxides, cte., is to assist in minimizing local ekennaties a rae 
They are said to increase the conductivity of the brique a: we 
cannot refer exclusively to electric conduction.’ cal ake 
not improbable that local action is absent or very a in a a im 
ash cells. Cubes of polished iron which Faraday = a canal 
alkali were seen by him 30 years: later. They must ene prea 
carbon, yet their surfaces were quite bright and ee, tee ’ 
evidence of focal action. He remarks, however, that cu : 
thin framework in swhich Edison sets his briquettes wi! a 

very small degree of local action to produce sient hae 
finally makes a few remarks on the “probable chemistry,” and give 

te to t 
transferred from one pla er Lond. Bec, Rev, June 2 

The German patent; 

he other, If the cell acts, as is claimed; ° 

| some formulas which, however, shows nothing but that oxygen 1s 

p and q must be equal in his. formul 

gr Ny 


-—It is stated that several prom- 

who, it is said, | * 
and Samuel R. 
$1,000,000 stock 
da few of hi 

outside.of Mr. Edison an 

being given as bonus 

t Schwab and 

d in the $1,000,000 company 

ding Presiden 

nited States Steel Corporation, 
H. McK. Twombly, $200,000, 

Only $300,000 of the 

ists have become intereste' 
has organized, inclu 

“a smaller amount. 

ooo together; 
‘has been issued to any one 

which Mr. Edison 
‘Director Gary, of the U: 

‘close friends, the $300,000 

ey Bach ie ; 
The New Edison Storags 3a 
By Wpanz Peters. sites 
carcély had the copper-cadmnium accumulate 
agian to the world, not without much en 
from the technical and lay press, when appeared, i § 
better brother, the superoxide of nickel-iron combing 
tion, Yet this is already a giant child. Wi iit 
grow to man’s stature? Possibly, Still, it Ai 
hardly become a ‘Titan, capable of completely revol ut 
tionizing the science of accumulator manufacture. 7 

The principles underlying the new cell have a 
ready been describ:d ina paper by Dr. Art hur a 
Kennelley, read beture a meeting of the Americal 
Institute of Electrical Engineers on. May 2tst. 

Since the date of this paper later details lave ap- 
peared, obviously emanatiny from the inventor him- 
self, and going further inv, particulars, ; 

At discharge, as well a. in the previous charge, 
the voltage of this cell is 1.5 volts, maintaining a 
mean pressure of 1.1 yoits. The normal current 
density of discharge is .93 ampere per square deci- 
meter of active surface, the capacity being 30.85 
watt-hours per kilogram of cell weight, whereas 
the modern lead accumulator gives only 8& to 13.23 
watt-hours for the same weight. 

In a normal discharge through 3.§ hours the out-, 

put is 88 watts per kilogram; for one hour the out- 26.40 watts, The cell docs not appear to be 
injured by overcharge or discharge, but suffers only 
a decrease in efficiency. 

The active material is prepared in the form of 
rectangular briquet., 7.6 by 1.27 centimeters in area, 
formed under a pressure of 30 tons per square 
decimeter, and placed in boxes of perforated sheet- 
steel, nickel-plated and of 0.075 millimeter thickness. 
These boxes are then fastened in a strong sheet- 
steel grid, 0.61 millimeter in thickness, and likewise 
nickel-plited. The whole arrangement is finally 
subjected to a hydraulic pressure of some 100 tons, 
so that, on the one hand, the retaining: boxes are 

cemented tightly, and, on the other, their side walls. - 

are bent securely about the supporting frames of 
the steel grid. P 

For automobile batteries such grids are made of 
2.5 millimeters thickness and the steel cases 0.50 
millimeter thick. The whole is placed in vessels 
also of steel, cemented by a solder capable of resist- 
ing alkaline solutions. , 

Whereas in lead accumulators the weight of the 
acid solution represents about 44 per -cent,. of the 
active mass (including, of course, the supporting 
metal), or some 25 per cent. of the fotal weight, 
in the nickel-iron cell the electrolyte is only some 
20 per cent. of the weight of the plates, or about 
14 per cent. of the total weight, since in the dis- 

- charge here no ion of the electrolyte combines with 
the active material, as in the ordinary accumulator 
SO. combines with the Pb. The amiount of clec- 
trolyte required is therefore much less, The specific 
gravity of the electrolyte, moreover, can alter essen- 
tially only through evaporation. On this account one 
may use the Edison accumulator as a dry battery. 
The expansion and contraction of the'active material 
is allowed by the elastic nature of the retaining boxes, 
and good contact between the two is always insured. 

The electromotive force of the cell appears to be 
nearly equal to that reckoned from the heat of com- 
bination of iron and oxygen, so that the superoxide 
of nickel is nearly neutral, as the nickel compound 
has only a small affinity for oxygen, in spite of the 
fact that the superoxide in the cell appears to be 
completely stable, 3 

The new cell seems to be unharmed by low tem- 
peratures, None of the constituents are taken up by 
the electrolyte or dissolved, Hitherto no polariza- 
tion has been observed, since the electromotive force 
is below that required for the disintegration of 
water, ‘The cell can be completely discharged and 

RG is 

On'th er hand,.I have obtained with or 
nary traction cell of 12.75 kilograms weight a dis- 
charge of 260.04 watt-hours for 2.5 hours; i, ¢, 20.39 
watt-hours per kilogram. With this, maybe com- 
pared the results -which Kennelly: gives—fhat : the 
modern lead cell furnishes but 8.8 to 13.23 watt-hours 

ilogram weight. F 
per kilog rhotir discharge the energy output of the 

3 erey 
abave cell is certainly somewhat increased: But we -- 

i ntine our. attention to the 20.39°-Watt-hours, | 
Tis “vould be furnished by a discharge current of 
48 amperes and with 48 square decimeters of active- 
electrode surface.. The current density, then, is one 
ampere, For the above output, then, 375 square 
decimeters per kilogram of cell weight is required ; 
i.e, about 30,85 watt-hours, With the ordinary lead 
accumulator, 5,67 square decimeters of clectrode 
surface per kilogram of cell weight is required, as 
against nine square decimeters in the Edison ar- 
rangement, or not far from the half, ¢ 

A battery to furnish a given amount of electric 
energy must then, if one employ the superoxide of 
nickel-iron elements, be nearly twice as Jarge— 

whether we figure by the dimensions of the cells ‘or . 

their number—as that required if one use the perox- 
ide of lead elements, -— : 

Tn general, with traction batteries one would seck 
to increase the number of cells, since the motor in 
automobiles requires a definite voltage, and the avail- 
able potential i the Edison accumulator, 1.1 volts, 
is only about one-half that from well-known traction . 
cells, which furnish 1.95 to 1,97 volts, That .this 
almost double space required could be allowed in-au- 

tomobiles without an increase of the dimensions -|,.° 

all around, is very much in doubt, . 

That by the new combination a great economy of 
weight over that hitherto required will be realized 
must be doubted, since the specific gravity of nickel 
and of iron amounts to about two-thirds that of lead 
(nickel, 8.5 to 89, steel 7.6 to 7.8, lead 11.37, and 
Icad-peroxide only about 7),- 7 Be adidade 

Over-charging and over-discharging do not greatly 
harm the new automobile lead accumulator, if not 
made a usual practices" From cells of this descrip- 
tion, and of 48 amperes’ rating, I Mave taken from 
150 to 250 amperes, for periods varying from short 
intervals to two minutes, and have been unable to 
detect a decrease in their capacity, after careful res 
charging, eer, 

Iu statements thus far appearing it, is not made 
certain that the superoxide of nickel-iron combina- 
tion can stand currents of such abnormal strength. 
And, indeed, not without reason. The currents fur- 

nished cannot’ be so heavy as.those from the lead. |: 

peroxide-lead clement, since the resistance of the 
alkali-solution is greater than that of the sulphuric- 
acid solution, and the porosity of the active mass 

can scarcely equal that in the ordinary cell, Espe-| . 
cially are the positive electrodes of, the Edison ac- ' 

cumulator much too compact, : 
From what has thus far ppeared concerning the 
construction of the plates o 

tailed than in the old type. Edison himself indi- 

rectly assents to this, since he hopes, by improved |. 

methods of manufacture, only to be able to furnish 
electric energy at the same price as from the existing 
types. * 

» Kennelly’s figures as to the weights of solution 
required in the Jead accumulator are from. 10 per 
cent. to five per cent. too high. On the other hand, 
his estimates for the Edison cell are too small; 
since the iron in alkali solution is not inactive 
throughout, but, as soon as it js made the anode in 

discharge, enters into the solution to a considerable |: 


Experience must demonstrate whether the active|’ 

material in the briquets is always kept in good con- 
tact with the retaining walls, during charge and di 

(thug, far been—light enough : to’ be ‘con- 

[Stand Jar,’ shpek,-vibration, snd’ general}: 

terioratton, ees 

y the new. accumulator |... 
these Appear necessarily much more costly and de- |. °*' 

A lectentitic tent Jof.the sino 
attary of Mr, ‘THOMAS A; Epi 

J@ Practical solution-of, the Jnoat’ Ampor: 
fant. of the. unsolved problems’ of aléd= 
{trlelty, >The -fleld : of vusetulnes J 
storage battery is Wider’than that'o ca 
claimed:-for the horse; since in“ addltton.|- 
ito its service. in connection with. trana- 4 
Rortatton, {twill "have: tees, frinupiorable’ 
in the arts and‘ln domestic economy. To 
meet the requirements for uses tn which 
ite value will, be"'moat ‘ conspicuous, the 
storage battery muat be what it has not 
ventently Bortable, cheap’énough’ to com: 
Rete. with other mechanical ‘agencies ‘of 
Power generntion,‘and durable enough to 

(dieturbanée’ ‘without-rapid:and.coatly de. 
2 ie PTs 
0 batte ; con 
lead cell (of: Pranta,. in 
n this’ construction land 

tion’ of the’ Planté jbattery.. was 
sally very, needs 
ag ‘and’ surran- 
effactive! onergy,) welghing’ trom 
PISAG to" 180.5 | po nds per” horse’ ‘power 
hour. at terminals, Attempta :t0‘ilghten 
the, onstruction ited In: ‘. 

)The Ted TY Ja: said Wy on 
efficiency. ner: unit of ‘weight treat 7) ‘ 
nate, times. Breater’: than: thats of ‘any 
-‘v |istorage "battery hitherto ‘madé, “rts Ins! 
‘ttlally Inexpensive,. Will bear. a Ereat deat I 
‘Of rough usage without:Injury, ta charged 
fraptdly, ‘and.may be ‘discharged’ ‘at-any! 
"/rate desired, within. praotled) Hrrtta’ 
these claims’ are. vindicated ‘In ‘the 
duction | 
hewitt meat! «: 
the moat fastidious!: 

‘om, -will be available. The’ aten| ' 
of electric Ughting wit be extendéd bee! 
Yohd ‘the ‘mits ot ‘practicable wiring.) ° 
and the eléatr yacht’ will be: found ‘al 
vast {mprovemént upon one deriving tia! | 

Motive power: from fire‘ and fuel. "It may! ‘ 
* algo mean the easy solution, among other! 
‘J things, “of-.thé tunnel, roblem ‘tn. thita) 
city. Storage” battery: comotives, va.) 
indling any, train which enters|. ’ 
or leaves New, Yorkiyrare now:in success. 
tul_ use,’ but the, Edison battery wouta| 
‘seem to ‘pronil ¢.8 vant, increase’ in:the}’ | 
‘| eftictenoy of such’ traction engines, with 
ction -in’ their ‘cost,::-yve! 
: that. ‘the. contide: é ‘warranted | 
by, ‘experimental teats ‘will,’ be.’ estaba! 
dished in. practtcat' use, and that fn this}. 
Instance ithe | claim of. success" ‘has “not 
been too anticipatory, . Just sucha stor. 

any other device of a mechfnical ‘n ure 
whichis’ now engaging the-attention of 

an Be battery.ts perhaps more, needed: than 

fl 2 

‘ Lprihees q ce 7 2 “ Cee . 
“vs Bdlson Battery on Exhibitlon In Buffalo. 
: The Edison storage battery reached the Electricity! 

ae a ae: 

eee pe 

charged in the opposite direction without injuring charge. It is not at all evident that, the elasticity |,” rh 
MS ppanaelty, 1 of the steel walls is sufficient to retain the contact |". 

Ne positive plate may be removed from the elec- originally given by a very great pressure. The active 
trolyte and dried in the air without injury, although — inasses are combined only mechanically with their 
the negative plate will be oxidized by warming. Re- retainers, while inthe lead accumulator, especially 
Placed and again charged, the capacity is found un- in the positive electrode, at most an internal ex- 
affected, i i 

4 ad ansion, through chemical process, takes place. 
: With perfected methods and facilities for manu- P The Satement that finely divided nickel, obtained ‘ 
SHintlGe ae eee to be pile te place the ac- by chemical process, is not carried over into a super- : . : Saori “Ocheclinan tht: CO ate fe 
costiecan dearer th a a i iowatt-hour — oxide through ‘the oxygen of clectrolysis, contradicts a elf ppemine thek tact eae te, Cepebamenting : “a fife, 

Dry hydrat an tor the lead battery, my experience in other experiments. ‘The assertion |. : : “4 SNE di : Mon, and the fact that the 
ty hydrate or oxide of iron ought not to enter * that superoxide of nickel does not act as a depol- }:..: 4 # 

into an alkaline solution, Finely divided iron such ji i 0) ce wil e remark 
4 K a 4 arizer ly 
as i taine ; ; nN ti ; nel is clearly not in accordance ith th an an 


eee qullding of the Pan American Exposition on Satur-} 
fay morning, July zoth, it having been brought from} 
: (Orange, N. J% by Frederick Ott, one of the conf-! 
: dential ‘assistants of Mr. Edison. It was placed; . 
Ot exhibition in the Edison space in amplo time -to! 
yreccive the inspection of the jury of awards, which; | ue 
Light weight, ability to! 



d 2 > 

simplicity of ‘construc. |’, 
f attery can be over- 
ies nase charged, fully discharged, or reversed and charged | 
() for reasons in: the. opaoctte + rari gee ar ts 
‘ta iv ' ‘ AB i in another part of Kennelly’ 2 oe : : : in the opposite direction: : 
telifice ane Penne ager ag tee add accumulator is only an Oe ie a ie ‘ F probably different‘ ; | being short-circuited. withont ai ill ne 
nickel also is inactive in such solutions. “The wore Pree yaa nee, doubtful if one n bial an elec-| ok aks s : a y Just |: Salts to the Jury. Just what the life of the new 
oxide and peroxide are likewise inert. No nickel jfialy Hic eons nly. m ‘ Edison battery is is not known, but it is said that 
oxide is active, or can be made active through clec- ‘i ( Mr, Edison has had one’in use in his laboratory 
Helatic, action. The superoxide does not act as a ; ir over a year. without its showing any signs of 
ner, : P i a ; A terioration, Mr. Edi ived i i 
‘ . 4 f ugh the energetic reaction nae fede tion, > #Cison arrived in Buffalo on his 
beet mt ok, at the results which have thus far a still more stable combination with onseen occurs) \ Way to Chautauqua, Saturday night, July zoth, and 
heen made public a little more closely. b ; p 7 ony! ken it : pies a 
During a 35-hour discharge with a current density at again charged only bal 48 eu in an automobile to the grounds of the 
: Gel per Sduare decimeter, the Edison pearing concerning the'utility of the Edison accumu- pS oath tr pe : tio mild Wa eerie eee 
eran 3 felt aaa oN 3085 naa per kilo- [itor are silent. My own investigations, as well as : Fdison Storage Battery Company. . |i Later 4 nth cei ek Melt Bath 2 fer Chahine 
am of cell. “Now the mean ischarge volt- a ¢ ns, as i a ‘ : ee ° i a er in the evening he left Buffalo for Chautauqua, 
Beery yy volts: $0 that 28.5 ampere-hours are de. {lie Statements of Reed, made in the discussion upon de i Jt is said that a few prominent capitalists have but is expected to be a frequent visitor at the ext 
ccome interested, with Edison, in the Edison Stor- Position, which his lamp has aided in making so fa- 

livered, “The discharge current is thus 8 this subject, make it ‘appear very clear that the 
i I amperes. charging potential amounts to. fear! E 
Since from on ter of active surface rat rly two volts, or age Battery company, which is capitalized at $1,000,- mou: 

000, According to Wall strect report, President eee 

gators, and. has 
dof the 


ghi d. 
lon, insten 



lustry mii 

{ nearly double that of dischargé. On this account 
Necessary for this Tone lain ae then ae nine _ : Pee sae f the ch cetive: Watt 
Eau . i seh pee: ours can be cow upon, Sti i 

Square decimeters per kilogram of cell Weight. effectiveness be lowered “Gf the Toh nails Me with 

asad gem he Fagealblatt tlic Accumutatoren und Blementen- difficidlty reduced again, 

._ See Western Electrician of May 25 atid 

mn gecu: 

Schwab and Director Gary of the United States Steet 
sprperation, have $50,000 together; H. McK. Twom- 
duicec : ‘ : ly, $200,000, and Samucl Call: 

revolution in the methods of accumulator : amount. "Only about Sonban OE the stock hae" be 

ufacture is thus by no means so near issued to anyone outside of Mr. Edison and a few | 
2 pe is close friends, the $300,000 being given as 
onus to the Subscribers for 100,000 in bonds. 


the Ediso: 

he plate fs hastened and fnellltated by subjecting thef) 
vq We Edson Storage Battery Patonted In tho Staal ASHEIEG Satis Sue a 
4 : tly . reve: 5 current, and 
W, Luckhurst, Albany ML. Data s, Troy ate HH. United States. by several of these operations, the whale oe the auiphur 4 
ica; inneapolis, fo4 ‘ Wit be eliminated and. the etement will be ready, for; 
Ne coree SA one et Ste Louis, M On July rth the United States Patent one will Ue Cio [ron hag heen reduced to the motaille state 
HA. Alexander, New York, a granted to Thomas A. Edison a patent (No. 678- since iron does not decompose water, there will, ob- 
. A. Alexander, New York. : : “ ‘ile Galvanic Battery.” ‘This pat-  yfously be local action between it dnd the graphite, 
‘A group picture of the gentlemen attending the 722) on a “Reversible Galvanic Da y: pay, Mite oxtio Fo ated fromthe sulphide, increases In bull 
meeting is shown in the ilustration on page 50. ent relates to the new Edison storage battery which aud belng intermediately ‘mixed with thy | graphiteys 
‘3 p A Fi 1 duces Conalderable pressure on the walla of the Date, ¢ 
Charles L. Eidlitz of New York, the president of has created so much commotion in the clectrica! Arte prevents any “aliturbance of the Initial biuto.o 
the new national association, is seen in the MpPeT field, ‘The original application for this patent WS the nnus even when It Ie, aubjected to, airoug Fasslng 
ight- e pi si is hea - . ayia ¢ it wa within y charging the element clectric- 
a Tee he of the Blt a i edt of filed March 1, 1901 (serial No, 49453) but it Wie ally. ‘The object of ual the nonoxth whide Is to secure 
cea ee ee hind divided, and the application forming the basis of The'greatest amount of Iron oxide in tho smallest apace 
Rochester is seated in the bottom row, the thir 2 ya or (serial ound In a form capable of belng reduced to the metallic 
from the right. The photograph was taken at the the present patent was filed June 20, 19 ah State electrolytically, 
tntrance of the New York state building at the No. 65,284). ‘This patent is much like the English ey tea rte to ulna, ron ag tho oxidizable element } 
7 Ni i ‘ 3 tote a 7 C q i ye 
Pan-American Exposition, patent described in the Western Hieciiclia of duly ftustiated by tbe ‘mncte, | determined only? alee he ; ? : oy es Pn EE ie 8, ea i Sa ae . mn 
a e de: i is more exha' " . hausthye erhments, aried oxides of dron werafy, ae pad: é ’ Pat i ; it nm accoun 
: oth, but as the. dese a Sa evith Mayen hataraincliie fo any extent by the current: that spongy [; we : ; : have not been satisfactorily or ‘commercially uti ized 1 ‘ teal? 
Military Automobile for Wireless Teleg~ text of the United States patent 1s fron reduced by hydrogen from different fron salts wast; ; : os oa Beene : the difficulties arising from their application in alkaline electro ytes,'. 
y raph entire, OE Te Miydrdton” Of trou, ero ves yb ay ana e: ; ie . : : : as well as because of their expense, especially in regard to silver,’ 
chit; A bye Ver tH es i Bag A ae . D i 
4o alt whom It uny concern: 7 i ditieult of use without drying, which operition eftected “ L8 ee “ 3 : : fee A isadv. i uite soluble; 
et! eee tt tatu ae i ite pi in cttleen ne game obscure change therein t6 render thent nearly ner fey ; vey te bares pee goneenees the i oe Peper uf beng a a a. 
jthe States, , dowellyn Park, ot Ui. din the presenee of tho reducing currents 1 j : bey HES fe when su . oa 
fF county of bawex: and State of New Jersey, fare Jus surrie ‘odie wag not capahte of Ray Poe orntG redue oS een : : ara in the electrolyte | 
q y fd usered smprovement dn re bits ts fc element or com ound capable of be-!. 
iy aE eee te UM cage No, 4,v}, of whlch the tion by tha current, ani, finally, that ferrous oxtde, ae ? : age | great many experiments Jor an ip pple i 
(lattowing. avant canto . 4 ; » a ciate though ecaally reducible, was very aliteult to prepar 3 2 Pou : G2, “ “(ing used in an alkaline electrolyte, the heat I farmriee of eed 
My juvention relates to Improveronts bbb ia : se ee : : : : id should be as low or lower than that o oxid of mercury, and} 
or po-cuited “storage” batteries; aud uy object Is to i : F z / oxi 9 ; 
produce a rev y of great permanency " : < : poe it, )in this I have been successful, the result being’ the discovery of an; 
e y Aly! velght per unit of energy. , f " a i eras hei feat oc 
ar doy appliestisa Peet idea Havent, dited Oclauer 3, Gt : : : ee Brag . | element for furnishing the oxygen to the oxidizable element on dis | 
10 eT Ana A dlowcrilig aut improved ty Spopper _ Sees : ' : : : . d cae see : charge with even greater freedom than oxid of mercury, while at the 
tity employed ais the gleinenty fa a alkullne eluetroty te : Sa we be foe : se : Ps ee oo") same time the new element. is less expensive, 18 of less weight, is of 
: ye q peuret very purmnauel F : Hi . 4 . z oieaes seth : ry A acai a 
{ wt vee whereln ee titad and atl “tutes ot the i i 4 f Ws pean pre a . | greater permanency, and finally is of greater insolubility in the elec 
yte are the ’, i 9 y whlch Was i . i f ‘ ‘ Ae ye ‘ A 
viet of ee alist finally oe Mery [Ur i t ot ‘4 : on cane ; aa Shh . | trolyte, I have also sought by experiment for an clement superior |, 
pound of cell tail batteries coumurelully, used befers i é H P Soh eceust Wea ae age tes Dig kel J to cadmium as the oxidizable element on discharge, with the object}: 
tne hn (or aS designed Te turrher Hghten. the Xv dughie : i : os : Otay ae Sages Seta Ng MES o's | in view of further reducing the weight and cost of the cell, and I ; 
aor Sie Sar mare 2 a eeircult a * her : H ; ie : a : kG RAO a 8 BPs co. have discovered an element for the purpose possessing these desirable 
Ta the alkaline zincate t t batt oune: : Ryd : Tet Pee a bce ‘| characteristics, As a result a reversible galvanic cell equipped with 
Vy ia zincate type attery as cond 7 ‘ ‘ ’ 2 we ‘ ee x i a ° . + * 5 
wit sb IF I iow, copper oxide ins : i i . bs n reyes . i ‘ the new clements is of great permanence, js relatively light and inex-}' 
7} been used exclusively 98 tu yeemtuvnishing a i H i [ : , ; : a i a 4 ne pensive, and is of great power. . ‘oe 
| Pee , ees | phe elements are preferably carried or supported by hollow per-y 

ment when the battery ds dive! 
tate, ‘Lhe only other elements : H i i " ft Des : , 
4 j on at 8 ae nate Cagumince es 2" forated plates, forming receptacles or pockets, which are iustrated | 

St, Louis; F, E. Sherman, Bingham! on, N. 

cote remo: 

ray perme: 

reduced 10 thi ate, Lh he: 

wilel bh sted and would be avaiable 
Ase sUbstteUl In these -batterles have been 
those lower in the "| serles, ‘such OB lercury 
aud -allver; but xo. as 1 know thege metals have 
not been ‘satisfactorily . or coumerclally utilized ou 
aecount of the diculties urlslag from thelr appileation 
ih alkullne electrolytes, us well ‘as because of thelr 
expense, espeelnily In regard to silver, ¥ metil 
possesses the further disadvantage of being quite soluble 
in the electrolyte when subjected to oxlaation. Tb 
sought by a grent muy experlinents fur an 

compound able of Velng used ta an alka 

lyte, the heat of formution of -whoso oxide Bh 

tow or, er than that of oxlde of mercury, 

thls 1) been successful, the result belng the: dis- 
vovery of 4 ut for furnishing the oxygen to the 
oxldizable element on discharge with even greater 
freedom than oxide of mercury, while at the same thine 
the new element J less expensive, Is of less welght, 
sof greater permanency, and nally is of greater 


7ST 88" 



in the accompanying drawings, 


Insolubiiity in the clectrolyte, I have’ alyo sought by - ‘ oe RSE se, 
vaparlineut for us lement wunerias (a, enuiitans ie LE fe 7 aa B 
one! charge, Wi object fu view Cass Seeger ; Si iter 
of further reduelng the welght und cost of the cell, Se . The Edison torage a y 
and 1 have disvovered | an MMenient for the “purpose SS ; é — : : 
ie RA SMTA uit cle Lites | i the specications of an English pt 
. vane cello ‘d with ew ele. i , t ec : ey 
ments ly of great permanence, fx relatively Mghts and 8 “ ; In our hers of July 6 a ad a id we print below 
mexpenve, and ti of great power. dar apace | 8 ent relating to-the new Edison storage attery, an D ; 
: eleme "er carried or sup) * teonti i i 
ine ee ee Cra “Be in fll the sstfeaton of the corre ecfeatons ae ential 
i] UI “Whee ny ie accompinyhng rawlings, ‘i i i i 
forming part of this specltication, aud in Which ot 9 1 i] é which was issued July 16. hile t . al air full in detail, 
ign face view of one of the plates, having three pock 18 in greater part, the American patent is somewhat more sect 
showing the front wy ani, pioke ; NEW EDISON STORAGE BATTERY, ‘i and has an added interest from the references given to the subject 
Settee Le oe Sor Ree oetall seetons in Of (ie fettous obtdey an the Tat tastanees” within the "natter of ater aplieations now in the Patent Ofss rising (9 *5 
ail of, fie, above. stews: cor outing Darts ure repre- pockets or receptacies did away with ‘thie “objections «+ same type of battery. : 4, : 
Fach plate is formed with wo wwalis. (2) and (2) con- formed ne yertectly Me ncibe Uy. the ree are tend The patent contains 26 claims, in all of which the term a kala 
alructad referably, of a single continuous, sheet, nade, of forms he oat f in. this’ way by ‘oxtdtuing the aa galvanic battery” is applied to the invention. Onc of the more gen- 
hf J. yah . In an a ne" 7 Vl : q feast ‘ H i 
ot ji fel, In, thtekinesscand bent at Its Dottom around suits o€ tron, ike rerrous, cditoride, msy" ae inched 4 eral claims is as follows: “In a reversible galvanic battery * alkaline 
pital dros (team, whet extend the vertical Seth the gripiitg an wen, plnced fn an alkali + Gleetrolyte, a conducting support carrying finely divided ifon wite 
ye: a y 4 vhs and fer : * Sat ii 
Eee ete ee ae eee coencicg realty however are nor ta Boot ont of the tines, tbe ; charged, another conducting support comprising a receptacle having 
between the vertical thames G4). the walls ‘yea Mt or ron teoused ‘slnee the quantity. of When the aul bide v elastic walls,and an oxide of a specific magnetic metal other than iron 
ROGER Tenge erg Nr mm CN igh Oia Ak Ra “carve within nd reenact and one 
4 oa i . p . e ce . A y Y ishi 
oo tue in inte ,firefer 10 tse hlekel In thy eo. the solution to penetrate’ the innss 2 ee vartae mm i an electric pressure, said oxide being capable of furnishing oxygen 
by eleetrle, oxitation “in ‘au allatine solution. trou,” ot fron Aven wen nei: divided, an prodieed by electre: | 'E) Toe the oxidation of the iron on discharge.” In other claims the 
her hand, $s slightly oxldized under these condi. lytle i My dint fs ivi i i stituted i. 
tous ig » inde . lyUe reduction, does “not of Itself oxidiz ed oxide of iron are substitute 
nertectie pha Lig so eatrabte but Ie very, carefully nnd” of the fised alkalioy, and the oxide of fron is Hot tp. i words ferrous aries oe au ei ots the addition of the FIGS. 1, 2 AND 3-—DETAILS OF EDISON STORAGE BATTERY, , 
for the duatructon of etther Ay be used antleractorlt [reclatily walubtc. Com pacts, dense, or hon-porou iron— “a for finely divided iron, and in some claims with | f auahatly, te , ! 
. < ay i ¥ ro parte! he: : } fae dni i i § A rT 
Obelously tho, frames @ and a) tiny ig and a wong jected to. a powerful ely, ine, nan ticles when aul : words flake graphite intimately mixed therewit! imilar We ‘ forming part of this specification, and |. 
ar utlicr [nore tatoriat, taawhiel tao nertok hard m bye small quantity of a soluble ferrate of the alkall ani oR words oxide of nickel are substituted for specific magnetic nctal, in ; bes 
alice ot th Camlatueds’ Secured. to gue Ge beth ee ie ded’ tron binned as’ dewcriied when subjected sty 1 j Jaims also with the addition of the flake graphite clause. in which— ‘ ‘ 
Mocks, 6 ry ce "adjacent. Gf Insulated spacing  clectrolytic oxidation docs not form We le tenrate , aac ote - # Fig. 1 is a face vig of one of the plates, having three pockets oe 
blocks (G6) to prevent adjacent plates from touching hut Is converted Into the insoluble ferrous oxide, My ial ing the front wall partly broken away, Fie 3 
call ite gmanutneture of “my Yee. oxidizable clement aanane, Ondlzable element a therefore absolutely : In my application for letters patent, filed Oct. 31, 1900 an Na. receptacles, eee i : ee : a Yes plan showing two of 
in a reversible galvante ecll 1 first preferab); electrolyte. ont OF tho battary the ‘ i i ibl Ivanic cell w erein the a section on fhe it sina 7 i 
{ake imonosuiphide of tron and red yy electrolyte fs not changed at any stage of the worklug, 34 I describe an improved reversible go ‘ ‘ ‘ inati ig. 4an enlarged detail 
oreration “until the pactette feduce Moby - aly and. absolutely no, deterioration “of ‘the fron ‘element  # eal, cadmium and copper are employed as the elements in an the plates forming a single combination, and Fig. 4 al 4 | 

rough a sercen haying avout 40,000 opening: y : p 

ineh, and Th ane BS per BqULTE inving described the advantages and cl ( 7 "hich I secured a very perma- section. 

af the Howdered molasuipite witheab Darts, by welght, of and the preferred, manner of making. The ee iGteite f alkaline electrolyte, m nd by bod of wh f the electrolyte are In all of the above views corresponding parts arc represented by the 

Welgltt of Inika Weaiite: ta ate ead ee Eee es, lament, reference wilt now be made fo the preterred ; nent cell, one wherein the initial and final states of the clectroly’® 

flan the verforntfons in the walls of the pockets ene hid fcvo discovered by CO ccent pe tig cell, | 4 the same, and, finally, one which was capable of storing a greater same numerals of reference. 

: o ; i ; ‘ i? . 7 : Y 
‘ cr cle: uke graptlte being exccedlugly thin and of nickel and cobalt when in PoE ag Wer guntse ‘ amount of energy per pound of cell than batteries commercially used Each plate is formed with tw 
7 e of durability. My present in- ably, of a single continuous sheet, ade, p eg 

nickel—say, about .005 ofan inch in thickness—and bent at its bo! 
tom around a horizontal frame 3, from which extend the vertical 

‘o walls 1 and 2, constructed, prefer- 
made, preferably, of very thin sheet- 

wires.(8), : \ 4 : A 
of the Al, guteaded through the openings the'-products of the reaction, fiterlng off the Mould, “| copper in.these batteries 

of large area gives nn extensive conductlug surface } 
Proportion to its bulk vols! 1 ce In tu au alkaline solution can be alm é ‘ 
Inointened with a oo per ent solutlon of tolassle lpdrox:  fyllcolly ‘than ds possible. by ‘ele rol oxtdation. cfecina: | before that time for the same degre ure 
y an y a y chemles r x tht, A H i - 
We Siiae aetbereeearsieistta Merceemanamae | eben Gate ust’ Sulfa ie oc | -| vention is dvgned to futher Hate er the energy to the exter 
ool, Owhig to the wi ¢ ud Y ie e, and availing my: i - i to deliver the ¢ ry ‘ ‘ 
{Re misturs packs toa hard, Gorane meee theca: aah ot tte constructed Th oxpaeiratoring element. ‘car ,_- | Parison to the stored energy and to spacing-frames 4 4, to all of which frames the sheet is secured by | 
of electrolytic gassing therefore dovs not disintegrate perma rae gapaclty. Of Uant welght, and of eb 4 circuit at a higher rate. ; + i f nickel rivets, as shown, to form a strong rigid hollow plate, 
the, mua as a Whole when properly compressed, ‘Attar fa apmicelsily wolwble In an “alkaline electrolytes nd: {4 Ta the alkaline zineate type of battery as commercially used, so far means © el rivets as sree the vertical frames 4 4. The walls 
: je has been tightly packed with both nickel ee tm : 3 lusivel the with pockets or-receptacles betw 
1o'mass almost to ita top o wad of asticstos ab ekel and cobatt give nearly tho sama voltage z s I know, copper oxide has heretofore been used exclusively as ith Wi holes ar- 
He ging almost te er'(), in tse; tnt since nickel Is less expensl 3 1 COPD ie di ‘ : c, ag shown, are perforated with small ho 
i ihe Docket or reoptacle Above the aise introduced q| preter to. wee “proceed ‘ot malt “forthe thin Scab oxygen-furnishing element when the bis 7 Eames i i ee ded ‘together, and cach about .o15 of an inch in di- 
Ing Is placed n strip of sheet-nickel (7), en. cl i he the oxygen-storing : bei duced tothe metallic state. e only other elements +a : , . os 
chveriig. tie gabostos aed fillog th mh clement consists Sn first preelpltating elther the mon. F °. | per being reduced to. ‘ fer to use nickel in the construction of the plates, since |. 
‘ M ig the mouth of oxide or black hydrated dloxid ‘ ‘ i le as.substitutes for ameter. I prefer to us: é Ashe ; 
4 Made ich strip fa permanently ‘secured in posi- ‘ilo usual way, Washing the. presplinte, tree. trast 4 which. have been sugested oe ee in the electrolytic that metal is not oxidizable by electric oxidation in * ieee ae 
4 hown partlewlurl a He ‘ hand, is slightly oxidized under these condi: 
ment th i Yerees y nnd drying off the preci DY y . + n, on the other hand, 1s stig! e 
in at tus forined meitactedl fo clegtro- hydrated Olde Ie ie, Proopuate ee R ined By “series, such as mercury and silver; but so far as I know, these metals tion Tron, 1 meen 
a for use, Either oxide may Ne used with the same re. 7 mt TS, 2 ‘ : he : 


i dans de, 
Jeri be wet free and combinin ses sults, ‘Th ¥ 
The pr hoy : 4 
ppt hn sh thie gu alee Aes te eae Woe : 
i ‘ualon of the alkallue sulphide out fake iar aes tantimately” oner aga ‘nol mee 

re rere 

Ty 2 

arte rr wrrenry: arg 

ween ter teers 

Pe arene ene aire 


2nen treet epasece aes ee 

pei eta 

with 2 small quantity of a strong solution of potassle 
hyuroxide, so ag to “dampen the imasg, which ts then 
inserted fn the pockets or receptacles of the proper 
plates Jo sinal) quantities at a. tlme and thorougals 
tamped at each acecssion, Finally the mnss ts covered 
with a layer of asbestos, held in place hy a plate of 
nickel seewred In position by nlekel wires, as 1 have 
deserled in explaining the make-up of the oxidizable 
element, The plates, the pockets of which are thus 
supplied with the nilxture of the hydrated oxide and 
graphite, ure then iumersed In a solution of potassie 
hydroxide in water and subjected for a consilerble 
time to an oxldizing-current ‘of about 50 milliamperes 
per square Inch of surface, during which the oxide I 
clther raised to u higher stage of oxidation thin the 
black oxide (Ni, Os) or else acts ag an absorber of oxyyen 
In some manner unknown to me, Whatever the aeton 
may be, the oxide go treated ucts as a most eilleleut 
axygen-storing element for commerclat use In gil 
yunle buttery, 

She object of em Hoy ing graphite, which Is not af- 
fected by electrolytic oxidation, Is to offer a reat ex+ 
tent of surface against whieh the whole of the oxlite Is 
In contact, a large conductlng-surfuce belng necessary 
wince the electro tle reductlon and oxidatlon for pracy 
tleal purposes only extend a small distance from the 
conducting surface against which the oxide Js {no coutuct. 
‘This ts admirably eltected by the use of kraphite Tn los 
micaceous fori, the proportions Indleated being such 
us to practleally Ingure that the electrolytic action need 

F hot penctrate a greater distance from the contuct-surtice 
than the thickness of a single particle of the powdered 
oxtde. Burthermore, there ls no focal netlon between 

4 the nickel or cobalt oxides and the graphite, 

The renson why nickel hydrate is preferably ted 
Instead of other compounds of nickel Is that the met! 
Itself when finally divided (as obtained by reducing 
nickel compound by hydrogen or clectrolysls) 

.¥ oxidizable to any const erable extent when suber 

Ato electrolyte oxidation in an alkaline solution. The 
sulphide of nickel Is not decomposed by electrolvsls 

sy} under the conditions of battery work, and the sulphide 
of cobalt only Imperfectly. Mence the hydrates are 
the niost avallable compounds for use, since they do 
hot become Inert to the same extent as hydrates of the 
oxides of Iron after drying; they are easily’ prepared, and 
by absorbing the solution they’ swell withly the povketa 
or receptactes, 80 18 to Insure Intimate contact and 
stabiltty, During the charglag of the cell the absorption 
of oxygen by the oxide of nickel or cobalt causes the 
oxide to further awell and bulge the pockets or re- 
veptacles outwardly, and on dixcharge a DProportionare 
'g contraction takes place, In order that the walls of the 
pockets or receptacles may always mualntain the desbrable 
intiate contact with the active materitt, the pockets 

& are, as stated, made of some lighiy elistle metal, sich 

ag bard-rolied sheet-nickel, go that at each contraction of 

the tase the pocket-wally Will by thelr elasticity kee! 
gontict therewith, ns ctele elustletty pea 
dlaving constructed the two elements of the battery 

as above explained, they are preferably utilized to- 
gether In a solution of 25 ‘per cent, of potassle hydroxhte 
Ja water, and the ‘celi dy ready for use, and when 
charged the fron fs In the metallic form and the nickel 
ur cubaltt oxide {6 raked to the superperoxide BU 
Owlng to several obscure reactions which take pl: 
when the battery Is dlacharged, and also ton “oth 
oC Feslutance within the electrodes, the voltnge 18 
sarlable; but the average voltage over the whole dls 
charge is nbout one volt, rising as tig ux 132 volts, 
aud sometinies Uigher, wien freshly ehurged, . 
ty Improved battery ean be overcharged, fully dls. 
charged, or cyen reveraed and charged In the opposite 
3 ditecuion without any Injury. Overgassing does not dig: 
y turd the Initia? gtate of the’ inaterlals in the pockets, all 
a tae Ingredients are Insoluble, the supporting-plutes are 
unatiacked by wleetrolytle Oxidution, anu the whole 
operation ta independent of the strength of the solu 
{ Mon, so that the battery Ix ot great permanence, white 
a wena, ite, more chergy WUl be stored per unit 
ot ele folore sues Ke Dermaient practeal comblun- 
constructed a battery as above described 
Kc sun available etoruge capaelty of one 5 
hower-hour for 73 pounds Welgut; Dut Te unay Honeee 
ighter Without destroylug fis berpianent character, 
an fhe specitic magnetic inetals are Iron, nlekel and 
s an It. By the expression “oxlde-of a specie magnetle 
f; tat other then jron” ag employed In my clalma 1 mean 
vx ite Gf nickel, oxide of cobuit, or a combination ot 
mace ezideu, Ly the une of that expresulon it Is wy ware 
: titted Guyurace aud Include generically both of these 
at uy Hot claim herein the new de e 
i prising, au electrolytically aetive este a i Raa 
; beaten fo t rinmrtarn Drondty, such depolarizer 
3 by me, wherelu the electrolyte Tomas weaned 
atl tunes: and whereln Doth the “agtive niutenvais’ ais 
v dosoluble tu ull conditions of use, 1 ry dof elnlan be ln 
s fuel depotarizer, broudly, rt) "coubluntion neers 
P duuteriods, ip my present applies 
; Mon 2 eclatn the new 9. ¢ ole: sates 
£3 xidizable element per we 
‘4 In combination. wit ty alias, arse. 
j ia aR With the new depolarizer, Ciating, dest, 
b NeW Uepolirizer per ge; secondly, if : 
polarizer when used tn a battery ic he ew tye 1S 
emted by ime, and, dually, sch depolarier ft echt: 
i} . e Hully, on such depolarize: 
bination with’ any suitable’ oxidizable cement nee ots 
i) WM wy -appiteation for lett 8} tent ated ‘ay made 
a4 date herewith (Case No. 1,061) ‘ag eit Hott ot nye et 
¢ a vision of an; ye 
(et pileatlon Med March J, 91, Serial Now sq op ee 
ilig present case Ig also'a diVisi ving Onan ot ce 
Iyticully active oxide of cobitt.” fed nat Ob An cluctro- 
J, Wve ft used as om depolnarl 
rena 0! polarizer 
%, quude in my application dled March 1, IW, Sertat 
laving now described my Invention, w 
new, ‘ jt le What I clatin ag 
ion desire to secure by letters patent, (8 ag fol- 
+ An active oxtdizatle clement for 
fort nel UR crn tall od 
Hed thereby anda ee Ainely divided Iron care 
ing subitaieally "ab ant of belug oxidized on discharge 
Hn active oxldizable clement fo vi 
pinta battery, comprising a conducting support en i 
Riptide “any GRugeGtYE, mel dhs 
wapabio ee ates ron carried there): 
‘| set forth Ing oxidized on dlscharging, substantially 
M gctlve oxidizable element for a 
reve: + 
nie a aaa, aan aa 
eetroly tte: i 
uivide {ron carried {hereby capable of Betas 
an celine ack gana "natn 
. c zable clemen: aly 
et Sadan totem cote 
and capable of bein Th Cha reh ne guereh: 
tly, set forth ng veoxldized on charging, aubsine 
» An active deoxklizable ol 
pivonle battery, comprising a “conductors Hupp le 
iat nti cata Set Shag ate, and 
ber, tled thereby capa 
tues deoxidlzed on charging, substant! ally pare 

& An active deoxldizant 

Birante battery, comprleing a cae fOr ei pore wale 

Qaida, carried thor Culs, and, fuely Ufetde 

tiaretng, substantially ne ry forepens “eoxldized “on 
* coxtdizable cienient’ e 

pete, fatvante iatterys compelattyg a ca qnlkaline i 

por, an oxide of Iron carted” thorolve eect. 

ms - aN, . y 

a aes 


= ae 3 

Iytieally reducible to the metallle state upon charghiy, 

substantially us set forth, f reveralble 
‘An active deoxtdizablo element for a 

4 ting support anc 

rlalng ‘a conduc! Support _ 

galvanic battery, cot 
of iinkeésc inert conduct a 
Sete of Iron carried thereby «! etrolytleally res 

duelble to {te metallic state upon charging, substantlally 
ag set forth, Ibk 

9 An nective deoxtdlzable clement for a reversible 
galvanle battery, comprising a conducting support anil 
i mixture of Hake graphite and an oxide of fron ene 
rled thereby. clectrolytleally reduciite to the meta le 
state upon charging, sutbatantinlly aa i forth ination 

v" je baticl 

10, In a reversible galvan! 0 ana 

of an electrolyte which resnalns uncha 
conditions of working, and two clements thereln In- 
soluble jn stich clectralyte, the oxldizable element hay- 
Ing for Its active material electrolytically active, Mnely- 
divided fron, substantially ag set” forth. 

1. Ina reveralbte geivante battery, an alkaline elec: 
trotyte, a conducting support carrylng tinely divided fron 
when charged, and another conducting support carry lig 
an oxide of a speciile magnetic metal other than brow 
aut capable of furnishing oxygen for the oxidation of 
the fron on dlacharge, substantially as sect forth, 

12, Jna reveralble galvante battery, an alkaline electro. 
Iyte, a conducting support carrylng tinely divided oxlilg 
of fron when dlacharged, and another conducting sup 
port vying an oxide of a specitte magnetic meta 
other than Jron and capable, of storing oxygen oy 
charging, substantlally ag set forth, 

13, Inn reversible galvanic battery, an alkaline clectr 
Iyte, comtucting support earrylng tucly-divided tro, 
when charged, auother conducting support carrylog ry 
oxide of n specific amagnetic metal other than rom 
and capable of furnlaing oxygen for the oxidation o 
the Iron on discharge, aud an Inert conducting materia 
intlnately mixed. with sald oxide, substantially ap se! 

forth, : 
Ina reversible galvanic battery, an alkaline clectro: 
nu conducting support carrylng dnely divided troy 
w charged, another conductlig support carrying ay. 
oxide of n specie magnetic metal other than fron and 
capalie of furnishing oxygen for the oxidation of the 
iron on discharge, and flake graphite inthmately mixed 
wlth sald oxide, substantially as set forth, 
15. Jn a reveralble galyante battery,.an alkaline electro 
lyte, a conducting support carrying Mnely divided tron 
when charged, au inert conductlag material Intimately' 


mixed with sald Ouely divided iron, anoth 
er . 
HA eae er ata Pit 8} pecllie mut potty gta 
me of furnishing oxygen for the 
oxidation of the fron on discharge, i. 
oauiatly ‘ ound wu Inert con 
im seu forth Met With suid oxide, substantially 
] Ma reversible galvanic battery, an alk ¢ cle a 
yey a conducting support carrylig inely divided dey 
inely “aivided’ trou, Sanpenge MenGaEelY sxed wht, wad 
Ing an oxide of a spectile n netie ‘metal pther thee 
Iron capable of furnishin; Ryeeu for the osteo 
the fron on discharge rh reer ry eaphlts. Garena 
rata gzlde tuba is ue act ee tap hite mnixed with 
7. bveraibie galvanic buttery, an alk , e 
hs aneee and MMe ie ua aac 
oxlde of utcket capable of f shine ogtoun “airy ing 
oe of furnishing oxygen for’ the 
raldation of the Iron on discharge substautlally os set 

18, In a reversible Ralyanle  b; 
cre of oh RASH AGT ca tht 
ax i a another conduct 
ronpert carrylng an oxide of nlekel, substantially ae Bet 

19. Inn reversible 
fiectrolyte, 4 conduetin 

rou charged, another, cond! 
earrylng oxide of nickel hay ‘hen cl 
wi 1 having, when char, 
pelcally, more oxygen than NiO, substant! 

20, In in reversible 

se Balvanic by if 
figctrolste, a conducting support cara duety ahatiae 
ring’ hydrated “ont another conducting support car. 
ping le of nickel, substantially aa set 

2, In a reversible v4 
dn Balvanic by, . 
fiectroly yte, f conducting support nays duely anntne 
atte ts Mena another conductlng support carr: n 
bearers ite er capable of furnishing, oxygen for th 
duately anhe tren on dlacharge, and flako graphite t 
punt sald oxide, substantially ag « 

22. In 9 reversiule ; ate 
J salvante 
clectroly te, a conductin support canes dinel aka 
port carving ta oxlde of raga fete, conducting 
rnin Y , tlshy 
font mixed with sald oxide, substantinty J 
3. In a reversible 4 
electrolyte, a conductin, Folate engi 

«fron whon charred, another conducting 

uxido~or™ nickel bavi 

nore oxyRen than a is wien ing 

myged with gald oxtde, substanttaly 
} In a roversible galvanle, 


electrolyte, 2 conductin; 
fron when charged, ano 
a hydrated oxlde of nlcke} 
mixed with said oxide, 
25.-In a reversiblo 
electrolyte, a ‘conductin 
-prising a receptacle } 
of a specific magnetl 
within sald recep 
With an clastle p 
furnishing oxygen 
charge, substantial 
20. In a reversal 
aside ot Aron, when dlseh 
ort comprising are 
an oxida of ni Sinner 
carried within 
walla with an clastic 
oxygen on charging, su 
of uit speciiicatton sign 


support carrylug fine! 
ee conducting # fine 

AKO Ret 
“aubatantinily ag 

iS aupport car; 
another condued 
ving clastic wall 
ic metal other th. 

for the oxidat! 
"a8 Aet forth, 
Ne galyante “batt 
support ecarrylig fin 
another cond 
tle mistal “tien 
‘al other ti 
receptacle and: enga, ' 
resstire nud en) 
nstantinily ne 6 
ed and witness 

speclfic magne 

-. Aenrrine 


Ly atlvlde| 
support carry iu! 

Ing fnely divided 
& support con 

an alkalin 

tig nid 
han trop 
ged by the 
pable of storing 
8 i7th da, 



galvanic battery’ 

eral claims is as v 
electrolyte, a conducting sup 


issue of July 6 appeared th 
JW seindie ate ae Edison storage battery, 
in full the specification o 
which was issued July 16, 
in greater part, the American pa! 
and has an added interest from the 
matter of other applications now in 
same type of battery. 

The patent contains 26 claims, in | ; 
"is applied to the inventior 

follows: “Ina reversible ga 
port carrying finely 
+ t comprising a 

conducting suppor! i 
charged, another cherie 

elastic walls, and an oxide of a specific 

carried within said re J 

an electric orotate os 
oxidation of the 1! : 

Dornier oxide, or fincly divided o 

for finely divided iron, 

words flake graphite. int 

words oxide of nickel are substi 
some claims also with the addition o 

Edison Storage 


In my application for letters paterit, 
34,904, I describe an improved reversi 
metals, cadmium and copper are emp 
alkaline electrolyte, and by means of wi 
nent cell, one wherein ¢! 
the same, and, finally, 
amount of energy per pound of cell 
before that time for the same 
yention is designed to furt! 
parison to the stored energy an 
circuit at a higher rate. 

In the alkaline zincate type 
as I know, copper oxide has heretofore 
oxygen-furnishing element w! 
per heing reduced to .the mel 
which have been suggested and 
copper in. these batteries have bee! 
‘series, such as mercury and silvers bi 

ceptacle and engage 
ide being capable 
on discharge.” 
tide of iron are 
ms with the addition of the 
Similarly, the 
tie metal, in 

graphite clause, 

and in some claii ; 
imately mixed therewith. 
ubstituted for specific magne 
f the flake 

he specifications of an English pat- 

and we print below 

nited States patent, 
ns are identical 
e full in detail, 

f the corresponding U e 

While the two specificatio: 
tent is somewhat mor: t 
references given to the subject 
the Patent Office relating to the 

in all of which the term “reversible 
n. One of the more gen- 
Ivanic battery an alkaline 
divided iron when 
receptacle having 
tal other than iron 

) oxid should be as low or lower 

‘have not been satisfactori ly or commercially ut ized on nema 
the difficulties arising from their application in alkaline . e pt deel ie 
as well as because of their expense, especially in regard to ’ 
which metal possesses the further disad vantage ©: be 
in the electrolyte when subjected to oxidation. I have sone Learn 
great many experiments for an clement or camsbonrd ee 24 cel : 

i i Kkaline electrolyte, the heat of formation OF ' ! 
parent eae than that of oxid of mercury, and} . 

in this I have been successful, the result kel Boe jana gre 

ishi idizable element is- 

element for furnishing the oxygen to the oxidiza Hoa 

i eater freedom than oxid of mercury, wh t 
Se pensive, is of less weight, is of 

same time the new element. is less ex, : ess We i 
greater permanency, and finally is of greater insolubility in the pant 
trolyte. I have also sought by experiment for an bees seth ae 
to cadmium as the oxidizable element on discharge, with the obje 

in view of further reducing ¢! 
have discovered an clement for the pu 
characteristics, As a result a reversi 
the new elements is of great permanence, 
; ive, and i ‘eat power. : 
digas lice ae dor supported by hollow per- 

| The elements are preferably carrie : 0 
> lforated plates, forming receptacles or pockets, which are illustrated 

rpose possessing these desirable, ae 
ble galvanic cell equipped peal 
is relatively light and inex) 



03 Se 


“ES Se 




om me 


d by the walls thereof with 

filed Oct. 31, rie See 
i ic cell. wherein ; 2 oe 
Near ike elements in an the plates forming a single combination, 
ee ere nice iytenre seen al ding parts are represented by the 
1 states of the electr 

of storing a greater 
ies commercially used 
ability. My present in- 
eight of the cell in com~ 
he energy to the exterior 

fhe initial and final 
one which was capable 
| than’ batter: 

degree of du 
her lighten the w 
d to deliver t 

i i d, so far 
of battery as commercially used, 
been used exclusively as the 

Seige una ranged very closely together, and each ab 

The only other elements 

hen the batte: 
i 7 use construction | 
jtutes for ameter. I prefer to ty aan oxidation a 

tallic state. 
would be available as. substi of 
nm those lower in the electrolytic 

uit so far as I know, these metals 

Serial No. receptacles, showin 

of furnishing oxygen 
In other claims the 

U Oo & . 

ae t . ’ d 
‘Yn the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification, an 

in which— 
ig, ris a face vicyy of one of the 
erase g the front wall partly br 
Fig. 3 is a 

plates, having three pi 

a section on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1. 

In all of the above views correspon 

with two walls 1 and 2, 

D i d 
OT eel made, preferably, of very 

; a t 
bly, of a single continuous shee , ma p 
labeled) about 005 of an inch in thicknes ; 
tom around a horizontal frame 3, from whicl ‘cere ae 

spacing-frames 4 4, to all of which frames the sheet } 
i i to forma 

s of nickel rivets, as shown, . 

swith pockets or-receptacies between the vertical frames 4 4. 
1 and 2 of the plate, as shown, are perfor 

nickel in the construct 

that metal is not oxidiz 

i Tron, on the oth dized under these con 
tion. Iron, ed ‘wider tne 

hand, is slightly oxi 

jockets or 
oken away. Fig. 2 is 
plan showing two of 
and Fig. enlarged detail 

same numerals of reference. seaesea iden 
thin sheet- 
s—and bent at its bot- 
h extend the vertical 
d by 

strong rigid hollow plate, 
The walls 
rated with small holes ar- 
out ors of an inch in di- 
ton of the plates, since 
an alkaline solu- 

vantage cf being quite soluble, ee 

he weight and cost of the cell, and Ij. 


cee ee 




i. wd. 
renee ret 

peer meer hge 




tions and is not so desirable; but if very carefully and aariecty 
plated with nickel it may be used satisfactorily for the construction 0 
either the plates or the frames, Obviously the frames 3 ber 4 Hs 
be, and in some instances preferably are, constructed of hard rubber 
or other inert material, to which the perforated sheet is riveted, as 
explained. Secured to one or both of the sides of the plate are a 
number of insulated spacing blocks 5 § to prevent adjacent plates 
from touching when immersed in the electrolyte. - 

In the manufacture of my new oxidizable element for use in a ree 
yersible galvanic cell I first preferably take monosulfid of iron a 
reduce it by a crushing operation until the particles thereof may : 
passed through a screen having about 40,000 openings per square inch, 
and I intimately mix about cight parts, by weight, of the powdered 
monosulfid with about two parts, by weight, of flake graphite of a size 
considerably larger than the perforations in the walls of the pockets 
or receptacles, Flake graphite being exceedingly thin and of large 
area gives an extensive conducting-surface in proportion to its bulk 
and weight. This mixture is then moistened with a 20 per cent solu- 
tion of potassic hydroxid, and the dampened mass is packed ‘into the 
pockets or receptacles of the proper plates by a suitable tamping-tool, 
Owing to the want of flexibility of the graphite, the mixture packs to 
a hard porous mass. The effect of electrolytic gasing therefore docs 
not disintegrate the mass as a whole when properly compressed. After 
each pocket or receptacle has been tightly packed with the mass al- 
most to its top a wad of asbestos fiber 6, about a quarter of an inch 
in thickness, is introduced into the pocket or receptacle above the 
mass, and on top of this packing is placed a strip of sheet-nickel 7, 
entirely covering the asbestos and filling the mouth of the pocket, 
which strip is permanently secured in position by nickel wires 8, 
threaded through the openings near the top of the pocket, as shown 
particularly in Fig. 2. The element thus formed is subjected to 
electrolytic oxidization in a solution of potassic hydroxid, whereby 
sulphur will be set free and combining with the alkali forms a sulfid 
of potassium, which diffuses out of the mass, while the iron is con- 
verted to a ferrous oxid thereof, This diffusion of the alkaline sulfid 
out of the plate is hastened and facilitated by subjecting the contents 
of the plate to alternate oxidization and reduction by alternately re- 
versing the oxidizing current, and by several of these operations the 
whole of the sulphur will be eliminated and the element will be ready 
for use after the iron has been reduced to the metallic state. Since 
iron does not decompose water, there will obviously be no local ac- 
tion between it and the graphite. The oxid formed from the sulfid 
increases in bulk and being intermediately mixed with the graphite 
produces considerable pressure on the walls of the plate, which pre- 
vents any disturbance of the initial state of the mass even when it is 
subjected to strong gasing within the pores by overcharging the cle~ 
ment electrically, The object of using the monosulfid is to secure 
the greatest amount of iron oxid in the smallest space and in a form 
capable of being reduced to the metallic state electrolytically. 

My attempts to utilize iron as the oxidizable element in an alkaline 
reversible battery were for a long time frustrated’ by the facts, de- 
termined only after exhaustive experiments, that dried oxids or iron 
were not reducible to any extent by the current; that spongy iron re- 
duced by hydrogen from different iron‘salts was not oxidizable to 
any considerable extent by the current; that the hydrates of iron 
were very bulky and difficult of use without drying, which operation 
effected some obscure change therein to render them nearly inert in 
the presence of the reducing current; that butky ferric oxid was not 
capable of any considerable reduction by the current, and, finally, that 

ferrous oxid, though easily reducible, was very difficult to prepare on 
account of atmospheric oxidation. The formation of the ferrous oxid, 
in the first instance, within the pockets or receptacles did away with 
the objections due to the bulk of the hydrates, while the oxid thus 
formed in perfectly reducible by the current. Instead of forming the 
oxid in this way by oxidizing the monosulfid in an alkaline solution, 
it will be obvious that salts or iron, like ferrous chlorid, may be packed 
with the graphite and when placed in an alkaline solution form chlorid 
of the alkali and ferrous oxid of iron, the alkaline.chlorid diffusing 
out of the mass. The results, however, are not so good as when the 
sulfid of iron is used, since the quantity of finely divided iron pro- 
duced thereby is considerably less and is also less porous, offering, 

therefore, a reduced opportunity for the solution to penetrate the 

mass and lowering in consequence its current-conducting capacity, 
Metallic iron, even when finely divided, as produced by clectrolytic 
reduction, does not of itself oxidize in solutions of the fixed alkalies, 
and the oxid of iron is not appreciably soluble. Compact, dense or 
non-porous iron, i. ¢., iron having relatively large particles, when sub- 

j owerful electrolytic oxidation forms a small quantity of. 
cnr fartale of the alkali and dissolves in the electrolyte. , On aa 
other hand, finely divided iron obtained as described wien, subjecte 
to electrolytic oxidation docs not form a soluble ferrous oxid. My 
improved oxidizable element is therefore absolutely Tere so 
that in the operation of the battery. the electrolyte is not changed at 
any stage of the working, and absolutely no deterioration of the iron 
: kes place, ; i 

OTL aiediaiied the advantages and characteristics of and the pre- 
ferred manner of making the oxidizable element, reference will now 
be made to the preferred oxygen furnishing or storing clement of the 
cell, . : te : 
T have discovered by experiment that the lower oxids of nickel and 
cobalt when in contact with a conductor in an alkaline solution can 
be almost wholly raised from this lower to a higher stage of oxidation 
electrolytically than is possible by chemical means and that these 
higher oxids revert to a lower stage by reduction with extreme case, 
and availing myself of this fact I have constructed an oxygen-storing 
element capable of great capacity, of light weight, and of high perma- 
nence, Neither the oxid of nickel nor of cobalt is apprecifbly soluble 
in an alkaline electrolyte, and both nickel and cobalt give nearly the 
same voltage in use; but since nickel is less expensive than cobalt I 
prefer to use the former clement for the purpose. 

The preferred process of making the oxygen-storing element con- 
sists in first precipitating either the monoxid or black hydrated di- 
oxid of the metal—say nickel—in’ the usual way, washing the pre- 
cipitate free from the products of the reaction, filtering off the liquid, 
and drying off the precipitate, The resulting dried hydrated oxid 
is then powdered very fine and is ready for use. Either oxid may be 
used with the same results, The process above outlined applies to co- 
balt as well as to nickel. About seven parts, by weight, of the finely 
powdered hydrate and three parts, by weight, of flake graphite are 
then intimately mixed and moistened with a smail quantity of a strong 
solution of potassic hydroxid, so as to dampen the mass, which is then 
inserted in the pockets or receptacles of the proper plates in small 
quantities at a time and thoroughly tamped at each accession. Fin- 
ally the mass is covered with a layer of asbestos, held in place by a 
plate of nickel secured in position by nickel wires, as I have described 
in explaining the make-up of the oxidizable clement. The plates, the 
pockets of which are thus supplied with the mixture of the hydrated 
oxid and graphite, are then immersed in a solution of potassic hy- 
droxid in water and subjected for a considerable time to an oxidizing 
current of about 50 milliamperes per square inch of surface, during 
which the oxid is either raised to a higher stage of oxidation than the 
black oxid (Ni,Os) or else acts as an absorber of oxygen is some 
manner unknown to me. Whatever the action may be, the oxid so 
treated acts as a most efficient oxygen-storing clement for commercial 
use in a galvanic battery. : 

The object of employing graphite, which is not affected by clectro- 
lytic oxidation, is to offer a great extent of surface against which the 
whole of the oxid is in contact, a large conducting surface being 
necessary, since the electrolytic reduction and oxidation for practical 
purposes only extend a small distance from the conducting surface 
against which the oxid is in contact. This is admirably effected by 
the use of graphite in its micaceous form, the proportions indicated 
being such as to practically insure that the electrolytic action need not 
penetrate a greater distance from the contact surface than the thick- 
ness of a single particle of the powdered oxid. Furthermore, there 
is no local action between the nickel.or cobalt oxids and the graphite. 

The reason why nickel hydrate is:preferably uscd instead of other 
compounds of nickel is that the metal-itself when finally divided (as 
obtained by reducing a nickel compound by hydrogen or electrolysis) 

. is not oxidizable to any considerable extent when subjected to elec- 

trolytic oxidation in an alkaline solution, The sulfid of nickel is not 
decomposed by electrolysis under the conditions of battery work, and 
the sulfid of cobalt only imperfectly. Hence the hydrates are the 
most available compounds for -use, since they do not become inert 
to the same extent as hydrates of the oxids of iron after drying, they 
are easily prepared, and by absorbing the solution they swell within 
the pockets or receptacles, so as to insure intimate contact and sta- 
bility. During the charging of the cell the absorption of oxygen by 
the oxid of nickel or cobalt causes the oxid to further swell and bulge 
the pockets or receptacles outwardly, and on discharge a proportionate 
contraction takes place. In order that the walls of the pockets or 
receptacles may always maintain the desirable intimate contact with 
the active material, the pockets. are, as stated, made of some highly- 
elastic metal, such as hard-rolled sheet nickel, so that at each.con- 

'"; out of cells of the type mention 

; “perceptible quantities 

‘iby a chemical Process 

“A ally 

—Perers.—An illist a ] ee 

Ee Ba —An illustrated article he’ fir 

aes a review a Kennelly’s A, I, E, E paper, and then makes the 

sas ba critical reniarks, When. discharged in 314 hours with a, 

a = ue 299 eas per square decimeter, the Edison cell! 
vatt-hours per kilogram .of cell. is giv 

pere-hours, as the average volt fen reeae 

current is therefore 8,1 amperes, 
ampere per square decimeter it is th 
face of the electrodes is 9 square de 

toe prea hand he has obtained 260.04 watt-hours in 
ahh ischarge of an ordinary traction cell of 12.75 ki 
gram weight, i, c, 20.39 watt-hours i oh Weight Ocal 
n we . 5 ner kilogram of weigt 
(which is considerably more t} weed ic 
Han stated by Kennelly, who sai by 
d 0 aid thai 
| prea at lead battery gives 88 to 13.23 watt-hours ‘per illowrati). 
i aiekes peal of 334 hours the capacity is still greater. The ene 
tga Ee 0.4 pabriaed was obtained with a discharge current of 
sci a ties an ee surface of 48 square decimeter. 
ensity was therefore 1 am i ; 
% pere per square dec ; 
ee spits surface in Square decimeter per Gleam of ‘veiglt 
j oe abe ae in order to obtain 30.85 watt-hours, a i : 
fa clectrodes of 5.67 square decimete, silog " weight 
‘ fs required for the lead accumulator NS eee eis 
ane, cell, An. Edison nickel-iron cell must therefore be con- | 
Peon a than a fead accumulator, in order to give the same 
acne he ata In general, it will be necessary to increase the 
een “ S$ for traction batteries, as the atttomobile motor needs |” 
ee a ee the average discharge voltage of the Edison 
Rae 4 +1 volts against 1.95 volts in the ordinary lead accumu. 
eee } aces whether the large space required for the 
cas ae he Edison cell is easily available in automobiles, He 
aus aes vac weait is saved in the new Edison cell, and 
F at the specific gravity of nickel j 76 
Slate i ickel is 85 to 89, steel 7, 
Sianehine at ie oe a He says that elericie ane 
a aterially injure tl H 
oe o Jute the modern a 
‘lead-accumulator Provided they do not form the rule Hein wie 
. ed 250 to 130 i ad of 48 
Lee : 50 amperes in 
! eee 2 longer time, at small intervals ae about aa a oe 
not detect any decrease of the capacity. It ig doubted 
ei ¢ 

For a current density of 0,93 
erefore necessary that the sur} 

age of discharge js 1.1} the discharge. 

cimeter per kilogram of weight 

against 9 square demiceter for |.. 

whethe f A 
pecan i uae cell will be able to give out abnormall high 
« e the lead cell. Th istivi ; eae 
ae Ne resistivity of potassi g ide | 
e eae eee sulphuric acid and “the rie ern 
“} equal that of the ordi ily are 
cine i nary accumulator. Especially : 
ae ae poheetradis of the Edison accumulator vane Hae a i 
Bee ie wales of the plates in the Edison accumulator iz : 
eh sit oe hone ae complicated than in the Yead 
3 enne! rei “id | 
ae lead cell are said to be too ten ee Se ge ser 
other ha y wi fe a a Hee 
nae Ai be will be somewhat too smalt for the Biiso a a 
! at all inactive in alkaline solutions, but is dlaeiend ie 
k ved i 
‘He quent et as soon as it becomes anode during dischar, " 
SaNSU Monee of the active material in itself 
ithe ae stand out in heavy charges ai i 
ment that finely divided nickel which has Pie snle 
ained |, + 

cannot be changed into peroxide by electro-} - 

Onl ee agree with experiments which h 
er proofs are Stven, he doubts that electrically ee 
ve iron 

:¢an be obtained only from iron monosulphide, If this is th ’ 
at A 4 + ry 
nosulphid is the case, 
It would be very difficult to charge the Edison cell again after a dis. 
harge or after the drying of the negative pole electrodes in the air 
C ’ 

when iron oxides are forme 

age requi i i 
pe vi charging will soon be 2 volts. For that reason the; 
aad eee bts Poor, which, however, would not be of | ; 
ce for automobile batteri yolution { 

the atterics, “A revoluti . 
Stine cat battery nranufacture is therefore pot so near iy ia 
ibis tiene would wish in the interest of the automobile 

¢ direction in which Edison goes is perhaps the right 

one, But he has one astray—per Fr to ay 18} 
gone:ad fe 
; t haps in order ¢ ‘oid a collision . 

quite a number of disady. 
ed for,"— 

lytic Oxygen, does not 

d. He thinks it probable that the yolt-| 

‘Om competition 
American Expos 
because Mr, 
to the world and 
now secrets of ¢ 
the battery, 

The battery exh 
100 ampere-hours 

: plated, The insul 
0.64 inch thick, a 

inch thick, The 

each containing 24 

plate is of nickel 

fluid is not an 
simply as a conduc 
of the batteries, 60 
Power, cach plat 
W. HL Markgraf, 
ment of the Edison 

storage-battery line. 

"I nent position on a table, 

case. Manager Markgra 

Hie to explain alf its 
hat the people turn from the Ediso 

ple turn | Edison booth amazed! 

at the possibilities in store for this new Battery 

pace is one of the best located in the! 

3 and frequently its three open?! 
sides are surrounded by visitors listening to the ral i 

‘The Edison 5; 
Electricity building, 

of ‘the Phonographs w 

©, {Of the magnificent exh 
Thomas A Edison is sojourning 
but from time to time wi 

to enjoy its beauties, 

The Edison stora 

Edison is not yet qui 

width of the cell is five i 
0 ! ve inches, depth, 14 j = 
the height 12 inches from base to ‘decile te 

The cell is of stecl, ni 
‘olts. nickel- ; 
ation is perforated hard "rubber, : 

te complete is o.1 of an 

charging rate is 1.8 volts. 

the compound are 0.003 of an 
ble steel, perforated, and nick 

battery on exhibition has no 
element of th 

Pan-American Exposition 
battery exhibit: “In forw: 
battery now on exhibition 
Edison’s intention that th 
competitively against the 
terics, inasmuch as we a: 
time to show it working 
{able to send up some of 
48 to put them in practi 
their superiority 
tie athe Tt is still 
take such an exhibi . i 
closing of the eatin eeeAmete 

Hundreds of people « Edi 
ane ee me leestop at the Edison rite] 

ition, This is 

he laboratory. j 

ibited is of one-ci 
and weighs 5% pounds, 

as eight plates i 
pockets, qi snistaing 

inch deep and of cruci- 

el-plated. Th ive 
ae he negative 

alkaline solution. The 

tor, In the regular construction 
plates will constitute one horse- 

¢ weighing one pound. 

manager of the exhibit depart- 

The pockets containing ! 

positive of iron. The . 

Manufacturing company at the - 

has this to say of the 
arding the parts of the 
at Buffalo, it was not Mr. | 
@ same should be entered 
other type of storage bat- é 
Te not in position at this 
Practically, We hope to be | 
these batteries complete, so ' 
cal operation, and to show | 
thing of the kind now on ! 
the company’s intention to! 
efore the | 

his fatest invention in the 
The battery is given a promi- 

and is protected by a alass| 
f and his assistants are ever 
features, and it is evident | 

hile inspecting other features 
ibit. : ' 
at Chautatnqua, + 
{run up to the exposition | 


ge battery has been wi 
g withdrawn ! 
with other batteries at the Pans : 
understood to be | 

J ite prepared to give 
the jury of awards all of what are , 

nN connection with 

iehth horsepower, : 
The | 

¢ battery, it being used < - 


traction of the mass the pocket-walls will by their elasticity keep in 
contact therewith, 

Having constructed the two elements of the battery ‘as above ex- 
plained, they are preferably utilized together in a solution of 25 per 
cent of potassic hydroxid in water and the cell is ready for use, and 
when charged the iron is in the metallic form and the nickel or cobalt 
oxid is raised to the Superperoxid stage described, 

Owing to several obscure reactions which take place when the bat- 

-iery is discharged, and also to a change of resistance within the elec. 
trodes, the voltage is variable; but the average voltage over the whole 
discharge is about one volt, rising as high as 1.32 volts, and some- 
tines higher, when freshly charged. 

My improved battery can be overcharged, fully discharged, or even 
reversed and charged in the Opposite direction without any injury, 
Overgassing does not, disturb the initial state of the materials in the 
pockets, all the ingredients are insoluble, the supporting plates are 
lnattacked by electrolytic oxidation, and the whole operation is in- 
dependent of the strength of the solution, so that the battery is of 
Sreat permanence, while at the same time more energy will be stored 
per unit of weight than with any permanent practical combination 
heretofore suggested. 

T have constructed a battery as above described which gives an 
available storage capacity of one horse-power-hour for 73 lbs. weight ; 
but it may be made lighter without destroying its permanent character, 

The specific magnetic metals are iron, nickel and cobalt. By the 
expression “oxid of a specific magnetic metal other than iron” as 
employed in my claims I mean oxid of nickel, oxid of cobalt, or a 
combination of such oxids, By the use of that expression it is my 
Purpose to embrace and include Senerically both of these utilized 

T do not claim herein the new depolarizer ber se comprising an 
electrolytically-active oxid of nickel or cobalt, nor do I claim herein 
broadly such depolarizer when used in a battery of the improved type 
invented by me, wherein the electrolyte remains unchanged at all 
tims and wherein both the active materials are insoluble in alt condi- 
tions of use, nor do T claim herein such a depolarizer, broadly, in 
combination with any suitable oxidizable materials. In my present 
application I claim the new oxidizable element fer se and in com- 
bination with the new depolarizer, Claims, first, on the new de- 
polarizer per se; secondly, on such depolarizer when used in a battery 
of the new type invented by me, and, finally, on such depolarizer in 
combination with any suitable oxidizable element are made in my ap- 
plication for letters patent filed on even date herewith (Case No, 
1061) as a division of ny application filed March 1, 1901, Serial No, 
49-453, of which the Present case is also a division, Claims on an 
electrolytically active oxid of cobalt used as a depolarizer are made 
in my application filed March 1, 1901, Serial No, 49,452. 

The Alkaline Nickel-oxide Cell, 

By Prorrssor Atnert L. Marsi, 
LTHOUGH the books on Storage batteries do not mention any 
cell which uses an oxide of nickel in an alkaline solution as a 
depolarizer, it seems that the idea is Not new, Michalowski, 
in particular, has worked in this field, and now Edison has taken up 

the task and Promises a practical Storage battery, 

Some months before Edison's nickel-iron cell was announced and 
Without knowledge of the work of Michalowski, the weiter under. 
took to use an oxide of nickel for the positive plate in an alkatine 
cell, The idea of its use in this Way was suggested by a fact first 
observed by Fischer, that a brownish black deposit separates at the 
Positive pole when an alkaline solution of nickel tartrate is clectro- 
lyzed. The formula, NiO, 2H:0, was assigned to the Product as 
the result of chemical analysis, The oxide obtained in this way is 
a strongly negative substance, producing in alkaline solution an 
cm. f of about 1.65 volts with zine and 1.35 volts with cadmium, 
The « m. £, Produced varies slightly with the strength of current 
used in depositing the oxide Coating, 

Before Proceeding further it would der briefly the 
different oxides of nickel so th: i y be had of the 
relations of each, commonly used, There 
are three well-defined oxides of nickel known, 

1. Nickelous oxide or protoxide of la NiO) is a 
green powder, turning yellow Upon heating, It oxidizes to Ni, 0. 
‘pon being heated above 350 degs. C,; and is converted to NiO again 
upon raising the temperature above 600 degs, C, 

Goe 134 

2, Nickelic oxide or nickel sesquioxide (formula Ni,O,), some- 
times but wrongly called peroxide of nickel, is a black powder formed 
by decomposing some salt of nickel, as nickel nitrate Ni(NOs)s, or, 
nickel chiorate Ni(Cl0.)s, by heating to the lowest possible tempera-| 
ture which produces the decomposition. It is also formed by the ac-l 
tion of hypochlorites Upon nickclous oxide suspended in alkaline 

3. Nickelo-nickelic oxide (formula NiO.) is a gray metal-like 
non-magnetic solid. 

A sub-oxide of nickel (formula Ni:O) is said to exist; 

The peroxide, supposed by Edison to have the formula NiO,, and 

called by him superoxide of nickel, is formed by the action of elec Bo 

trolytic oxygen on’ nickelic oxide in an alkaline solution, 
thought to be formed by the action of hypochlorites on the hydrate! 
nickelic oxide, NiO;.3H:0. Wicke gives the coniposition as Ni,O;, 
and Bayley as NOs. When formed in the wet way a hydrate of the 
oxide results rather than the simple oxide, but in most cases it is 
necessary to consider only the simple oxide. : 

The nickelic oxide, Ni,Qs, Prepared in any way except electraly- 
tically, is inert; that is, it Produces no em. f. when opposed to zinc 
or cadmium in an alkaline solution, When, however, an electric 
current is sent through the-solution from the nickelic oxide plate to 
the cadmium, the couple becomes active. It is quite probable that the 
substance of the active nickelic oxide plate is a higher oxidation 
product, : 

The nickelic oxide Prepared electrolytically as described above is 
at the same time subjected to an oxidizing influence, so that very 
likely it, too, is a higher oxidation Product.. The fact that analyses 
of the latter gave Wernicke results Pointing to the formula NiO). 
2H0, is not remarkable, since the peroxide is very readily reduced, 
the reduction being. especially easy in the medium in which it is 
formed. The tartrate acts as a reducing agent, I find that the oxide 
layer, which is quite black while the current is passing, immediately 
Srows lighter in color when the circuit is broken, and the reduction 
Proceeds to the formation of some green oxide, NiO; but if thor- 
oughly washed while the current is passing, no considerable redttc- 
tion takes place and the product may stand ina solution of pure 
potassium hydroxide (or sodium hydroxide) an indefinite length 
of time without apparent change, 

The equation Tepresenting the discharge of the new Edison battery 
is assumed by E, F. Roeber to be 

N+ Fe= MOL RO 

It is’ more Prqbable that theoretical NiO, is reduced to NiO; 
rather than to NiO. Even at this, the theoretical weight efficiency 
of a nickel Peroxide plate is about 1.75 times that of a lead Peroxide 
plate with its required amount of sulphuric acid. Tf, however, the 
Peroxide has the formula Ni,O;, the theoretical weight efficiency 
would be less than that of a lead Peroxide plate, 

The decrease in weight of the new Edison cell is chiefly duc to the 
use of iron for the negative plate (theoretical weight efficiency about 
five times that of a lead plate with its necessary HySO,) and to the 
smaller amount of liquid required, 

A fully charged cell having zine for the negative plate may show 
an initial voltage of 1.9 Per cell, and substituting finely divided 
cadmium for the zine I have obtained a tittle more than 1.6 volts 
per cell at the beginning of discharge. Thee. m, f. in the case of the 
cadmium cell drops gradually to zero, and in order to Get 2 good re- 
turn in ampere hours a considerable Part of the current must be taken 

at less than 1 volt Per cell, 
Novel Chimney Sweeping, 

The Philadelphia Record notes the following instance of a well- 
known electrical phenomenon: Employes of the Vineland, N, Ju 

flint glass plant are marveling at-a Weird phenomenon, The fur. | 

nace was out of blast and the workmen had been set to work 
to clean the soot from the high stokestack, They were sit. 
ting about complaining of the job on account of the hot Weather, 
when a storm broke upon them, an clectric bolt entered the 
furnace door, Went down into the bowels of the furnace and then 
up the high stack and ont, When the he furnace to See 
how much damage ha 

amazement and delight, 

whatever, had completely. 

Soot in a pile at the bottom, 

; 78, lead 11.37, and lead peroxide 7 He says that overcharges ‘and |-, 

‘; contof cells of the type mentioned 250 to 150 aniperes instead of 48 

* gin the lead cell are said to be too high by 10 to 5 Per cent. “On the}. 

Perers,—An illustrated articl h he first 
gives a review of Kennelly's A, I, E. E, Paper, and then makes the? 
following critical remarks, When. discharged in 34% hours with af, 
current density of 0,93 ampere per square decimeter, the Edison cell! 

LI gives 30.85 watt-hours per kilogram of cell This gives 28.5 ame} 
‘{pere-hours, as the average voltage of discharge is 1,13.the discharge}: 
{current is therefore 8.1 amperes, For a current density of 0.93! 
Lampere per square decimeter it is therefore Necessary that the sur- 
face of the electrodes is 9 square decimeter per kilogram of weight 
of cell. On the other hand, he has obtained 260.04 watt-hours in 

j the 244 hours discharge of an ordinary traction cell of 12.75 kilo- 
gram weight, i, e., 20.39 watt-hours per kilogram of weight of cell 
(which is considerably more than stated by Kennelly, who said that 
{the modern lead battery gives 8,8 to 13.23 watt-hours per kilogram), 
‘| For a dischatge of 3!4 hours the capacity is still greater, The en 
ergy of 260.04 watt-hours was obtained with a discharge current of 
48 amperes, and with an electrode surface of 48 square decimeter, 
y was therefore 1 ampere per square decimeter ; 

ithe electrode surface in square decimeter per kilogram of weight 
f cell was 3.75. Hence in order to obtain 30.85 watt-hours, a sur- |* 
face of electrodes of 5.67 square decimeter per kilogram of weight 
nulator against 9 square demiceter for : 

. An. Edison nickel-iron cell must therefore be con- 

siderably larger than a lead accunuilator, in order to give the same oe. 

In general, it will be necessary to increase the 7 
number of cells for traction batteries, as the autoniobile motor needs | 
a certain voltage and the average discharge voltage of the Edison 

“cell is only 1.1 volts against 1.95 volts in the ordinary lead accumu- 
lator. It is questioned whether the large space required for these 
“reasons for the Edison cell is easily available in automobiles. He 
«doubts whether much weight is saved in the new Edison cell, and 
emarks that the specific gravity of nickel is 8.5 to &9, steel 7.6 to 

“yoverdischarges do not materially injure the modern automobile 
“lead-aecumulator Provided they do not form the rule. He has taken 

amperes for a longer time, at small intervals of about 2 minutes, 
He could not detect any decrease of the capacity. It is doubted | 
iwhether the nickel-iron cell will be able to give out abnormally high 
‘currents like the lead cell, The resistivity of Potassium hydroxide 
fis Sreater than that of sulphuric acid and “the Porosity of the mass 
Will seareely equal that of the ordinary accumulator, Especially are | 
“Uthe positive polectrades of the Edison accumulator much too com- i 
“Apact." ‘The formation of the plates in the Edison accumulator jg | 
said to be more expensive and more complicated than in the lead [.': 
‘cell. The values given by Kennelly for the weight of sulphuric acid | 

?.other hand, they will be Somewhat too small for the Edison cell, as |. 
‘ron is not at all inactive in alkaline solutions, but is dissolved in 
perceptible quantities as soon as it becomes anode during discharge,” 
:He questions whether the cohesion of the active material in itself 
wand with its support will stand out in heavy charges and discharges, 
iThe statement that finely divided nickel which has been obtained . 
‘by a chemical Process cannot be changed into petoxide by electro. 
lytic Oxygen, does not Agree with experiments which he has made, 
are given, he doubts that electrically active iron} | 

‘ ly from iron monosulphide, If this is the case, | 
iit would be very dificult to charge the Edison cell again after a dis. 
jcharge or after the drying of the negative Pole electrodes in the air, | 


eer I. 
when iron oxides are formed. He thinks it probable that the volte | 
age required for charging will soon be 2 volts, For that reason the | 
efiiciency would be very poor, which, however, would not be of}. 

very great im 

one would wish 1 
industry, The direction in which Edison goes is perhaps the right : 
one, But he has gone astray—perhaps in order to avoid a collision 

with other inventions—and on these incorrect paths he has found|*. ~ 

quite a number of disadvantages instead of the advantages origin-| 
ally” hoped for."—Centralblatt : 

The Edison storage battery has been withdrawn | 
‘Om competition with other batteries at the Pan. | 
American Exposition. This is understood to be | 
because Mr. Edison is not yet quite prepared to give | 
to the world and the jury of awards all of what are! 
NOW secrets of the laboratory in connection with 
the battery, i 
The battery exhibited is of one-cighth horsepower, 
1OO ampere-hours and weighs 5% pounds. The j 
width of the cell js five inches, depth, 114 inches, and 
the height 12 inches from base to terminals, The 
charging rate is 1.8 volts. The cell is of steel, nickel. : 
plated, The insulation is perforated hard tubber, | 
0.64 inch thick, and the Plate complete is 0.1 of an? 
inch thick. The battery. has cight plates or grids, { 

24 pockets, 

The ! 
Auid is net an element of the battery, it being used : - 
simply ag a conductor. In the regular construction 
of the batteries, 60 plates will constitute one horse. | 

{ Power, each plate weighing one pound, 

W. OH. Markgraf, Manager of the exhibit depart- ‘ 
ment of the Edison Manufacturing company at the 
Pan-American Exposition, has this to say of the . 
battery exhibit: “In forwarding the parts of the 
battery now on exhibition at Buffalo, it was not Mr. 
Edison's intention that the same should be entered : 
competitively against the other type of storage bat- . 
teries, inasmuch as we are not in position at this : 
time to show it working Practically. We hope to be ; 
able to send up some of these batteries complete, so ; ° 
as to put them in practical Operation, and to show | 
their superiority over anything of the kind now on | 
the market. It is stilt the company's intention to | 

He . ! 
| make such an exhibit at the Pan-American before the i 

closing of the exposition i 
Hundreds of People «stop at the Edison booth 
cach day to look at this latest invention in the 
storage-battery line. The battery is given a promi- 
nent position on a table, and is protected by a glass | 
case, Manager Markgraf and his assistants are ever! ,. 
ready to explain all its features, and it is evident 
that the people turn from the Edison booth amazed | 
at the possibilities in store for this new battery, | 
The Edison space is one of the best located in the | : 
Electricity building, and frequently its three open ! 

.| sides are surrounded by visitors listening to the muste | 

of the phonographs while inspecting other features | * 
of the magnificent exhibit. : 5 H 
Thomas A. Edison is sojourning at Chautauqua, 5 

‘| but from time to time will run up to the exposition j 
{to enjoy its beauties, Pd steals yt ge eg 

“nal remarks that it is wrong to stippose that in’ other ac-: 

: | described by Edison, Generally, mixtures are formed, the percent! | 

i Anis mi 

Edison Storage Battery—Lucas.—An article i in which | he says 
there scems to be no reason why the reoxidation in the Edison cell 
‘should enter more deeply into the positive active mass than hereto- 
_ fore, and why this process should be improved by the addition of 
‘graphite. Apparently the special processes of preparing the active 

masses are new, He thinks the third and fifth claims of the British 
‘patent could not be upheld in a legal suit, The arrangement of the| 

_ blocks of active mass is said to have been applied in Edison's own, 
modification of the Chaperon-Lalande cell. The use of nickel is in; 
_ general not new, either. The remark that iron does not decompose} 
* the water, he says, is wrong. The iron, he claims, must react with; 

‘the alkali, otherwise the cell could be inactive—Asntomotor and 
'‘Horseless Vel, Jour, Vol. 3, p. 493; abstracted in Centralblatt f. 
eeu, Aug. 1 
| Regarding the first criticism referred to above the latter jour- 
> cumulators with peroxide of nickel, the charging action is only 
“superficial, Regarding the Edison patent, it is said: “We do not be- 
¢ that a German patent will be granted. For, first, the com- 
ation peroxide of nickel, alkali and iron is not new; second, there 
‘are no details of construction which could be patented; third, the; 
| Process of making the active masses cannot be patented, as the pro- 
esses for this purpose have long been known, also in connection with: 

he original raw material, and these cannot be construed to he the 




special “technical effect,” for without doubt, at least just as good 
effects can be obtained by other ways.” Reference is made to the| 
itemark in the Exectrica, Wort ano Enotneer, p. 181, in which; 
was pointed out that the Edison cell differs from the Michalowski : 
‘cell, because zine dissolves in alkali, and because the positive mass | 
‘is Nis Os with Michalowski and NiO; with Edi 
| finely divided iron is easily soluble in alkali, an’ 
! NiO; cannot be obtained, or, at least, not with certainty, by the 

age of oxygen of which is nearer to the oxide Ni:O; than to NiO: | 
i Referring to an editorial in the Exgcratcan Wortp ano ENGINEER, 
{ July 6, in which the hope had been expressed that a chemically re- 
“generative cell of this type would be reached, the charging being 
reffected by some purely thermo-chemical process, and that a method 
_{might thus be obtained of obtaining electrical energy from coal, the 

{following remark is made: “From this it would appear that the |: 

Newspaper report printed some time ago and then denied, that Edison 
jcould obtain electricity from carbon, proves to be true, at least in 
that of his friends,"—Centralblatt f. elecum, Aug. 1. 

ve ‘ 4 

_fispensable conditions which must be fulfilled to make “the ‘oxide 

- Daten ene ee ee 
 Bdison Battery —Jumau.—An illustrated article in which fie first 
gives abstracts from Edison’s patent specification and from Ken- 
nelly’s paper. While Kennelly gives the capacity of the new Edison 
cell as 30.85 watt-hours per kilogram of total cell, the present author. 
uses the discharge curves given by Kennelly for two different dis- 
charge rates, in order to calculate the Watt-hours per kilogram 
which the cell gives out until the voltage has dropped to 1 volt. He 
~Tfinds from these diagrams that for the 4 hours 55 minutes discharge 
_ {the capacity in watt-hours per kilogram is 27.61, while for the 3 
‘}hours 10 minutes discharge it is 28.72. This is an anomaly, and there 
seems to be something wrong somewhere, as it is not likely that for 
a faster discharge the capacity is greater than for a slower one. 


He then gives for comparison the corresponding values of the i 
lightest commercial French batteries, the’ Fulmen, B. G. S., Heinz, 

and Societe pour le Travail Elec, (affiliated with the Elec, Sgor, Batt, 
Co, of this country). The latter battery has the highest capacity in 
watt-hours per kilogram of cell, namely, 27.49 for a 5-hour dis- 
charge and 23.23 for a 3-hour discharge, “When comparing the cor- 
responding values of the capacity in watt-hours per kilogram of 
weight, one may be astonished not to find a greater difference. In- 

and 4.46 gt. of peroxide of lead, hence, on the whole, 8.32 gram of 
active material, while in the Edison cell it requires only 1.045 gram 
' of iron and 1.685 gram of hyperoxide of nickel (the formation of 
his compound being assumed), hence on the whole, only 2.73 grams 
of active material. If one takes into account the ratio of the active 
mass to the total weight of plate, which value, according to the 
description, must be approximately equal to the same ratio in a light 
lead cell, and if one also remembers that the coefficient of the acces- 
sories (the ratio between the weight of cell and the weight of the 
plates) must be smaller-for the Edison cell, on account of the small 
- quantity of electrolyte required, one may conclude that in the latter 

hetween the capacity obtained and that calculated theoretically from 
the mass of active material) must be smaller than the same value in 

deed, in the lead cell, one ampere-hour requires. 3.86 gram of lead |’ 

case the coefficient of utilization of the active material (the ratio |: 

the light lead cell. It is known that the coefficient of utilization of ac- 
tive material of the lead cell is different for the various methods of 
making this material, for different thicknesses of the layer of active 

that the Edison cell is subjected to the same rules, If one believes 
the inventor, however, one must give up the hope of an improvement 
in this direction, as he claims to have invented the only possible 
method of making the active material.” Concerning the durability 
of the new accumulator, it is said it would be interesting to know 
whether the capacity remains the same during the whole life and 
whether there occurs a swelling of material at one pole and a con? 
traction at the other, He refers to the use by Michalowski of Ni: Os 
for accumulator plates, while Edison says that the formula of the 
oxide used by him is NiO. “To sum up, the interest of the Edison 
cell does not lie in the discovery of a new couple, but in the discovery 
of a special process of preparing material which heretofore could 
not be rendered sufficiently active. This is certainly a very impor- 
tant solution, and one not without difficulties, as one may judge from 
the considerable number of experiments which had to be made, a 
for the iron alone, the number of the compounds tried was several 
hundreds, A way has been opened to experimenters and an indica+ 
tion has been given that one should not despair of finding a mean: 

of rendering substances active which can enter into the construction 
of new accumulators.” The invariability of the electrolyte is sai 

to be a favorable condition, but not a new one, as the Jungner cell 
has the same property, The most important property of the Edisoy 
cell is the insolubility of the active substances at the end of the dis: 
charge as well as-at the end of the charge, which is one of the int 

cells really industri 1, 

Theory of the Edison Nickel-Iron Cell. _ 

To the Editors of Elcetrical World and Engineer: 
Sirs—I have read with great interest the full account of the dis- 
i cussion which followed Dr, A. E, Kennelly’s Institute paper on the 
new Edison iron-nickel cell, as published in the recently issued Nos. 
'G6and.7 of the A. IE. &. Transactions, I should like to make, with 
| your permission, a few remarks on the electro-chemical theory of 
i this cell, and more especially on some points about which there seems 
ito be no general agreement, ° 
Any one who undertakes at present to develop a theory of the 
Edison cell, must, of course, rely upon the correctness of the princi- 
pal claims made by the inventor that the electrolyte is not changed 
and that the total result of a charge and of a discharge is that oxygen 

material, and for different current densities, and there is no doubt], | 

disappears at one electrode and that the same quantity appears at 
the other electrode, Dr. Kennelly’s statement that the cell is an 
“oxygen-lift,” seems therefore quite a happy characterization of the 
general resulting action in the cell, On the other hand, several 
speakers in the discussion, and more especially Mr, C. O, Mailloux, 
have rightly pointed out that it would be of interest to sketch the ionic 
mechanism by which the transfer of oxygen is brought about, Dr. 
Kennelly says about this oxygen transfer: “Now, the action, of 
course, by which this transfer takes place is much more complicated, 
and I have not attempted to carry it out; in fact, I do not know it. 
Unless we all kiiow accurately what the compound was and just ex- 
actly what the salt of nickel was—it is only assumed to be nickel 
peroxide—we could not attempt to map exactly the actions that oc- 
cur.” Edo not think that the latter argument can be sustained; in 
fact, there is no reason whatever to defer a discussion of the mechan- 
ism of ionic migration in the electrolyte on account of our ignor- 
ance of the exact chemical constitution of the electrodes. When we 
know what the electrolyte is and when we also know that the only 
change in the electrodes is that the one is oxidized and the other 
gives off oxygen, we possess all the Uata required to sketch the 
mechanism of ionic migration in the electrolyte. 

Indced, we are able to form an idea of what takes place in the 
electrolyte, from several points of view. For instance, from the old- 
fashioned one which lays the whole stress upon the water and as- 
sumes that it is the water which is decomposed in an aqueous solu- 
tion, with the result that hydrogen is sct free at the cathode and 
oxygen at the anode. If we could assume this to be the case in: the 
Edison cell, we would, dtring discharge, get the following reactions 
of the hydrogen and oxygen ions with the nickel peroxide and iron 

_clectrodes, respectively: 

NiO:-+ Th = NiO -+ 1,0 

The nickel hypcroxide is: reduced, the iron is oxidized. Further- 
more, the equations show that when one H: jon an one O ion 
are set free at the electrodes—which represents the disappearance of 
one H.O molecule in the electrolyte—another H:0 molecule is 
formed at the nickel plate, so that the constitution, the quantity and 
the concentration of the electrolyte are not changed. 

This view leads therefore to a general explanation of the claims 
regarding the resulting action in the Edison cell. But it is, as I said 
before, based upon somewhat old-fashioned assumptions, Since the 
so-called electrolytic dissociation theory has come into fashion, we 
take a view nearly opposite to that just sketched, and assume that 
the water is inactive and that ina KOH solution, as in the Edison 
cell, it is the positive IX ions and the negative OH ions which, 
traveling with certain speeds, accomplish the transportation of clec- 
tricity through the electrolyte. A theory of the electro-chemical 
action of the Edison cell, based upon the views of the dissociation 
theory, was given by me in this journal in its issue of June 29, 1901. 
I have shown there that the general resulting action in the Edison 
cell can well be explained in this way, and I have also drawn conclu- 
sions there as to local concentration changes at the clecrodes which 
will enable an examination of this theory to be made by experiment. 

What I want to emphasize here is that the conclusions drawn in my 
former article are in no way dependent’ upon the chemical constitu- 
tion of the electrodes. The lifting of one atom of oxygen through a 
given KOH solution from one electrode to the other must be brought 
about by a certain mechanism of ionic migration, and this mechanism 
cannot depend upon the constitution of the electrodes, This mechan- 
ism must be the same in the Jungner silver-copper cell as in the Edi- 
son nickel-iron cell, It must be the same whether the chemical con- 
stitution of the nickel electrode at the start of discharge of the Edi- 
son cell is NiO: or Ni: Os, or something else—if only the resulting 
action is the disappearance of one, atom of O at this plate. It must 
be the same whether NiO, is reduced to Ni O—as I had assumed, in 
order to write the equations in a convenient “and easy way—or 2 NiO, 
to Ni: OQr—which Professor A. L, Marsh considers to be more prob- 
able (EvectricaL Wortp anp Enateer, July 27). As I have said 
in my former article, the conclusions drawn there regarding the pro- 
cesses in the electrolyte, are independent of the nature of the clec- 
trodes—always supposing, of course, that the only change in the 
electrodes is the transportation of oxygen from the onc to the other. 

White the mechanism of the ionic migration and the phenomena 
immediately resulting therefrom, such as local concentration changes 
at both electrodes, do not depend upon the chemical nature of the 
electrodes, the latter is of importance for the ¢. m. f. of the cell, 

For, if we neglect the small correction term, due to the coefficient of 
the e, m. f. of the cell, we can calenlate the ¢, m, f. from the heat- 
toning of the resulting chemical action by means of Thomson's rule. 
Thus, if we assume that the resulting chemical reaction in the Edison 
cell is 

NiO,-+ Fe=NiO+FeO, 

the em. f, of the cell corresponds to the difference of the formation * 

heat of Fe 0 (from Fe and O) and the formation heat of NiO: 

(from NiO and O). If, however, the chemical reaction is 
2NiO.-+ Fe= Ni: Os-+- FeO, 

the em. f. corresponds to the difference of the formation heat of 

FeO (from Fe and Q), and the formation heat of 2NiOs; (from 

NizOs and O), Should, however, the nickel compound at the 

beginning of the discharge not be NiO. at all, but perhaps 

+ Ni: Os, and the resulting chemical reaction 

Ni, O:-+- Fe=2NiO-+ FeO, 
the cm. f. corresponds to the difference of the formation heat of 
FeO (from Fe and O) and the formation heat of Ni:Os (from 
2NiO and O), 

Only for the third of these three cases are the numerical thermo- 
chemical data available, The formation heat of Fe O corresponds 
to 1.47 volts. According to Michalowski, the combination of 2 NiO 
and O to Ni; Os is an endothermic reaction, corresponding to —o.04 
volt, The e. m. f. of the nickel-iron cell would therefore be i.47 
—(—0.04) = 1.47 -- 0.04= 1.51 volts. The initial voltage of dis- 
charge of the new Edison cell after recent charge is given by Dr. 
A, E, Kennelly as 1.5 volts, The question which of the above re- 
actions—or, perhaps, still another=-takes place in the Edison cell, is 
also of importance for calculating the weight of active nickel com- 

_ pound required for a given number of ampere-hours, as has been 

pointed cut by Professor Marsh, 

I should like to take this opportunity to make a few belated re- 
marks on the editorial in your issue of July 6 in which you have 
been good enough to discuss my article in the preceding issue, You 
say that “Superficial concentration changes would necessarily occur 
by the electro-chemical combinations formed, even if the ions did not 
move past one another.” This is exactly correct so far as it goes, 
but it is insufficient for the complete calculation, as will be seen at a 
glance, when one considers the two equations which I have given for 
the reactions at the two electrodes: 

NiO, -+-2K+H,0O=Ni0+2KOH 

These equations show that there disappear from the electrolyte 2 K 
ions and 20H ions which represents the disappearance of 2 KOH 
molecules from the electrolyte; further, on account of the chemical 
combinations formed at the electrodes, there disappears at the nickel 
plate one H:O molecule, and there are formed 2 KOH molecules at 
the nickel plate and one HzO molecule at the iron plate. We know 
exactly. where the Jatter changes take place—those which are due to 
the chemical combinations formed at the electrodes,” But from the 
above equations, we cannot say the exact locality where the two 
KOH molecules disappear in the electrolyte which furnish the two K 
ions and the two OH ions set free at the electrodes, To complete 

the calculation, one must have recourse to the experimentally de- 

termined “transport numbers,” as I have done in my former article. 

In another part of the editorial you say that “while variations of 
concentration tend to occur at the electrode surfaces during charge 
and discharge, yet owing to the thinness of the solution layer these 
variations’ can readily cancel and annul cach other by diffusion,” 
This statement in this form scems to me misleading. “Surface” of an 
electrode, in the electra-chemical sense, is not only the outside visible 
surface, but includes also any part of the electrode at which clectro- 
chemical action takes place. The outside visible surfaces of two op- 
posite electrodes are very near together in the Edison cell, In the 
beginning of the discharge the molecules of the iron and nickel com- 
pounds in these outer layers will be oxidized and reduced and con- 
centration ‘changes tending to develop there may easily annul another. 
But when the discharge goes on, the outer layers of the active masses 
will have been oxidized and reduced, respectively, and the seat of 
clectro-chemical action (the “surface” of the electrodes in the clec- 
tro-chemical sense) will be transferred into the inner purts of the 
porous active masses. Concentration changes will then develop in 
the electrolyte in the pores of the active masses, and these concen- 
tration changes cannot so easily cancel cach other. 

Although, for the reasons given in my former article, T believe 
that diffusion acts quicker in the new Edison cell than in the lead 




- high-speed commutating machines, 

accumulator, yet local 
able in the Edison cell, especially’ with quick discharges or charges, 

can annul one another, the electrolyte must Pass through the outer 
Pores of the active masses which act somewhat like a diaphragm. It 
is a well-known experimental fact that when a lead accumulator has 
¢ been charged and is allowed to rest on open circuit, the concentra- 
tion of the electrolyte between the plates increases for quite a while. 

Commutating Dynamo Machinery—Honart.—An abstract of his 
Glasgow Internat. Eng. Congress paper on “Modern commutating 
dynamo machinery, with special reference to the commutation limits.” 
One persistent error has bee the assumption that the kilowatt out- 
put should be given predominating consideration in laying down the 
lines of the design, and that the required voltage and amperage are 
of altogether minor importance. Machines of different voltages, but 
for the same kilowatt output have, however, one set of features in 
common, namely, the mechanical design in general. He describes a 
group of machines designed with due regard not only to these feat- 
ures of mechanical similarity, but also to the points where the de- 
signs should diverge in order to suitably comply with the require- 
ments of different voltages and current ratings. In these machines 
the base, stands, bearings and shaft are the same for all voltages, but 
while in the low voltage design the electromagnetic part of the ma- 
chine is extremely narrow and the commutator wide, the high volt- 
age machine has precisely the opposite characteristics, Since, how- 
ever, the diameter of commutator, armature, field bore and magnetic 
yoke, are the same for all voltages, it is quite practicable to use to a 
Great extent the same drawings and patterns for all voltages, the 
patterns being extended or not, according as castings for machines 
of the one or the’ other voltage are required. It is shown how 
naturally all this works out, and the opinion is put forth that by the 
use of these principles the best results for a given outlay may be ob- 
tained. Incidentally, the assertion is made that Iow reactance volt- 
age greatly outweighs in importance low armature strength so far as 
telates to excellence in commutation, and high commutator peripheral 
speeds are advocated on account of the very great improvement in 
commutating constants which are thereby rendered practicable. 
Careful attention to all these different considerations still permits 
of a fair degree of interchangeability and uniformity in the designs 
for different voltages of the same kilowatt otttput. He discusses in 
detail his method of estimating the reactance voltage. Incidentally, 
he remarks that the inductance of a coil Jaid upon the surface of a 
smooth core armature is, with customary proportions, rarely much 
Jess than one-third and often one-half or more as great-as in the 
case of the same coil laid in slots. He considers the case of large 
and states that by the use of 
high armature reaction—as expressed in armature ampere turns per 
pole piece, and high commutator Peripheral speeds, even 6o0-volt 



Such an increase has been observed in Je: 
grid type for even 48 hours after com; 
f. dcenmulatoren und Elementenky 
evidently duc to the fact that during 
pores of both plates had become high 
acid between the plates, and it shows 
is in this case in annulling the diffe: 

Puivaverpuia, Pa, 

ad accumulators of the pastedt 
pleted charge (Pfaff. Zeitschr. 
ade, toor, June 15). This is 
charge the concentration in the 
er than the concentration of the 
how slow the action of diffusion 
Tences of concentration. 

E. F. Roener, 


of the armature. It is bounded by the peripheral surface of the arma- 
ture, the surface of the core at the bottom of the slots and the ends 
of the core. An examination of the machine in the terms of the 
energy generated in this “active belt” leads to the interesting result 
that machines of very widely varying size, output and speed, give a 
remarkably constant value in watts generated per cubic centimeter 
of active belt at unit velocity-in unit field, This value he believes to 
-be about 0.0000005, or 5 ergs per second per cubic centimeter at unit 
velocity in unit field. The greater Part of the paper is chiefly mathe- 
matical and cannot well be abstracted, Regarding the cost, he finds 
that in the case of many groups of machines there is no regular 
ratio between the cost and the output. There ought to be, however, 
and the following method is suggested for obtaining this result: 
Plotting watts per revolution as abscissas and costs as ordinates, the 
position of each machine is marked, and the points representing cost 
and output for each carease of a given diameter with varying length. 
are joined by a straight line which is produced to the origin. The 
point where this line cuts the zero ordinate gives the limit of cost to. 
which this carcase approaches as the core length is réduced to zero, 
and may be called the base cost of any given carcase. An increase jm 
diameter increases the base cost and reduces the slope of the line 
passing through the costs of the actual machines, so that, starting 
from the smallest diameter and passing to the largest, will give a 
succession of straight lines, each touching its next lower neighbor at 
one point, and producing a curve made up of segments of the lines. 
representing each machine, each segment showing the economical 
range of length for the machine which it represents—Lond. Elce.,. 
Sept. 20, 


Theory of the Short-Circuited Alternator—Horscnirz.—A com- 
munication, being a supplement to his article abstracted in the Digest, 
Aug. 3. He gives the curve of the short circuit current as a function 
of the frequency at constant exciting current for a three-phase alter- 
nator, and develops the numerical formula.—Elek, Zeit., Sept. 12, 

Large Direct-Current Generators —RotHERt.—A 
referring to the article of Hobart recently 
He agrees in general with the principle of Hobart, except that Ho- 
bart favors a somewhat higher number of poles. He makes a few 
critical remarks on details of design of the machines of the Gen. 
Elec. Co. and of Hobart.--Elck, Zeit., Sept. 5. 

abstracted in the Digest. 

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; aera ene 
heated is placed within the cylinder, and may be enclosed i a Sra 
mounted on a movable base, as shown at a’, g The distinc ive oe 
of the furnace is the manner in which electrical connection , mai ue 
the ends of the resistance, For this purpose use is made of an ox! : 
like that of iron, which possesses considerable conductivity at aghiet 
this oxide, shown at ¢’, d', being packed around the ends 
of the cylinder and held in close contact therewith by plates nd he 
c?, d?, secured by bolts c’, @?, When the furnace charge is of such ‘| yas 
acter that danger might arise of fluxing the dry electrolyte, an hie 
pecially when the crucible is dispensed with, the cylinder is ie i 
by an interior sleeve of pure magnesia, preferably coated with ara Ve 
to give it some initial conductivity, This furnace in cither 0: its 
e excited by a carbon resistance rod inserted temporarily 
B oor cven by a gas flame. ; ; 
fh has patented a method of making calcium carbide, 
escribing an electric firnace for carrying it into 
Fifice is a rotary structure, vastly complicated, and pre+ 
Madvantages and one obvious disadvantage as com- 
AM in present use; this defect being the necessity for 
By of molten carbide to the temperature of com 
Ae furnace may be dismissed as without practical 
Naim based upon its operation is so broad as to de- 
Ihe words are: “The method of making calcium 
# in maintaining a carbide-conductor incandescent 
tric current, subjecting carbide-forming materials 
engendered, thus converting said materials into 
Mtintaining the cross-sectional area of the carbide- 
ately constant by removing the calcium carbide 
s formed, and supplying fresh materials to the 

. temperatures, 

Mf the grant of a claim of this breadth at this date, 
application has been pending before the Patent 
B89s, a period when the carbide art was excced- 

A siacse ehathete 
fi "The Edison Storage Battery. 
q — 
Among the patents of last week are two on modifications of the 
new Edison storage battery. In the form of cell patented some months 

i ago, it will be recalled, the oxidizable clement and the depolarizer 
consisted of finely divided iron and an oxide of nickel (or cobalt), 

respectively, “both elements‘ being preferably mixed with flake 
graphite to increase their permeability to the alkali hydroxide. solu- 
tion, In the forms now disclosed the oxidizable metal is zinc, the 

et Bo to have a capacity of 30.85 watt-hours per kilogram of electrode, for 

epee! aa 

| ison Srorage | Battery, 

Our French contemporary, L’Industrie Electrique, contains in the! 
current issue a fetter signed by Louis Krieger, which, after referring {! 
to an article in that journal in which it was stated that the|- 
zinc-nickel storage battery had been patented in 1899 by Michal-! 
owski, claims that the writer had anticipated both Edison and: * 
Michalowski, he having been granted a patent Dec. 4, 1896, on a zinc-| 
potassium-nickel storage battery, and also on the employment of| | 
lithium and magnesium with zinc in this type of battery. This} > 
battery, which is stated to have been entirely the result of an electro-|.. +; 
chemical calculation, was made during 1896, and one which was] - 
tested in the laboratory of Professor Lippmann at the Sorbonne) | .: 
showed an e, m .f. of 1.82 volts, which is exactly the figure arrived! « 
at in the calculation in assuming the reduction of sesquioxide).’ 

(Ni?0") to protoxide (NiO). The formation of the nickel positive 

tion of the nickel can even be obtained on a plate of ordinary plate}. -: 
ickel carrying no active material. i 

is stated to be very simple if certain precautions are taken, Oxida-| °° 


Baal ve 7 

: Edison Battery.—De Contanes.—An illustrated article on the new 

| Edison accumulator. After an abstract of Kennelly's paper the fol- 
lowing critigal remarks are made, The Edison accumulator is said 

a discharge rate of 0.93 ampere per square decimeter. This is com- 
_.{ pared with the capacity of a modern Fulmen lead cell, which for a 

discharge’ rate of t ampere per square decimeter “has a capacity per 
electrode” (this probably means per kilogram of electrode) of 22.5 
ampere-hours, at an average voltage of 1.9 volts, hence 42.75 watt- 
hours, (This comparison is very unfair, From Kennelly’s paper it 
| is evident that 30.85 watt-hours is the capacity of the Edison cell 
per kilogram of total cell, not per kilogram of electrode). He then 
| gives a comparison of the Edison cell and a modern lead cell, with 
reference to the weight of the electrolyte and finds an advantage in 
favor of the lead cell. (This is evidently wrong. He says that the 
: é weight of the electrolyte in the Edison cell is 14 per cent of the weight 
“.. . st | of the electrodes, while according to Kennelly’s paper it is 14 per 
oe ‘| cent of the total cell weight). He further says that the Edison cell 
will be expensive, and believes that it will not be durable, (One of 
the principal claims of Edison is that there is practically no de- 

terioration).—Cosmos, July 6, 
Edison Battery—Kriecer—A communication in which he says 

that he has used nickel for positive accumulator plates before Michal- 

ieee x battery in 1896. The ec. m. f. was experimentally found to be 1.82 
volts, which corresponds exactly with the theoretical value if the 
chemical process at the nickel plate is assumed to be the change of 
the peroxide of nickel into nickel oxide —L’Ind, Elec., July 10. (See 

page 170.) 0 

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jowski and Edison. He patented a zinc-potassium hydroxide-nickel | 

of already oxydized acti 

has to penetrate a dense mass 

1, in order to reach th 

‘ive ma-* 


© Interior layers of unoxydized substance, 


-{ ter} 


If it be attempted to reve! a 
| droxide—copper oxide type, it will be found that the copper passes 
in part into solution as the so-called 
deposited in the form of a loose 
certain precautions be observed i 
its tendency to solution in : a d 
and he considers an essential feature of this preparation to be an cx 
tremely fine sub-division of the east 
bonate of copper is reduced by hydrogen at the | 
perature, molded into the desired form, oxidized by heat to the 

eeatee STE 

SST peal 


depolarizer an oxide either of copper o and | 
is an alkali metal zincate in solution, These combinations are not 
unfamiliar, but the cells hi 
versible, and the conditions un’ 
in the highest degree interesting. 

r of nickel, and the electro- 

ave not, hitherto, been considered as re- 
der which they are rendered so arc 

rse a cell of the usual zinc—alkali hy- 
“cuprite,” and that the zinc is 
sponge. Mr. Edison states that if 
the preparation of the copper oxide, 

Kkaline electrolyte may be overcome, 

the all 

To secure this, pure car- 
t the lowest possible tem- 

pti i ey 
i ° 
4 ° 
: : 
. : 
° * 
‘ . 
: * 
: . 
4 . 
: ° 
: : 



black oxide, CuO, and finally electrolytically reduced to the metallic 
state, So prepared, it is oxidized in charging the battery to the red 
oxide Ci,0, but shows no tendency to pass into solution. It is. dif- 
ficult indeed to believe that this remarkable effect is properly at- 
tributed to the state of minute sub-division ; if so, the fact is unique 
in chemistry. 

The second difficulty—the deposition of spongy zinc--is overcome 
by the simple expedient of using as a base for the clectro-deposit a 
thin multi-perforated sheet of magnesium, If it be assumed that the 
tendency of zinc to deposit in sponge form is duc to the partial oxi- 
dation of the precipitated metal, then it is readily apparent that the 
nature of the support may exert a controlling influence on the char- 
acter of the deposit, and that magnesium, being electro-positive to 
zine and entirely unattacked by the caustic alkali, can give rise to no 
Jocal action, and therefore to no oxidation due to this cause. This is 
the explanation of the inventor. It is not free from chemical dif- 
ficulties, for other means may be employed to prevent local action, 
and yet these have not proven efficient in suppressing the formation 

of sponge; but the essential commercial point—the fact—seems to 
have been sufficiently establishd by Mr. Edison's experimental work. 

In the accompany illustrations, Fig. 2 represents a plan view 
of the magnesium support on which the zinc is plated during the 
charging, a similar view of the plate for carrying the negative ele- 
ment, and a vertical section through a cell formed of four elements, 

In Fig. 1 are represented similar views of another form of cell, 

showing a plan view of one of the magnesium supports on which the 

zinc is plated during the charging operation, a similar support for the 
depolarizing material, a section of the latter on an enlarged scale 
and a section through a four-clement cell. 

Kentucky Telephone Association. 

The Kentucky Telephone Association held its annual meeting at 
Owensboro, Ky., on Oct. 2, The following named officers were 
elected for the ensuing year: R. V. Bishop, of Cynthiana, was re- 
elected president; H. K. Cole, local manager of the Harrison Tele- 
phone Company, vice-president, and James Maret, of Mt. Vernon, 
secretary and treasurer. The place of the next weeting was referred 
to the Executive Committee of the association. 

James S. Brailey, Jr., of Louisville, read a paper upon long-distance 
service and H. K. Cole a paper tipon exchange service, 

enero BISON 

Our French contemporary, L’Industrie Electrique, contains in the} Meee 
current issue a letter signed by Louis Krieger, which, after referring}: 
to an article in that journal in which it was stated that the 
zine-nickel storage battery had been patented in 1899 by Michal-| 
owski, claims that the writer had anticipated both Edison and: ‘ 
Michalowski, he having been granted a patent Dec. 4, 1896, on a zine-! 
potassium-nickel storage battery, and also on the employment of 
lithium and magnesium with zinc in this type of battery. This 
battery, which is stated to have been entirely the result of an electro- ee 
chemical calculation, was made during 1896, and one which wast: 
tested in the laboratory of Professor Lippmann at the Sorbonne|” 
showed an ec. m .f, of 1.82 volts, which is exactly the figure arrived) “ 
at in the calculation in assuming the reduction of sesquioxide;”: : 

‘| nickel carrying no active material. 

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(Ni70") to protoxide (NiO), The formation of the nickel positive}: 
is stated to be very simple if certain precautions are taken. Oxida~ 
tion of the nickel can even be obtained on a plate of ordinary plate? 


| Edison Battery —De Contaves.—An illustrated article on the new 
Edison accumulator. After an abstract of Kennelly's paper the fol- 
lowing critica) remarks are made, The Edison accumulator is said 
to have a capacity of 30,85 watt-hours per kilogram of electrode, for 
a discharge rate of 0.93 ampere per square decimeter. This is com- 
pared with the capacity o€ a moder: Fulmen lead cell, which for a 
discharge’ rate of 1 ampere per square decimeter “has a capacity per 
electrode" (this probably means per kilogram of electrode) of 22.5 
ampere-hours, at an average voltage of 1.9 volts, hence 42.75 watt- 
hours, (This comparison is very unfair. From Kennelly's paper it 
is evident that 30.85 watt-hours is the capacity of the Edison cell 
per kilogram of total cell, not per kilogram of electrode). He then 
gives a comparison of the Edison cell and a modern lead cell, with 
reference to the weight of the electrolyte and finds an advantage in 
favor of the lead cell. (This is evidently wrong. He says that the 
weight of the electrolyte in the Edison cell is 14 per cent of the weight 
of the electrodes, while according to Kennelly’s paper it is 14 per 
cent of the total cell weight). He further says that the Edison cell 
will be expensive, and believes that it will not be durable, (One of 
the principal claims of Edison is that there is practically no de- 

terioration).—Cosmos, July 6. 

Edison Battery.—Kriecer—A communication in which he says 
that he has used nickel for positive accumulator plates before Michal- 

+" Jbattery in 1896. The ec. m. f. was experimentally found to be 1.82 
volts, which corresponds exactly with the theoretical value if the 
chemical process at the nickel plate is assumed to be the change of 
the peroxide of nickel into nickel oxide—L’Ind, Elec., July 10, (See 

lowski and Edison. He patented a zinc-potassium hydroxide-nickel . 

IPABC 170) center rnenermemrnmnes manent 

of already oxydized active ma- .. 

interior layers of unoxydized substance, 

aS to penetrate a dense mass 

gx|terial, in order to reach the 

harge, h: 



ae etn 

he two halves. The exterior casing is 
made of cast steel, and in order to be capable of dissipating the ee 
efficiently, it is smooth on the inside and closely fits the care a 
stator. It is divided into two parts, as are also the bearing co 
so that in case it is necessary to make repairs on the bearings 

E ey can be reached casily. ; 
al ys one of these covers is removed. To the lugs of the Ne 
bearing covers flat iron pieces are bolted, which transmit ah 4 
movement of the motor to the truck by means of springs. ‘The a 
ings consist of heavy stecl outer boxes, in which bronze plates, La 
with white metal rest, The bearings are lubricated by means ae 
and wick, and this method has proved itself very satisfactory. he 
oil is thrown down by means of oil rings into special compartments 
in the lower bearing covers, The motor is wound for six poles, there 
being ov slots in the primary and 72 in the secondary. . 

In determining the winding of the motor the following had to be 
taken into consideration, The heating of the primary core is de- 
pendent upon the number of pole changes and the saturation, and as 
the number of pole changes is given, upon the cross-section of the 
core, This must be made quite large so as to reduce the heating; 
that is, the width being given, the radial dimension must be made 
large. If, now, the primary, with its large radial dimension is laid 
on the outside, then the diameter of the rotor is small and conse- 
quently also the turning moment. It is far better for the more prof- 
itable utilization of the space, to put the primary on the inside and 
make it constitute the rotor, The secondary, which only during the 
starting and at full speed has a very small number of pole changes, 
may have a considerably smaller radial dimension than the primary. 

many connections between t 


This will give a fairly large diameter of the rotor (in the motors al- 
ready constructed about 9 cm., or 3% inches), and there remains 
for the primary core considerable depth in the radial direction with 
the assurance of a low saturation. The rotor in this manner will 
have a diameter of 780 mm. (30.7 inches), while the over-all diameter 
of the motor is 1050 mm, (41.3 inches). 

The motor is so wound that the primary pressure of 1150-1850 
volts is carried to the rotor of the motor. For this purpose three 
collector rings are affixed at one end, which are made of good bronze 
and are insulated from each other by mica sheets which project con- 
siderably, as seen in Fig, 14. Eight carbon brushes make contact 
with each of the rings. The brushes are fed forward by means of 
springs, and in order to keep the brush holders a considerable distance 
apart from each other, they are distributed all around the periphery. 
They can be reached from the outside through small holes, 

The core of the rotor consists of a number of iron plates, cach of 
which is stamped out of a solid piece of shect iron and all the plates 
‘are firmly held together. 

The winding of the rotor, Fig. 14, is of the continuous-current bar 
winding. type, as in this winding the ends of the various coils may 
be best protected from the action of centrifugal force by tightly- 
wound wire bands, The slots are insulated by means of mica, and 
wooden wedges protect the coils from flying out. 

The winding of the stator is of the ordinary alternating-current 
type, and the core consists of a number of separate iron sheets joined 
together. The three primary and secondary leads are insulated from 
the frame wherever they pass through it by rubber bushings, Fig. 15 
shows a motor mounted on the truck. 


Vou, XXXVIIL, No. 14. 

Automobile Storage Batteries, 

} E present herewith descriptions in detail of a number of stor- 
age batterics now available for automobile work, the descrip- 
tions having been prepared from information furnished by 

the manufacturers of the various batterics considered, The state- 

ments of performance thus come from the makers themselves, and 
while we do not doubt that all claims are’ made in good faith, due al- 
lowanee must naturally be made for ‘ultra-conservatism on the one 
side and enthusiasm on the other, The information herewith given, 
however, is substantially within the range of fact, and presents in 
concise form the main differences between the batteries considered. 
With a few exceptions all of the American automobile batteries now 
on the market are described, only a few manufacturers having denied 
the request for information concerning their products. The Edison 
storage battery is not included for the reason that a description of it 
has recently appeared in these columns, and no further information 
is available relating to its construction and performance, ; 
As will be noted, data of a number of the batteries have been ‘re- 
duced to the basis of a three-hour discharge. Not too much stress 
should, however, be laid upon a comparison of different batteries on 
this basis in the absence of information as to corresponding durability. 

In other words, such a comparison is not conclusive unless each bat- 

tery is designed with a view to give efficient results at that particular 

rate of discharge. 

‘The Sperry battery is sin improved form of the Planté type of lead- 
lead battery, but so designed and constructed as to be free from the 
difficulties that have attended the use of the applicd sponge plate. 

The grid is made of thin, pure sheet lead, which is corrugated hori- 
zontally. In the bottom of the hollows formed by the corrugations 
numbers of small trapezoidal holes are punched; the punch also cuts 


diagonally across the trapezoid, and instead of making a clean hole, 
fins are left which project on either side of the plate. The whole plate 
when punched resembles a corrugated grater, except that the fins are 
loriger, and triangular in shape. These projections are then spread 
wider apart so that a pressure on the plate will cause them to bend 
down in a direction away from the holes from which the fins project. 

The material which is to become active is spread in the form of a 
powder on both sides of the grid, filling up the corrugations and be- 
ing in sufficient quantity to make a flat plate of usual thickness after 
press-welding. The whole is then subjected to pressure—about 1000 
Ibs. per square inch of surface—which forms it into a solid mass, 
The material is bound to the grid by being pressed together into a. 
continuous mass, which is on both sides of the grid and is welded 
through the multitude of small holes, thereby riveting itself in the 
grid. Additional hold is furnished by the fins, which bend down 
and are clinched over the active material and thus retain the ma- 
terial at the surface. é 

The retention of the fins and riveting under pressure of the pow- 
der into a solid mass cannot be successfully accomplished with every 
form of material to become active, but it is stated that the material 
used in the Sperry battery welds up strongly in the press, and after 
the chemical formation, becomes hard like soapstone, This active 
material consists of 80 to 85 per cent of finely divided pure lead ob- 
tained by dissolving a precipitation as explained in the description of 
the chloride battery, to which is added 15 to 20 per cent of lead 
oxide. These are thoroughly mixed, and to the mass thus formed is 

Ocrozer 5, 1901, 

added about 1 

The alkaline salts and the other ingredients are themselves inert 
and their function is twofold: First, to render the material porous 
by dissolving out when the plate is “formed,” leaving numberless 
pores throughout the mass, and, second, they have the peculiar Prop- 
erty of causing the mass to harden on forming instead of soften, as 
is the case with pasted or other plates formed by the Planté process. 

The composition of the active materiat used, its method of appli- 
cation, and the formation in the Sperry battery, are such, however, 
that trouble from disintegration and dropping away of active nae 

-25 of a compound of alkaline salts and other in- 

3 4 


terial is obviated, and the makers claim, and their tests seem to in- 
dicate, that the plates are extremely hard, solid and durable, The cor- 
rugation of the grid horizontally allows proper expansion and re- 
lieves the plate of any tendency to buckle. * As an additional precau- 
tion, however, Mr. Sperry has devised the pyroxylin coating which 
is applied to the outside of the plate and covers it, passing down one 
side, under the bottom of the plate and up the other side. It is 
evident that if any active material should be loosened by any ex- 
traordinary circumstances, it would not be able to drop off the plate, 
being held in position by the outside coating. If a particle of ma- 
terial should by any chance drop off, it will still be retained in the 
Ppyroxylin envelope and would not be able to short-circuit the 

an battery. 

This covering is made of open mesh cotton cloth, such as “cheese- 
cloth,” which is chemically treated, forming a cellulose nitrate which 
is termed “pyroxylin.” This compound is of the same general char- 
acter as gun cotton, which is a high explosive. The addition of a 
1 small quantity of nitro-benzol renders it inert. 

To the sheet of pyroxylin thus formed is applied a coating of 
pure cellulose. This is formed by treating fiber—in which the non- 
cellulose constituents belong to the class of aldechydes—with sul- 
phurous acid. The fiber after being washed is again ‘treated with 
@ sulphurous acid, leaving pure cellulose. This is then pulped and 
applied under pressure to the pyroxylin sheet. The envelope when 
finished is ribbed vertically so that the elctrolyte can circulate freely 
along the surface of the plate after passing through the envelope. 

The jars in which the elements are placed are of the hard rubber 
variety, but different from the usual hard rubber jar in that they 


Hhave a series of ribs capped with soft rubber extending across the 
bottom of the cell. On these soft resilient ribs rest the plates which 

Marc in this way relieved from excessive shock or jar. The separators 

Aare the usual thin, perforated, ribbed, hard rubber. 
Fig. 3 shows a curve of discharge of the Sperry battery taken 
Nfrom 44 cells in series, These cells weigh 1005 Ibs. gross or 23 Ibs, 

each. The discharge rate was nearly 4o amperes and the average 

voltage 1.975. The curve shows the unusual results of 1.75 amperes, 


9.187 ampere-hours, and 18,15 watt-hours per pound gross weight at}. 
54-hour discharge, giving at this excessive rate of discharge 4o Ibs, : 
per horse-power-hour, corresponding to an ‘energy sufficient to raise 
its own weight against gravity at sea level about 9 miles, . 

This is equivalent to 2.65 amperes, 7.95 ampere-hours, 5.03 watts | 
and 15,09 watt-hours per pound at the 3-hour rate, There are sev- 
eral sizes of these cells manufactured, the two principal ones being 
2 inches by 734 inches by r0!4 inches, and weighing 18 Ibs. gross, and 
3 inches by 714 inches by 10% inches, and weighing 22.8 ibs, 

A number of life tests have been made on this battery, both in lab- |’. ° 
oratories and on vehicles and in practical work, One vehicle has now |" 
made about 7700 miles with the batteries with a loss of 28 per cent 
-of the original capacity. Tests recently conducted under the general 
supervision of Professor John W. Langley, of the Case School of 
Applied Science, show that the battery carried through a uniform rate 
of discharge of 1 ampere per pound until the carriage had run the 
equivalent of 3060 miles. This test shows the capacity of the bat- 
tery for the last 10 discharges to be 10 per cent (83.35:.91.8) in ex- 
cess of the first 10 discharges. . The report indicates that tests up to 
this point had failed to reveal any indication that the battery had 
started to fall off in capacity. The 44th discharge of this battery, 
taking it at 1 ampere per pound of complete working cell, gives a 
mean potential difference throughout the curve, of over 2 volts, 
namely 2,014. > 

The Clare cell, made by the International Storage Battery Com- 
pany, is claimed to embody novel features of mechanical construc- 
tion, that contribute to durability, efficiency, capacity for rapid work- | 
ing, and a relatively large output of energy per pound of maerial, 
Active material for these cells in the form of tead oxides is prepared 
before it is mounted on the supporting plates. These plates are 
made of porous carthenware, free from impurities that would render 


it a conductor, One side of each plate is divided into 100 small cells 
by narrow ribs that intersect at right angles. Into these cells the 
plastic active material is pressed. . 
The other side of each plate is provided with parallel ribs in one di- ° 
rection only, so that when these ribs on two plates are placed ‘in 
contact the edges of the ribs touch, and there are parallel passages 
between: them. Each plate is also provided with a heavy rib on ~ 
one or two of its edges, and these heavy ribs extend further from 3 



he two halves, The exterior casing is 
der to be capable of dissipating the heat 
le and closely fits the core 9: the 
as are also the bearing covers, 
irs on the bearings or 

many connections between t 
made of cast steel, and in or D 
efficiently, it is smooth on the insid 
stator. It is divided into two parts, 
so that in case it is necessary to make repa 
fl ey can be reached easily. 
ee if one of these covers is removed. To the lugs of the lower 
bearing covers flat iron pieces arc bolted, which transmit the psd 
movement of the motor to the truck by means of springs. ‘The a 
ings consist of heavy stcel outer boxes, in which bronze plates, Hie 
with white metal rest. The bearings are lubricated by means of oil 
and wick, and this method has proved itself very satisfactory. The 
oil is thrown down by means of oil rings into special compartments 
in the lower bearing covers, The motor is wound for six poles, there 
being ov slots in the primary and 72 in the secondary, . 

In determining the winding of the motor the following had to be 
taken into consideration. The heating of the primary core is de- 
pendent upon the number of pole changes and the saturation, and as 
the number of pole changes is given, upon the cross-section of the 
core, This must be made quite large so as to reduce the heating; 
that is, the width being given, the radial dimension must be made 
large. Hf, now, the primary, with its large radial dimension is laid 
on the outside, then the diameter of the rotor is small and conse 
quently also the turning moment. It is far better for the more prof- 
jtable utilization of the space, to put the primary on the inside and 
make it constitute the rotor, The secondary, which only during the 
starting and at full speed has a very small number of pole changes, 
may have a considerably smaller radial dimension than the primary. 


This will give a fairly large diameter of the rotor in the motors al- 
ready constructed about 9 cm., or 3/4 inches), and there remains 
for the primary core considerable depth in the radial direction with 
the assurance of a low saturation. The rotor in this manner will 
have a diameter of 780 mm. (30.7 inches), while the over-all diameter 
of the motor is 1050 mm. (41.3 inches). 

The motor is so wound that the primary pressure of 1150-1850 
volts is carried to the rotor of the motor. For this purpose three 
collector rings are affixed at one end, which are made of good bronze 
and are insulated from each other by mica shects which project con- 
siderably, as seen in Fig. 14. Eight carbon brushes make contact 
with cach of the rings, The brushes are fed forward by means of 
springs, and in order to keep the brush holders a considerable distance 
apart from each other, they are distributed all around the periphery. 
They can be reached {rom the outside through small holes. 

The core of the rotor consists of a number of iron plates, each of 
which is stamped out of a solid piece of sheet iron and all the plates 
{are firmly held together. 

The winding of the rotor, Fig. 14, is of the continuous-current bar 
winding type, as in this winding the ends of the various coils may 
be best protected from the action of centrifugal force by tightly- 
wound wire bands. The slots are insulated by means of mica, and 
wooden wedges protect the coils from fying out. 

The winding of the stator is of the ordinary alternating-current 
type, and the core consists of a number of separate iron shects joined 
together. The three primary and secondary Seads are insulated from 
the frame wherever they pass through it by rubber bushings. Fig. 15 
shows a motor mounted on the truck, 


Von, XXXVHLE, No. 14. 

Automobile Storage Batteries. 

rTE present herewith descriptions in detail of a number of stor- 
age batterics now available for automobile work, the descrip- 
tions having been prepared from information furnished by 
the mantfacturers of the various batteries considered, The state- 
ments of performance thus come from the makers themselves, and 
while we do not doubt that all claims are made in good faith, due al- 
lowance must naturally be made for ‘ultra-conservatism on the one 
side and enthusiasm on the other, The information herewith given, 
however, is stibstantially within the range of fact, and presents in 
concise form the main differences between the batteries considered. 
With a few exceptions all of the American automobile batteries now 
on the market are described, only a few manufacturers having denied 
the request for information concerning their products. The Edison 
storage battery is not included for the reason that a description of it 
has recently appeared in these columns, and no further information 
is available relating to its construction and performance. 

‘As will be noted, data of a number of the batteries have been ‘re- 
duced to the basis of a three-hour discharge. Not too much stress 
should, however, be laid upon a comparison of different batteries on 
this basis in the absence of information as to corresponding durability. 
In other words, such a comparison is not conclusive unless cach bat- 
tery is designed with a view to give efficient results at that particular 
rate of discharge. . 


The Sperry battery is an improved form of the Planté type of lead- 
lead battery, but so designed and constructed as to be free from the 
difficulties that have attended the use of the applied sponge plate. 

The grid is made of thin, pure shect lead, which is corrugated hori- 
zontally, In the bottom of the hollows formed by the corrugations 
numbers of small trapezoidal holes are punched; the punch also cuts 



diagonally across the trapezoid, and instead of making a clean hole, 
fins are left which project on cither side of the plate. The whole plate 
when punched resembles a corrugated grater, except that the fins are 
longer, and triangular in shape. These projections are then spread 
wider apart so that a pressure on the plate will cause them to bend 
down ina direction away from the holes from which the fins project. 

The material which is to become active is spread in the form of a 
powder on both sides of the grid, filling up the corrugations and be- 
ing in sufficient quantity to make a flat plate of usual thickness after 
press-welding. The whole is then subjected to pressurc—about 1000 
Ibs, per square inch of surface—which forms it into a solid mass. 

The material is bound to the grid by being pressed together into a. 

continuous mass, which is on both sides of the grid and is welded 
through the multitude of small holes, thereby riveting itself in the 
grid. Additional hold is furnished by the fins, which bend down 
and are clinched over the active material and thus retain the ma- 
terial at the surface. s 

The retention of the fins and riveting under pressure of the pow- 

der into a solid mass cannot be successfully accomplished with every 

form of material to become active, but it is stated that the material 

used in the Sperry battery welds up strongly in the press, and after 
the chemical formation, becomes hard like soapstone. This active 
material consists of 80 to 85 per cent of finely divided pure lead ob- 
tained by dissolving a precipitation as explained in the description of 
the chloride battery, to which is added 15 to 20 per cent of lead 
oxide. These are thoroughly mixed, and to the mass thus formed is 

J S40 

the plate than do the smaller ribs that enclose the cells for active 
uaterial, After the active material is forced into its cells, two plates 
fontaining it are brought together so that the cells of active material 
ce each other, 
The heavy ribs at the edges of the plates hold them a short distance 
Apart over that part of the surfaces where the active material is 
ocated, An acid-proof cement is applied to join the heavy ribs at 
he edges, and a receptacle containing the active material is thus 
formed by the two plates, Into the tong, narrow opening of this 


{receptacle a sheet of pure, rolled lead is forced so as to come into inti- 
mate contact with all of the cells of active material, At one side a 
trip projects from this lead sheet and serves to connect it with a 
isimilar sheet between two other plates, The pair of earthenware 
: ‘plates with active ‘material pressed into their cells, joined at their 
-fedges to form a receptacle, and the sheet of lead, form a single 
- ‘positive or negative element of the battery. The corresponding nega- 
‘ sitive or positive clement is made in exactly the same way. 

if The sheet of lead, about-1-32 inch in thickness, serves merely as 
‘Ys conductor of the current, and the earthenware receptacle supports 
_ both the active material and the conducting sheet. Two of the ele- 
‘ments described go to make up the smallest size of battery. For bat- 
teries of larger size the receptacle for each clement is made up of 
our or more of the same earthenware plates, All joints between the 
earthenware plates are made with the acid-proof cement, so that cach 
Feceptacle, however large, is a rigid structure, though made up of a 
‘considerable number of parts. 

‘| Particular attention is called to the earthenware receptacle, be- 
‘sause on its structure and on the method of supporting the active 
“material, the novelty of the Clare battery depends. In this battery 
the conducting sheet of lead does not support the active material, but 
“os itself supported by the receptacle, As the lead conductor is not 
.. ‘required to act as a support, it can be, and is, relatively very light in 
weight. The earthenware receptacle is also much lighter than a sup- 
porting plate of lead would be for the same stiffness, The earthen- 


ware receptacles with their active material and lead conductors are 
immersed in an acid electrolyte of the usual quality, and the solu- 
tion passes freely through the porous sides of the receptacle to the 
active material, As the sides of the receptacles are very thin, being 
hardly more than 1-16 inch in thickness, and as the electrolyte flows 
freely through the grooves formed by the ribs on the outer sides of 
adjacent elements, the internal resistance of these batteries is very 
low. Active material cannot fall out of its cells in the carthenware 
plates, because the opening in the receptacle is only large enough to 
admit the conducting sheet of lead between the two surfaces where 
the conducting material is located. Experience has shown that the 
receptacles are sufficiently clastic to allow for all expansion of the 
active material withqut injury. 

Several tests of these batteries have been made by independent en- 
4) gineers, and the result of one of these is illustrated in the curve here 
presented. This test was made on a battery rated at 20 ampere- 


VoL. XXXVILL, No, 14. 

hours, At the end of a 10-hour continuous discharge at the rate of 
2.20 amperes, having yielded 22 ampere-hours, the terminal e, m. f. 
of the battery had fallen to 1.72 volts, During a continuous discharge 
of 3.5 hours at 5 amperes, yielding 17.5 ampere-hours, the battery 
dropped to 1.66 volts, 

Another battery in a hard-rubber case had a total weight of 16 lbs, 
This battery during a continuous discharge of 12 amperes for eight 
ours fell from a terminal pressure of 2.1 to 1.9 volts. The ampere- | 
hours delivered during this test were 96, and the watt-hours 192, 80 
that the watt-hours per pound of complete battery were 12, Heavy 

. overloads are said to have no bad effect on this battery, so far as the 

life of the elements is concerned. 

A group of these cells that is said to have been in hard and con- 
stant use during two years, show no breaking or buckling of the 
earthenware Teceptacles or falling out of the active material. 


The Perfect storage battery is built on the unit-system, the unit 
being a rectangular rod of pure metallic lead electrically formed in 


a bath of pure dilute sulphuric acid. No other oxidizing agent is 
employed, and there is, therefore, no possibility of trouble from im- 
perfect climination of the compounds of nitrogen, chlorides, etc. 
Each unit has a certain, definite capacity, and any number may be 
burned together to forma cell of the required size. Before formation 


the units are all exactly alike, there being no, difference between those 
intended for positive or negative elements. “The rods intended for the 
positive clements of one cell are burned together with those of the 
negative elements of the next cel!, and all’the rods are suspended by 
their own Iugs from the tops of the cells and do not touch anything 
at their lower extremities. Each unit is free to expand, contract or 



twist without warping the element as a whole, which differs materially 
from the ordinary plate. ’ . 

The discharge curve (Fig. 10) refers to a Perret cell weighing 734 
Ibs, | ‘his shows a capacity of 1.33 amperes, or 2,527 watts, per pound 

Ln hon are 

Octoner 5, 1901. ELECTRICAL WORLD anp ENGINEER. 

at the 5-hour rate, which is cquivalent to 6.65 ampere-hours, or 12.635 
watt-hours, per pound of complete cell. The cell may be discharbed 
in three hours or less, and charged in the same length of time without 

These cells are made in two sizes at present, though the makers 
intend putting other sizes on the market within the next few months, 
Type A is 10 by 634 by 1% inches, weight 734 Ibs., capacity as above. 
Type B is 10 by 13 by 13-16 inches, weight 15 Ibs., capacity 100 am- 
pere-hours at 5-hour discharge rate. 


The plates of the Gould battery are made from pure rolled lead. 
These plates have their surface increased by a spinning process. 
This spinning is accomplished by clamping the plate in a special 
machine whereby it is given a reciprocating motion between rapidly 

revolving arbors carrying a series 

of disks which are forced into the 

plate, displacing the lead into a 

series of alternating ribs and 

grooves, The active surface of 

the plate is thus increased to 17 

times its area as a smooth plate. 

This pressing and displacing in- 

creases the density and homo- 

gencity of the plate, and makes it 

more durable. The spinning pro- 

cess leaves the ribs firmly con- 

nected to the supports so that each 

rib is independent and has an in- 

dependent contact with the sup- 

ports, and it is not necessary to 

depend on a center webb for con- 

ductivity. The plates are thus in 

a condition to allow of the expan- 

sion and contraction, duc to 

charge and discharge, taking place 

without loss of active material or 

FIG, 11.—GOULD CELL, damage to the grid. The plates 

are placed in a bath and current 

passed through them, whereby active material js formed from the 

material of the plates themselves, After forming, the plates are 

cleaned, washed, and all traces of the forming. solution removed, 

the plates are then assembled into elements consisting of the various 
numbers of plates, according to the capacities required. 

The principle followed by the Gould Storage Battery Company is 

Time In Minutes 

to increase the surface exposure as well as to increase the contact 

area of the active material with the grid, it having been demonstrated 

by their tests that by reducing the rate of charge and discharge per 

square inch of active surface, the life of the battery is increased, as 

well as its ability to stand high rates of charge and discharge. 

i The plates are therefore made as light as mechanioal considerations 
will permit, and the greatest possible amount of active surface is ob- 

Element number, «| 90: 
Number of plate os ee 
Normal charging ra 
Discharge in amperes for yhoura, 
Capacity in qn frases discharge. 
ampere hours fat 4 tu scharge..... 
Weight of element in it Hy 
Outside dimensions} Wit 
of rubber jar Lengt! 
in inches. Height 
Height of cell over all, in inche: . 12 
Weight of acid in pounds,..... 5% 
Weight of cell complete in pour AG 37 

tained by the spinning process before mentioned. The actual active 
surface is 450 square inches Per pound of plate, which gives 250 
square inches per ampere at the 8-hour discharge rate. As the active 
oxides form in a thin adherent layer over the surface, the voltage at 

rapid discharge rates is somewhat higher than usual in lead cells, 
The thinness and porosity of the active material permits the escape of 
evolved gases without dislodging the oxides, 

The separators consist of the usual ribbed and perforated rubber 
sheet, and the jars are of the same material. These jars have, raised 
on the bottom, two heavy ribs upon which the platés rest, This leaves 
a proper space below the plates for circulation of electrolyte, and the 
accumulation of sediment. A hard rubber cover fitting into the top 
of the jar and resting on the top of the cross bars prevents splashing 
of the electrolyte. The connectors are of the usual flat top variety. 

The foregoing table gives weights, dimensions and capacities of 
the Gould automobile batteries, Type EV, dimensions of plate, 57% 
inches by 9 inches. . 

This shows that at the 3-hour rate, 1.10 amperes, or 2.09 watts, are 
-continuously available, which is 3.30 ampere-hours, or 6,27 watt-hours, 
per pound, gross weight of battery, 


The general characteristics of this battery are well-known, The 
positive plate is termed “Man- 
chester Plate” by its makers, and 
consists of a grid cast of lead with 
round holes about 13-16 inch in 
diameter and 15-16 inch between 
These holes taper to a smaller 
diameter from the outside surface 
to the middle of the plate, making 
in effect holes which are counter 
sunk, from both faces of the plate, 
The active material consists of 
pure lead which is taken in the 
form of ribbon, the width of 
which is equal to the thickness of 
the plate, and passed between two 
rollers. The periphery of the 
lower roller is smooth, while the 
upper one is toothed, the teeth cut pro, 13.—CHLORIDE ACCUMULATOR, 
into the lead ribbon making a 
ridged surface. The ribbon is then cut into suitable lengths and 
rolled into spirals, the outside diameter of which is the same as the 
diameter of the hole in the grid measured at its ‘smallest diameter, 
These spirals are pushed into the holes and tightened by expanding, 
when the plate is “formed” by charging, 
A lead ribbon which has been ridged on one surface forms, when 


rolled into a spiral,.a pellet of active material which is very porous 
and allows free circulation of the electrolyte through the plate. 

The negative plates are the regular “chloride” type, made by cast- 
ing the grid around the pellets of active material, these pellets being 
placed in the moulds, This grid is of lead alloyed with a small 
amount of antimony and cast tinder heavy pressure, to insure good 
electrical contact between the pellets and the grid, and atso to make 

gia QIZA OISA gosc 907c gogc otic gtgc gisc 

Jit 13 5 5 7 9 33 5 

45 54 3. 65 2! 

4t 43 65 

150 180 ry 243 

104 196 

3 43 



6 7 4 10.8 

the latter take firm hold of the pellets and obviate any danger of their 
dropping out. 
The pellets are made of finely powdered lead, which is dissolved 

in nitric acid. The addition of hydrochloric acid to the solution pre- 



cipitates the lead in form of lead chloride, The precipitate after be- 
ing washed is melted with zine chloride and the fused mixture poured 
into moulds the form of the pellets. These are approximately 34 of 
an inch square, and the same thickness as the grid, namely, 4 inch. 

The finished plates are placed between zinc plates and immersed 
in a zinc chloride solution, On short circuiting the plates, the actions 
set up are such as to remove the chloride, leaving the pellet in the 
form of pure lead in a very porous state. The types manufactured 
are denominated M, FV, MV, OV, PV, QV, RV, TV, UV and SV. 
The various types of plates and cells, their sizes, capacities, cte., are 
as given in the following table: 


umber of plates, 

Discharge in am- 
peres for 3) 
OUTS ee seeee 
Sze of { Length. 
lates. { Height... 
jutside measure- 

Weight in 

It will be noted that the jars of 7 TV, 7 UV and 7 RV are higher 
than those of the other types, This renders scaling unnecessary, as 
the electrolyte does not fill the jar, there being about 4 inches be- 

Number of Plates 

tween the surface of the electrolyte and the top of the jar, which is 
ample to prevent the liquid from slopping over. These can only be 
used in automobiles, which have deep bodies giving sufficient head 
room for the high jars. 

‘The other types require to be sealed, which is done with a cover 
made of hard shect rubber fitting tightly in the cell. It rests on sup- 


ports below the top of the cell, and may be made water-tight at the 
edges by a black composition put in in the form of fillet, one side of 
which rests on the cover and the other rests Against the inner walls 
of the cell. A small hole is made in the middle of the cover for 
ventilation and escape of gas. 

The connectors are generally U-shaped, the two ends being fas- 
tened to two sets of plates, and the bend passing over the edge of 
the jars that abut against each other. The clements in high jars are 
connected by “flap top” connectors, 

Several types of separators are used, one being made of corru- 
gated hard rubber, pierced with a number of small holes through 
which the electrolyte can circulate. In order to secure lightness, the 

ie : 

Vou. XXXVIIL, No. 14, 

jars are made thin. They are sufficiently strong for rough usage 
when put together in a tray, so that the contiguous cells or sides of 
trays afford support, They are, however, not strong enough to be 
used without trays or separated from adjacent jars. The table shows 


that these cells give an average of .98 ampere or 1.86 watts per pound 
gross weight at the 3-hour discharge rate. 

A new automobile battery which the Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany has brought out, is called the “Exide Accumulator” (Fig. 15). 
No information as to principles and construction is available. It is, 
however, a form of pasted plate and much lighter than the “Chloride” 
accumulator, as will be noted from the accompanying table: 


Ourinabber far, in 
inched. +resoeveees 
Elements wrecoves 
Electrolyte . 
Complete cell. 
This shows that the capacity at the g-hour rate of discharge is 1.33 
amperes, 2.53 watts, 3.90 ampere-hours, and 
7.59 watt-hours per pound of cell, 


This battery is made up of plates of the 

Planté type, which are sheets of pure lead, 

ribbed or grooved. The Willard plate is 

grooved across the width of the plate, the 

ribs not being perpendicular to its surface, 

but making an angle with it; that is, the 

cut is in a downward direction from the sur- 

: : face to the center of the plate, which viewed 

from the edge presents a “herring bone” cross section, the ribs slop- 

ing upward, These ribs are very thin and flexible, and their surfaces 

increase the active surface of the smooth plate to about 16 times its 
original area. 

On formation of the lead oxides on a positive plate, the active lead 

is expanded, and in case of rapid charge this expansion may distort 


the plate and cause buckling, or the pressing out of the active oxides, 
The Willard cell, so the makers claim, is not subject to any deteriora- 
tion or buckling, as the active oxides are formed between the ribs of 
the plate and their expansion only opens out the ribs, separating them 
a slight amount from each other, The manner of “forming” these 
plates is not stated, but an examination indicates that the Process is 
chemically alkaline. 

The construction gives a plate without any joint whatever be- 
tween the active and the conducting lead of each ‘plate, as each rib 
is an integral portion of the plate. This results in a low internal re- 
sistance. The makers state that by charging 20 minutes at double 
the normal charge rate, then at one and one-half times for 10 minutes 


Ocroner 5, 1901, ELECTRICAL WORLD ano ENGINEER. 

and one-fourth capacity for 20 minutes, the battery can be charged 
within 50 minutes without any injury to or deterioration of same. 
The capacity referred to is on a basis of 1-hour discharge. 

The form of plate used permits high charging rates when the cell 
is empty. It is also stated that this battery can be made to discharge 
completely in 30 minutes without damage, though a higher rate is not 


Cell No. | 30 min, | smin, | smin, [| tomin, | smn, 

1001 2 Amps. 2 AMPs. 6 amps. 
1008 38 a ! é& me j B ue 
t205 mB &4 

1007 140 { 

1107 178 i} 

1109 ays 

wut goo 

ani 356 

1115, 420 

advisable. The separators are made of hard rubber, fashioned in 
the form of a sheath, They are ribbed to secure strength and per- 
forated to allow free circulation of electrolyte. 

The makers do not claim extreme lightness for their batteries, as 


their idea is that plenty of lead is required for durability, and that 
light batteries are subject to more rapid deterioration than heavy ones. 
Their automobile battery they claim is a compromise between the 
weight necessary for durability and tightness required to prevent 
vehicles from being too heavy and clumsy. In this compromise the 


makers believe that they have reduced the weight of the plates to the 
lowest amount compatible with Jong life under the arduous service 
to which automobile batteries are subjected, : ; ; 

A series of curves is shown in Fig. 19, which gives, graphically, 

the relation between voltage and time of discharge of the Willard 
cell at varying rates of discharge. The uppermost curve shows this 
relation on charge at the 8-hour rate, 

The makers of the Willard battery manufacture two ‘types for aus 
tomobile service, One is designated the “Standard,” and the other 
the “Willard Special.” The accompanying tables give the data of 
the two types: 2 

Outside Dimensions Ampere-tour capacity when 

in Inches, discharged in 3, 4, § or 6 

iy hours, 



From the foregoing, it will be seen that the continuous output of 
the “Standard” batteries averages .96 ampere, or 1.82 watts, per pound 
gross weight, on a basis of 3-hour discharge rate, which is equivalent 
to a total output of 2.88 ampere-hours, or 5.47 watt-hours, The 
"Special" gives 1.01 amperes, or 1,92 watts, continuously for three 
hours, being a total of 3.03 ampere-hours, or 5.75 watt-hours, per 
pound gross weight. 


The construction of the Porter cell differs materially from other 

types of pasted or chemically formed lead batteries, The plate or 
grid itself for automobile work is 5 by 7 inches and ¥% inch thick. 
It is composed of an alloy or compound which the manufacturers 
state gives greater conductivity, greater resiliency and consequently 
greater working capacity than the ordinary pure lead plate, and also 
resists the action of the sulphuric acid in the electrolyte that upon 


lead produces sulphate of lead or the white precipitant which causes 
go much of the trouble in the pure lead types. The active material 
is secttrely held in the grid so that its greatest width isin the center 
of the plate and the smallest surface is exposed. This not only acts 


ih, cao ce 

asa wedge, but also allows the material to do the greatest amount of 
work with a minimum of wear, and greatly increases the Proportion 

of capacity with the surface of active material exposed, at the ratio of 
about 3% to 1, 

The active material itself is treated before being 

Outside Dimensions. Ampere-Hour Capacity, 
Wile Long. 1 tgh. 3 Hours. {4 Hours. 5 Hours, 
i 30 # 
fe ai 

“formed,” and the relative distances, while in the forming process, 
are increased and decreased proportionately, so that the interior is 
also formed, and not alone the outer surface, as is ordinarily the case. 

From the preceding table issucd by the manufacturers, it will be 
noted that on a high discharge, such as is required in automobile 
work, great capacity per pound weight is shown. 

All the parts of cells are standard and interchangeable, which is 
very desirable, In the method of working up the batteries, the cells 


‘ are all formed of equal capacity and all work within .os volts of each 
other on an equal discharge, so that the danger from reversed cells 
on a low discharge is extremely small. The curve of Fig. 21 refers 
to a 12-Ib, cell discharging at a little over a 3-hour rate. 

The efficiency on a constant-current, constant-potential circuit, on 
a 434-hour charge, 334-hour discharge, is very high, standing a little 
above 88 per cent, the charge on a 13-Ib, cell beitig 76 amperes, and the 
discharge 67. On a constant potential graduated current the per- 
centage of efficiency in ampere-hours is very much higher, The 25-lb. 


cell being started at so amperes and finished at 8 amperes, takes a 
‘total of 260 ampere-hours, and discharging at a 6-ampere rate, 247 
ampere-hours, or a little over 95 per cent. The average voltage on 
this discharge is 1.9 volts per cell, so that the watt capacity of each 
cell. would-be 494, and the weight per horse-power-hour would bea 
Jittle fess than 4o lbs, On-a high discharge -rate, as required in 
automobile work, the capacity is-necessarily reduced and the weight 
is increased to-between 50 and 60 Ibs. per horse-power-hour. 

aS ea 



Vou. XXXVIIL, No, 14. 

This battery now holds the world’s record for long distance runs 
in automobiles, having done in Chicago on Goo Ibs. weight, 18734 
miles on a single charge in an electric Stanhope. As this was a very 
light vehicle, the manufacturers do not consider it as a practical 
demonstration for other vehicles. On 500 Ibs. of battery they have 
tun a Woods road wagon at a speed of 10 miles per hour 80 miles on 
a single charge. Ina Buffalo Electric Carriage Company's Stanhope, 
over country and hilly roads, the wagon has run as high as 69 miles 
on a single charge, equipped with a 4o-cell set, No, 11, Type A, Fig. 
20 shows a No, 21, Type A cell, weighing 35 Jbs,, and having a ca- 
pacity of 250 ampere-hours. It was with this type of cell that a run 
of 15t miles was made at Cleveland, Ohio, 


This battery is made up of elements which are formed by grooving 
pure shect lead, teaving a number of thin projecting ribs, The active 
material is clectro-chemically formed, as is usual in such batterics, 
The ribs are turned upwards, 

The plates are supported by insulators, which lift them off the 
bottom of the jar and also serve to separate the plates. The elements 
are in this way suspended, and there is left a clear space in the bot- 
tom for the circulation of electrolyte and the deposition of sediment 
without danger of short circuiting, ‘ 

Tnterposed between the insulators and positive plates are thin per- 
forated sheets of hard rubber which are put in as an additional pro- 
tection against contact of plates and consequent short circuits, 

The separation between the positive and negative plates is some- 
what greater than is usual in lead batteries, being a full quarter of 
an inch, This is to allow free circulation of electrolyte. This in- 
creases the internal resistance but very slightly, and the size of the 
cell for a given capacity. Following is a table of dimensions, weights 
and capacities of the American batteries: 

Hour Hour We ght. 
Type, | 32hte ate, Length. Width, | Fleight, | Pounds. 
' Inches, | Inches, Inches, 
M. 8 3K 6 ’ to 
4 7 6 ry 9 13 
A. ot 1 9 6: t a 35 
M. 2 1 2 6 3 9 ai 
A. 3 a4 16 6: 3 mm a6 
M3 az 18 6 4 . 30 
A. 3 36 24 6 (4 7% 36 
M. 4) 36 34 6 § 9 3 
M. 5 4 go 6 7 9 4 
£3] 278 | #1 ae | ae | # 
A § 0 40 : 
| Ay 6 72 48 4 a3. it 72 


: tet} 




These show .96 ampere, 1.824 watts, 2.88 ampere-hours and 5.47 
watt-hours per pound weight of cell at 3-hour discharge rate, 
The clements of this battery consist of grids or plates of tead anti- 
moniated so as not to be acted on by the electrolyte, imbedded in and 
surrounded by a mass‘of active material. The plate or grid serves 
only as a conductor. It is rendered dense and’ of low resistance by 
casting under pressure. ‘ : 

Ocrouer 5, 1901. ELECTRICAL WORLD anp ENGINEER. 545 

The details as to.constituents of active material are not given. The 
negative material is spongy lead and the positive lead peroxide. The 
plates are formed partly by Planté and partly by Faure processes. 

The active material after being pressed into a compact mass slir- 
rounding the grid, is enveloped by a sheath that retains the material 
in its proper position, and docs not allow it to fall away, This sheath 
consists of a framework of hard rubber or chemically prepared wood 
having a sheet of perforated hard rubber on cach side, These per- 
forations are t-16 inch in diameter and spaced 34 inch between centers, 


The sheets of hard rubber are hejd against the frame by hard rubber 
bolts passing through holes in the sheets and framework. These 
bolts are of such length and so arranged that they serve to hold the 

-'sheets.against the frame, and to separate the composite plates from 
each other. Besides the bolts passing through the frame there are 
bolts passing through the plate itself, 

The purpose of these bolts is to hold the sheets of rubber at a 
fixed distance apart and thus insure the retention of the active ma- 
terial against the grid. 

The interior bolts are so staggered that a bolt from one clement 
does not abut against a bolt in the adjoining element but comes 
against the sheets of rubber surrounding that clement, so that with 
five bolts through cach there are 10 points of separation. The central 
bolts thus serve the double purpose of retaining the sheets in proper 
and definite retation to each other, as well as separating adjoining 
elements. The sheet rubber allows for expansion of the active ma- 
terial, as it combines flexibility and rigidity. 

The chief difference between this and other lead storage batteries 
consists in the retaining case and grid, which do not enter into the 
electrolytic action at all, The life of the element therefore docs not 
depend on the support, but on the active material only. The contain- 
ing jar is of hard rubber, with ribs on the bottom on which the ele- 
ments rest. All conductors are of antimonious lead cast under pres- 
sure, The capacity of the Reuterdahl 22-Ib. cell at a 3-hour discharge 
rate is given as follows: Amperes per pound, 1.5; watts per pound, 
2.85; ampere-hours per pound, 4.5; watt-hours per pound, 8.55. 


This battery belongs to the pasted plate class, and at present is 
made exclusively for automobile work, The inventor, however, has 
attacked the problem of low cost of battery per mile of vehicle travel 
in an original and unusual way, 

The manufacturers contend that durability is only one of the fac- 
tors which make up the cost of maintenance and operation of an elec- 
tric vehicle, and that it resolves itself into the question of total cost 
of opcration per mile. In automobile work the questions of weight 
and cost of carrying this weight must be considered. Lead being the 
principal ingredient in a storage battery, and cach pound storing a 
given amount of energy, the life is shorter with a light weight bat- 
tery, but the battery also costs less. Therefore, it docs not appear 
economical to pay for and transport for an entire year a sufficient 
amount of lead for the succeeding year, 

Mr. Osburn, therefore, has set to work to produce a battery in 
which the elements will last from 6 to 12 months, and be light enough 
to reduce the total weight carricd to a minimum, and the cost low 
cnough to enable 2 complete replacement once or twice a year, and 

still keep the cost of battery per mile within a reasonable limit, 

This would certainly result in a satisfactory battery for the pur- 
chaser, as the initial investment is low, the maintenance not more 
than is usual with automobile batteries, and he would have a new 
battery at the beginning of the second year instead of one partly 

mere ares 


run down, With these ideas in view the Osburn battery was de- 
veloped. , 

In the construction of the grid lies the principal difference between 
it and the other varietics of pasted cells. These grids are made from 
pure lead of special manufacture, and are stamped in presses into a 
network of metal adapted to hold the active clement, and at the same, 
time to furnish a connection to all parts of it, ; 

The plate is formed from a thin shect of rolled lead. Rows of 
small square holes are punched into the sheet, diagonal cuts are then 
made from the corners of the holes, and the flap thus formed is 
turned at right angles to ‘the surface of the plate, forming a series 
of pockets for containing the active material, ' 

The thickness of the completed plate is equal to the sum of the 
thickness of the lead and the pockets formed by the portions turned 
at right angles. The opposite faces of the upturned portions form 
the side walls of adjacent pockets, while the greater portion of the 
edges are brought into contact with the active material, the only 
portions of the plate thus not in contact being the side edges of the 
sections. This insures a maximum amount of surface to the active 
material, therefore resulting in a maximum rate of discharge for a 
given weight. . 

The active material consists of precipitated Jead mixed with lead 
oxide and a small amount of some other chemical which the inventor 
does not at this time care to make public, The material is pasted 
into the grid and then subjected to pressure. The forming process 
is the same as that usual in pasted plates. It should be noticed that 
the applied material forms a continuous active surface, every part 
of the grid being covered. The grid is therefore protected from the 
action of the electrolyte, and disintegration avoided. 

The negative plates are made much thinner and lighter than the 
positive, as it has been found that the negatives may have their 
weight and cross section decreased without altering the durability.of 


the battery, if the active surface be kept equal to that of the positives, 
exclusive, of course, of the outside surfaces of the first and last 
negative plates in cach group, which are inactive. 

The separators are also of unusual construction. They are made 
of thin, hard, sheet rubber 1-64 inch thick, Pairs of slits are made 
at proper intervals in the sheet and woven through these slits are 
round, hard rubber rods, These latter form vertical ribs that 
strengthen the thin sheets and give a proper distance of separation 
between the elements. The completed separator is 14 inch thick, 
which is also the distance between plates, Up sa 

The separators extend downwards below the ends of the plates, 
and are held together by round, hard rubber’ rods, which ‘pass 
through the lower ends of the ‘separators at fight angles to their 
surfaces, each rod passing through all the separators, The jars gre 
-the usual hard rubber variety, generally sealed, and vented by a small 
hole in the center of the cover, , ae ath og rete 

The standard cell consists of nine negative and eight positive plates, 
cach plate being 714 inches by 234 inches. The size of the containing 
jar is 334 inches by 51% inches by 10}4 inches, The electrolyte is 114 
inches deep over the top edges of the plates. The complete cell 
weighs 15 Ibs. gross; ‘ 

The following is the output per pound gross weight at the 3-hour 
discharge rates .Amperes, ‘I-75 ;. Watts; 3.5 ;-ampert-hotrs, "5.253; watt= 
hours, 10.5. Figi 28 shows a'dischatge curve ‘of- this ‘battery: at tlie 
4hour rate, It willbe: seen that: the voltage holds up’ dtiove 2 volts 
for 234 shours, thus keeping up‘the-average voltage and! wattage, -* 

The inventor claims that a number'of-sets. of ‘these batteries have 

<< over 2000 mites: before any .repairs wereenecded.: Cat 

aie Theory of the 

Lo the Editors of Electrical (Vorld and Engineer: 
Sirs.—I five 

issue of Qct. 12 

rical Nou 
read with interest the letter of Dr. Rocber in your‘. : 

in regard to concentration changes in the pores of 

vs ¢{the plates of the Edison accumulator, and also your suggestive edi- 

torial comment on the letter, 

Undoubtedly such changes take place, Whenever a current passes 
{through an “electro-chemical field” from anode to cathode, as is 

ot well known, there is a concentration of the kations at the cathode 

and anions at the anode, This can be explained by the ionic theory 
on the Sround that the ions bear electric charges and ‘the electro- 
static attraction due to the Potential drop causes them to move 
| slowly through the electrolyte. This electro-chemical movement is 
comparable to the falling of fine particles through a retarding me- 
dium under the influence of gravity, For example, there is 2 complete 
analogy between the mechanical falling of precipitated chalk through 
water and the electro-chemical transport of copper from anode to 
cathode in electro-plating. The friction of the particles is so great 
that they move not with accelerated motion, but ata constant velocity, 
Granted, however, that there are such concentration changes and 
that the caustic potash solution becomes more concentrated at the 
nickel superoxide plate and more dilute at the iron plate, such changes 
would have small effect on the voltages of the cell, 
The cm, £, of the nickel superoxide plate against hydrogen would 
be at different concentrations, 

Cy ey = 2258 log u 

where Piand pz are the aqueous tensions of the two caustic solutions. 
A similar formula comes in for the positive plate. This would show 
that the change from a 20 per cent solution to a 1 per cent solution 
would make very slight difference in the voltage of the cell (not much 
over 0,03 volt), and not at all sufficient to account for the steady drop 
of voltage of the new accumulator, In the lead cell we have, how- 
ever, for acid of density 1.496 a voltage of 2.29, and for acid of den- 
sity 1.028 a voltage of 1,83—a difference of 0.46 volt, 

So this drop in voltage due to concentration changes in the Edison 
cell is not at all comparable to the change of ‘voltage due to concen- 
tration of acid in the lead accumulator, where a more complicated 
formula, duc to the fact that both the dissolved substance and the 
solvent take part in the electro-chemical reaction, 

(Pb Os-+ Pb+- 2 H:— SO. = 2 Ph S0.-+- 2H, 0) 
must be deduced, We also see from the above equation that the 
changes in concentration in the pores of the plates are much more 
important with the lead cell than with the new Edison accumulator, 
as well as producing more effect on the voltage. 

The change in the resistance of the Edison electrolyte in the pores 
Of the plate is negative; that is, the resistance of the positive increases 

more than the negative decreases. This will account for some of the 
fall in the discharge, but not for all. “ 
The drop is probably due in great part to the fact that at first. the | 
current acts electro-chemically on the particles of oxide in the best | 
electrical contact with the plate, and at the end of discharge must ! 
find as its depolarizer, oxide electrically remote from the plate. A | 
corresponding drop will be found also at the iron plate. The most 
important consideration is the resistance of the briquettes as affected 
by changes of the discharge and charge as well as by changes of the 
resistance of the electrolyte. Certain compounds as NiS, FeS, PbS, 
FeO, PbO:, and CuO act as fairly good conductors of the first class. 
In the Edison cell, the oxides must be conductors to some extent. 
The probable reason for the so-called electro-chemical “passivity” 
is the fact that the products of the electrolysis are insulators; and so 
protect inside layers. The strength of the lead cells is in the Pb and |. : 
. PbO; as metallic conductors, while conversely its weakness lies in 
the lead sulphate. The strength of the new Edison accumlator partly 
lies, no doubt, in the fact that the products of the electro-chemical 
action conduct, but largely also in the skillful combination of me- |: ° 
chanicat and electro-chemical treatment in the manufacture of the |’ 
plates by the inventor. °" ” Wootsty McA. Jonnson, 
Trinity Cotece, Hartrorp, Conn. 

und the electrolyte a solution of ammoni- 
um chloride; While the battery rapidly lost | 
; anity its charge on open circuit, extraordinary 
| in ite turn a sourea of now Powel biRCss ellicieney and great power were claimed tt 
and points the way for new directions 5, it agg regulating cell. Surely in this 

évomber 28, 1901 


” | of endeavor. Rather than be pessimistic, We direction there Ja much that will repay re- | 

: : i should:all be permeated with hopefulness, search, : rn ‘ : , : 

"| sop the outlook is distinctly promising in ‘The principle of the Grove gas battery wi E ] ec tric al: thin plates, having numerous perfora- same time, he employs an alkahno zincate 

(eo fot write een ') seems not to have been followed as ngsidu- dl ae tions, therein and with the usual lugs at solution, an electrode of metallicmagnesium 
P a t en t S the bottom and top by means of which upon which the zinc is deposited during 


i irecti f electrical aire 
practloally: “avery. divection -of-elp ously by experimenters as the promise it 

Mr. Thomas A, Edison, of Llewellyn 

the plates may bo assembled and elec- 

the charging operation, and a second elec- 

. activity. hol vould t. Practically 
i i? holds forth would sugges 7 netically : , 3 co 
‘ff THH STORAGE BATTERY. | any reversible chemical reaction will serve i ; Park, New Joraey, has patented a revers ee eu: we ne oe page ce Eo Rauiadee dl ee 

-/ Whe records of the Patent Oflice give} as the fundamental basis for making a t- ble galvanic battery. Ho utili ‘ 8 busily perio gaesium — tel roly y-active oxide o 

re i aa tl battery, and it is to be hoped that giv J: He utilizes metallic Plates the zine deposit is more adherent, mickel or cobalt, preferably intimately 
' evidence of renewed activity on the part} storage ba ery, ina Hinne was iblewed magnesium ag the support upon which while at the same time the deposit is moro mixed with a flake-like inert conducting 
pee Ne a eee 4. the zine is electro-deposited when the evenly distributed over the entire surface material, such as flake graphite. Cobalt 


BE duvettons:t- tne eeomna: battery elt the great variety of substances from which 
During the past yenr i nutaar of paren ss . choice may be made, some act of chemical 
of evident great importance have been ig-) ements and some reaction among them 
sued, and several entirely new types of | may be found which will result in the pro- 
storage batteries have been brought out.{ duction of a type of cell at once lighter, 
In this issue is illustrated a new type’ stronger and more efficient than those now 
formic ioe se aut Veen gaia 7 While invention has been active im- 
MrT) Ai idieon:<- This: battery ig. quite provement has been steadily made in the 
different from the iron-nickel-potash cell] jond colt until it has been made as good 
recently produced by the same inventor,| or better than the most ardent expecta- 
though, like the latter, considerably differ-} tions of its originators foresaw. The engi- 
neers who have developed the storage bat- 
tery and the capitalists who have financed 
its exploitation are both deserving of all 

ent from the ordinary forms. 
./ So far the first serious attempt to devise 

{ . set. ite 
1 buttery in which lead ogee of its) the credit that can be assigned them, credit 
compounds does not enter is that of Mr. | jot only for efficient work but for wees 

Edison, and it is to be hoped that his ef- plished results. 
forts will meet with commercial success. |-~--—---——--—> 
It is useless here to dwell upon the eom- 

mercial importance of a design of storage 

battery having smaller intrinsic weight 

than the lead types of cell now in general 

use. Tor one thing, the automobile prob- 

lem would be solved by the production of | 

such a cell, while many other uses suggest 

themselves immediately. 

In France, the last two years have been . : ' 

productive of some very interesting re- 
sults in the testing of batteries of a sort|” 
perhaps best described us plated metal 
cells. In these the electrolyte is a salt of 
a metal, such as zinc or cadmium, and the| 
latter is deposited ‘on the negative elec-| 
trode during charge and dissolved off dur- 
ing discharge. Investigations along this 
line certainly seem promising and doubt- 
less will lead to important commercial re- 

In another type of cell the electrolyte is 
such as can be decomposed into an acid and ; 

1 n buse by the passage of current, and the 

reunion of these two produces the current 
of discharge, Such # battery was brought 
out by a Spanish savané about three yeurs 
ago, the electrodes being of porous carbon 


battery is reversed after discharging. 
Magnesium standing higher in the elec- 
trie series of active metals than zine, ob- 
viously can not produce any action.on tho 
latter, Therefore, if an electric action 
did occur in the battery between the met- 
als, it would necessarily affect the mag- 
nesium and not the zine. However, in 
practice the magnesium is not attacked, 
but remains absolutely neutral. There is 
no local action between the two metals, 
and neither hydrogen nor zine hydroxide 
is formed, as was the case with batteries 
of the type heretofore made employing 
‘zine as the active material in an alkaline 
solution, With this battery the zine’ is 
plated out ofthe solution upon the mag- 
nesium support in a dense and adherent 
form, and even with a large volume of 
current very considerable amounts of zinc 
can be thus deposited before the surface 

‘assumes a non-coherent character. He 

can not positively explain why the mag- 
nesium is not attacked and why local ac- 
tion does not take place thereon, a8 ordi- 
‘narily magnesium is much more oxidiz- 
able than zinc. He believes, however, a3 

’ the result of numerous experiments, that 

the phenomenon is satisfactorily ex- 
plained by the supposition that the mag- 
nesium is coated with an extremely thin 
layer of oxide, insoluble in the liquid, 
and that the zine is deposited upon the 
film of oxide and not upon the metal itself. 
Tf this supposition is correct, then the 
electric charges of the zinc ions apparently 
pass to the metal through this Jayer. In 
this improved battery he prefers to use, 
copper oxide as the negative clement. 
Finely divided copper is preferred, which 
is first moulded in form, then subjected 
to heat, so as to convert it into the black 
oxide, after which it is finally reduced to 
metallic: copper by electrolytic action, so 
that in charging it will be reoxidized by 
.the current to the red oxide (Cu,0). 
The copper oxide so treated in the form 
of blocks or cakes of the desired size is 
preferably supported by perforated re- 
ceptacles attached to nickel or nickel- 
plated plates. The solution employed is 
about a twenty per cent solution of 
caustic soda, to which zinc hydroxide .is 
added until it is nearly saturated. The 
_™Magnesium supports are in the form. of 

than if the- plates are imperforate, in 
which latter case.a very much greater de- 
posit takes place at the edges thereof than 
at any other point. The negative ele- 
ments are formed of nickel or nickel- 
plated plates, carrying perforated nickel 
or nickel-plated pockets or receptacles, se- 
cured ‘thereto, the plates’ being formed 


SronacE Battery, 

with lugs by which they may be assem- 
bled and electrically connected in the 
usual way, When the cell is in a neutral 
or fully discharged condition, the copper 
oxide plates or blocks will be reduced to 
the metallic state and the zine will be in 
solution. In charging, the copper is oxi- 
dized and converted to the red oxide 
(Cu,0), while the zinc is deposited clec- 
trically upon the magnesium electrodes. 
The charging is continued: until about 
seventy-five per cent of the zine in the so- 
‘lution is thus deposited, whereupon the 
ecll is ready to be discharged. In dis- 
charging, obviously, the reverse operations 
* take place, the copper oxide being con- 
verted to the metallic state and the zinc 
going back into the solution. The volt- 
age of this battery is 0.67 volt, In dis- 
charging it will be found that a point is 
reached where the voltage falls consider- 
ably, due to. the approach to exhaustion 
of the oxygen in the copper, and the dis- 
charge should not be permitted to take 
place materially beyond that point. The 

positive and negative elements are prop- . 

serly connected and are supported in a 
suitable enclosing jar, hermetically sealed 
from the air, the jar being provided with 
a vent for the escape of any gas generated 
therein. In another buttery, patented at the 

is not considered as desirable for use as 
nickel owing to its greater cost and to the 
fact that it is slightly soluble in an alka- 
line electrolyte. The electrode for sup- 
porting the depolarizing material is made, 

preferably, of sheet stecl carefully nickel- * 

plated so as to be unattacked by the al- 
kaline solution, and provided with pock- 
ets or receptacles having perforated walls 
and within which the depolarizing 1a0- 
terial is maintained under pressure, so as 
to be at all times in good electrical con- 
tact with such walls, said pockets or re- 
eeptacles being made of very thin nickel- 
plated sheet steel high in carbon, so as to 

be . sufficiently elastic to accommodate . 

changes in bulk of the active material. 
Herr Arthur Lehmann, residing in Ber- 

-lin, Germany, has also obtained a patent 

in this country on a new process for pre- 
paring secondary battery plates, the object 
of the invention being to shorten the time 
required for the production of the plates. 
“The lead electrodes coming from -the 
founding machine are made to show a 
chemically pure metallic surface, for which 
purpose brushes or a jet of sand-blast are 
used. These plates are then conveyed into 
a bath containing a solution of an organic 
acid. The acid can be palmitic acid, 
stearic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, etc., 
or any one of the fatty acids. In this bath 
the electrodes are exposed to an electric 
eurrent for a certain Jength of time. In 
this bath, under the action of the elec- 
trie current, the plates are rendered 
more receptive and the surface is in- 
creased similar to ribbed plates.’ The re- 
actions taking place are for the applica- 
tion of oxalic noid (C,0,H,). The acid 
decomposes under the influence of the 
electrical current, and 0,0,combines with 
Pb to 0,0,Pb (oxalate of lead), When 
carbonate of sodinm is added to the 
oxalic acid, there is formed first from 
0,0,H,; and Na,00, 0,0,Na,00,H,0. 
From the oxalate of sodium 0,0,Na, there 
takes place another separation into Nay 
and 0,0,, the latter combining with Pb. 
Tt hag been found that the lead electrodes 
are attacked more intensely in the bath 
containing an organic acid if the acid solu- 
tion in the sath is neutralized or made 
alkaline by the addition of carbonate of 
sodium. After. the. current hos been 

pate TAT RO rr 


ee | in its turn a source of new possibilities, 

a Dees 

Vc ag Se ee 
Ty and notably increasing. 
development that is made brings with it 

and points the way for new directions 
| of endeavor. Rather than be pessimistic, we 
should-all be permeated with hopefulness, 
for the outlook is distinctly promising in 
practically every direction of electrical 

The records of the Patent Office give 
evidence of renewed activity on the part 
of inventors in the storage battery field. 
During the past year a number of patents 
of evident great importance have been is- 
sued, and several entirely new types of 



In this issue is illustrated a new type 
for which patents have just been granted 
Mr. ‘I. A, Edison. ‘This battery is quite 
different from the iron-nickel-potash cell 
recently produced by the same inventor, 
though, like the latter, considerably differ- 
ent from the ordinary forms. 

| So far the first serious attempt to devise 
fy battery in which lead or some of its 
compounds does not enter is that of Mr. 
Edison, and it is to be hoped that his ef- 


It is useless here to dwell upon the com- 
mercial importanee of a design of storage 

; battery having smaller intrinsic weight 

than the lead types of cell now in general 
use. Tor one thing, the automobile prob- 
lem would be solved by the production of | 
such a cell, while many other uses suggest 
themselves immediately. 

In France, the last two years have been 
productive of some very interesting re- 

sults in the testing of batteries of a sort|* 

perhaps best described us plated metal 
cells. In these the electrolyte is a salt of 
a metal, such as zine or cadmium, and the 

lntter is deposited ‘on the negative elec-| | 

trode during charge and dissolved off dur- 
ing discharge. Investigations along this 
line certainly seem promising and doubt- 
less will lead to important commercial re- 

In another type of cell the electrolyte is 
such as can be decomposed into an acid und 
a base by the passage of current, and the 
; rennion of these two produces the current 
of discharge, Such a battery was brought 
out by a Spanish savant about three years 

a ago, the electrodes being of porous carbon 

i storage batteries have been brought out.| 

and the electrolyte a colution of ammoni- 
wn chloride; While the battery rapidly lost 
its charge on open cireuit, extraordinary 
efliciency and great power were claimed - 
for it as a regulating cell. Surely in this 
direction there is much that will repay re- 

The principle of the Grove gas battery 
scems not to have been followed as assidu- 
ously by experimenters as the promise it 
holds forth would suggest. Practically 
any reversible chemical reaction will serve 
us the fundamental basis for making a 
storage battery, and it is to be hoped that 
from the many combinations possible and 
the great variety of substances from which 

. choice may be made, some set of chemical 

elements ‘and some reaction among them 
may be found which will result in the pro- 
duction of a type of cell at once lighter, 
stronger and more efficient than those now 
in use. 7 

While invention has been active im- 
provement has been steadily made in the 
lead cell until it has been made as good 
or better than the most ardent expecta- 
tions of its originators foresaw. The engi- 
neers who have developed the storage bat- 
tery and the capitalists who have financed 
its exploitation are both deserving of all 
the credit that can be assigned them, credit 
not only for efficient work but for accom- 
plished results, 

forts will mect with commercial success. |-—-—---------~ Se ee 


ss 8 


passed through the solution the alkaline 
solution becomes acid, and it is thought 
that the organic acid employed is more 
effective in the nascent state. From the 
deep coloring of the positive plates can be 
judged whether the plates have beei ‘at- 
tacked sufficiently. In that case the plates 
are removed, washed in running water, 
and then hung up in a bath containing lye 
of caustic soda, After the plates have 
been exposed to the lye of cauatic soda for 
a certain time they are again washed in 
running water and dried, so that nothing 
remains of the organic acid used to attack 
the plate and to make it a conductor. For 
the further formation of accumulators aul- 
phurie acid can be used. In the sulphuric 
acid the plates are then exposed to the clec- 
tric current for about fifty hours, and they 
can then be considered ready for use.” 
Another patent has just been issued to 
Mr. ‘Nikola ‘Tesla, the present invention 
relating to apparatus for the utilization 
of what the inventor calls radiant energy, 
such as the sun’s rays and the like. It is 
well known that certain radiations—such 
as those of ‘ultra-violet light, cathodic, 
Reentgen rays, or the like—possess the 
property of charging and discharging con- 
ductors of electricity, the discharge being 
particularly noticeable when the conductor 
upon which the rays impinge is negatively 
electrified. ‘These radiations are generally 
considered to be ether vibrations of ex- 
tremely small wave-lengths, and in ex- 
planation of the phenomena noted it has 
been assumed by some authorities that 
they ionize or render conducting the at- 
mosphere through which they are propa- 
gated. Mr, ‘Lesla’s experiments and ob- 
servations, however, have led -him to con- 
clusions more in accord with the theory 
heretofore advanced by him that sources 
of such radiant energy throw off with great 
velocity minute particles of matter which 
are strongly electrified, and therefore 
capable-of charging an electrical con- 
ductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate 
discharge an electrified conductor, either 
by carrying off bodily its charge or other- 
wise. ‘The present invention is based upon 
a discovery, which he claims to have made, 
that when rays or radiations ‘of the above 
kind are permitted to fall upon an in- 
sulated conducting body connected to one 
of the terminals of a condenser while the 
other terminal of the same is made by 
independent means to receive or to carry 
away electricity, a current flows into the 
condenser’so long as the insulated body 
is exposed to the rays, and under the condi- 
tions hereinafter specified an indefinite 
accumulation of electrical energy in the 

cénilenser takes‘place. This enbrgy, after" 


a suitable time interval, ‘during which the 
rays are allowed to act, may manifest it- 
self in a powerful discharge, which -may 
be utilized for the operation or control 
of mechanical’ or electrical devices or 
rendered useful in many other ways. -In 
applying this discovery Mr, Tesla provides 
a condenser, preferably of considerable 
electrostatic capacity, and connects one of 
its terminals to an insulated metal plate 
or other conducting body exposed:to the 
rays or streams of radiant matter. It is 
very important, particularly in view of 
the fact that electrical energy is generally 
supplied at a very: slow rate to the con- 
denser, to construct the same with the 
greatest care. He uses, by preference, the 
est quality of mica as dielectric, taking 
every possible precaution in insulating the 

armatures, so thattheinstrument may with- 
stand great electrical pressures without 
leaking, and may leave no perceptible elec- 
trification when discharging instantancous- 
ly. Obviously, the above precautions 
should be more rigorously observed, the 
slower the rate of charging and the small- 
er the time interval during which the en- 
ergy is allowed to accumulate in the con- 
denser. The insulated plate or conduct- 
ing body should present as large a surface 
as practicable to the rays or streams of 
matter, he having ‘ascertained thet the 
amount of energy conveyed to it per unit 
of time is under otherwise identical con- 
ditions proportionate to the area exposed, 
or nearly so. Furthermore, the surface 
should be clean and preferably highly pol- 
ished or amalgamated. ‘The second termi- 
nal or armature of the condenser may be 
connected to one of the poles of a battery 
or other source of clectricity or to any con- 
ducting body or object whatever of such 
properties, or so conditioned that by its 
means electricity of the required sign will 
be supplicd to the terminal.’ A simple 
away of supplying positive or negative clec- 
tricity to the terminal is to connect the 

_ same either to an insulated conductor sup- 

ported at some height in the atmosphere 
or to a grounded conductor, the former, 
as"is ‘well Xnown; ‘furnishing positive ‘and 

ce a 

Vol: 89—No, 21 

the latter negative clectricity. As the rays 
‘Or supposed streams of matter generally 
convey a positive charge to the first con- 
denser terminal, which is connected to the 
plato or conductor above mentioned, the 
second terminal of the’ condenser ia usual. 
ly conneeted to tho ground, this being tlio 
most convenient way of obtaining negative 
clectricity, dispensing with the necessity 
of providing an artificial source. ‘In order 
to utilize for any useful purpose ‘the en: 
ergy accumulated in the condenser, thero 
is furthermore connected to the terniinals 
of the same a’ circuit including an instin- 
mient or apparatus which it is ‘desired to 
operate and another instrumézit or device 
for alternately closing and opening the 
circuit. ‘This Jitter may be any form of 
circuit controller, with fixed or movable 
parta or electrodes, which may be actuated 
either by the stored energy or by independ. 
ent means; The discovery willbe more 
fully understood from the accompanying 
drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a diagram 
showing the general arrangement of ap- 
paratus as usually employed. Trig. 2 isa 
similar diagram illustrating more in de- 
tail typical forms of the devices or ele. 
ments used in practice. As illustrative of 
the manner in which the several parts or 

elements of the apparatus in one of its : 

simplest forme are to be arranged and 
connected for useful operation, reference. 
is made to Fig. 1, in which C is the con- 
denser, P tho insulated plate or conduct- 
ing body which is exposed to the rays, 
and P’ another plate or conductor which 
is grounded, al] being joined in scrica, ag 
shown, The terminals T T’ of the con- 
@enser are also connected to a’ circuit 

which includes © device R to be operated 

and a cirenit-controlling device d of the 
character above referred to. ‘The appara. 
tus being arranged as shown, it will: be 
found that when the radiations of the sun 
or of any other source capable of produc. 
ing the effects before described fall upon 
the plate P an acctmulation of electrical 
energy in the condenser C will result, 
This phenomenon is best explained as 

* follows: The sun, a8 well as other sources 

of radiant energy, throws off minute parti. 
cles of matter positively electrified, which, 
impinging upon the plate P, communicate 
continuously an electrical change to the 
same, ‘The opposite terminal of the con- 
denser being connected to the ground, 
which may be considered as a vast reser- 
voir of negative electricity, a feeble eur- 
rent flows continuously into the condenser, 
and inasmuch 28 the supposed particles 
are of an inconceivably small radius of 

curvature, and consequently charged to a, 
relatively very ~high-poteritial; this-charg. 



ee Sah 


' November 23, 1901 
ing of the condenser may continue, as has 
| been actually observed, almost indefinitely, 
; even to the point of rupturing the diclec- 
' trie, If the device d be of such character 
| that it will operate to close the circuit in 
which it is included when the potential in 
! the condenser has reached a certain magni- 
| tude, the accumulated charge will pass 
i through the circuit, which also includes 
the receiver R, and operate the latter. Tig. 
| 2/is an illustration of a particular form 

of apparatus which may be used in carry- 
ing out the discovery. In this figure, 
which in the general arrangement of the 
clements is identical to Fig. 1, the de 
vice d is shown as composed of two very 
thin condueting plates ¢ ¢’, placed in close 
proximity and very mobile, either by rea- 
son of extreme flexibility or owing to the 
character of their support. To improve 
their action they should be enclosed in a 
receptacle from which the air may be ex- 
hausted. The plates ¢ ¢' are connected in 
series with a working circuit, including a 
suitable receiver, which in this case is 
shown as consisting of an electromagnet 
M, a removable armature a, a retractile 
spring 8, and a ratchet-wheel w, provided 
with a spring pawl +, which is pivoted to 
armature a, ns illustrated. When the ra- 
diations of the sun or other radiant source 
fall upon plate P, a current flows into the 
condenser, as above explained, until the 
potential therein rises sufficiently to at- 
tract and bring into contact the two plates 
i? and thereby close the circuit connected 
to the two condenser terminals. This per- 
mits a flow of current which energizes the 
magnet M, causing it to draw down the 
armature a and impart a partial rotation 
to the rntchet-wheel w. As the current 
ceases the armature is retracted by the 
spring b, without, however, moving the 
; Wheel w. With the stoppage of the current 
the plates £ ¢’ cease to be attracted and 
separate, thus restoring the circuit to its 
original condition, — 

Mr. Noble Jones, a resident of Spar- 
rows Point, Md., has just obtained a patent 
on a fuse cutout which he claims will 
ordinarily prevent the areing when the 
fuse is melted and, in any event, will con- 
fine the fire due to arcing should it occur 
to the fuse box or block. A fuse box is 
made in the ordinary manner, comprising 
a porcelain body having binding-posts, to 
which the line wires are attached, a pair 
of the posts carry clamping screws to 
which the ends of the fuse wires are se- 
cured, Located contiguous to, but insu- 
Inted from, the other posts are other 
clamping screws to. which the opposite 
ends of the Tuse wi te secured. The 
éntion ‘residés it 

ST RN TREE EEE nn A BS eget 

een eres 


a pair of magnets arranged in suitable 
sockets in the block, one of the magnets 
being disposed beneath each fuse wire. 
‘The cores of these magnets are of soft iron, 
and are wound with wire of a gauge suit- 
able to the current passing through the 
block. These magnet wires are each con- 
nected at one end with one of the in- 
sulated clamping screws and at the other 

Maenetio Fuse Cutout. 

with the corresponding binding-post, so 
that the, magnets are in series with the 
fuse wires, When the current becomes ex- 
eessive, and sufficient to cause the fuse to 
melt, the are thus formed will be blown 
out or extinguished by the action of the 
magnet arranged directly beneath it. Thus 
all danger of fire from this cause is re- 
moved, the effect being produced by the 
magnetic field established above the mag- 
net and to which the fuse is exposed. 

M. Paul Chapuy, residing at Vincennes, 
France, has just obtained a patent in this 
country on a novelty in the line of elec- 
tric batteries. He provides 1 body com- 
posed of some porous material that resists 
the action of the electrolyte, and in this 
hody embed the positive and negative ele- 
ments, which are insulated from each other 
by the body. ‘These bodics he describes as 
being formed of pure clay or kaolin and of 
a flux, the whole being compounded with 
coal, carefully sifted to the required size 
and free from impurities or ashes. ‘The 







eal EN 

Evecrnie Barrery, 

ingredicnts are crushed and mixed in a 
mill, then moulded into the requisite 
forms and dried, after which they are 
baked at a temperature exceeding 1,200 
degrees centigrade. This burns out the 
coal, leaving a porous structure. The 
cavities for the reception of the electrodes 
may be formed in the blocks or -bodies, 
while they are being made or after they 
tre completed. 

A telephone relay has been patented by 
Herr Bela Gati, of Temesvar, Austria- 
Hungary, It consists, in general, in caus- 
ing the telephonic currents to modify the 
current feeding the are’ of an are. lamp, 


modifications and transferring euch mag. 
nified modifications of current by in 
duetion to another circuit containing tele. 
phonic receiving apparatus. A transform. 
er or induction coil is provided, the pri 
mary winding of which is in the trans. 
mitting circuit, The secondary winding: 
of this induction coil is located in a cir-! 
cuit which includes the generator and a: 
are lamp, as well as the primary windin 
of another induction coil. The wires lea 
to a telephone receiver, and they include’ 
the secondary winding of the second in 
duetion ¢oil. The are lamp is preferabl 
of the continuous-current type, requirin, 
about forty-five volts electro-motive fore 
and from three to ten amperes. The fune 
tion of the generator is to supply the nor 

mal are in the lamp. ‘The operation is as\s' 

follows: The weak telephonic currents! 

traversing the transmitting circuit act by nh 
induction upon the lamp circuit, causing’ i 



Tenernony REeway, 

corresponding increases and decreases of 

eurrent therein. An increasing impulse 
of current will cause the carbons of the 
lamp to approach eachother, which will 
result in a corresponding decrease of re- 
sistance in the lamp cireuit, and; accord- 
ing to Ohm’s law, this decrease in resist- 
ance will result in an inerease of current 
from the generator. ‘This resulting in- 
crease of current will be much greater than 



the impulse from the telephonic circuit } 

which originated it or was responsible for f 

it, and this amplified current, flowing in 

the cireuit-connecting gonerator and lamp, ¥ 

will correspondingly affect the second in- 

duction coil and send out to the receiving ff 
telephone in the circuit a much stronger 
impulse than was created by the voice in 
the transmitting circuit. Likewise every 
impulse traversing the transmitting cir. 
cuit affects the are in the lamp and is pro- } 

portjonately magnified by the lamp and ¥, 

sent out.onto the receiving circuit through § 
the second induction coil. Lesser impulses f 

act with less effect upon the are, and af” 

wider difference takes place in the second 
induction coil. ; 

The Canadian Electrolytic Company, of 
Montreal, Quebec, has applied for incor- 
poration to manufacture salt, lime, soda, 
ete, Its capital stock is $300,000. Among]: 
the applicants are Mr. Harry Bates, of 
Boston, Mass., and Mr, Walter Mitchell;|’ 
of Montreal,’ eo eS ae 

thus ‘auising" the lump to magnify auch 

the magnetic field to maintain the bridge, or in which means are 
provided for positively progressing the ore through the tubular 
* magnets, “ 
The patent affords no data regarding the strength of field neces- 
. sary to maintain this bridge across the very heat zone of the furnace, 
nor does it discuss the question, vital as regards the practical opera- 
tion of the method, of the relation between the critical temperature 
of the ore and the temperature at which the agglomeration occurs, 
ca es, 

The Edison Storage Battery, 

Ever since Dr. A. &, Kennelly read his admirable paper last May 
before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, on the Edison 
iron-nickel storage battery, the keenest interest in the subject has 
been taken not alone by the electrical profession but by those en- 
gaged in many other fields of industrial application, notably that of 
automobilism. This interest has again been stimulated by the loan 
exhibit at the recent automobile show in Madison Square Garden 
of a complete cell of the battery. The cell was y2 inches high, 2 
inches thick, 5 inches wide,-and weighed 7% Ibs, giving 120 watt- 
hours, or 46 lbs, per horse-power-hour. The cell was also shown in 
its detail parts, and the steel plates excited much comment and sur- 
prise, being in sharp contrast to the familiar ones of Jead. 

The publicity given to Mr. Edison’s work has led people to ex- 
pect to buy the battery even now in the open market, and the dis- 
appointment* expressed jn many quarters is not fair to the dis- 
tinguished inventor, The Kennelly paper was presented last spring 
against Mr. Edison's desire, but in compliance with an universal re- 

quest that he would “show his hand” and tell the public what it was | 

that he was working at jn storage batteries. In the interval, Mr. 
Edison, who has always {ogked upon the Institute as the proper chan- 

nel for these important communications,.has maintained an absolute | 

silence, but it would be the wildest mistake to suppose that he had 
also been idle. One thing can always be predicated about Mr. Edi- 
son, viz., that whether he talks or abstains from speech he is always 
hard at work, Indeed, although he has now reached the term of 
life where men of great achievement may rest on'their laurels in dig- 
nified ease, it may be questioned whether he hag ever followed up 
anything with more unrelenting zeal and enthusiasm than he has 
displayed in the unremitted work given to this his latest and, in some 
respects, his greatest invention. 

Last June note was made in these pages of the formation of the 
Edison Storage Battery Company, with a capital of $1,000,000, and 
since then reference has been made to the establishment of a fac- 
tory at Glen Ridge, N, J,, not far from the Edison Laboratory, for 
the production of the battery. This means a good deal more than 
the superficial signs would indicate. At this present moment, the 
Glen Ridge factory is so far advanced that the manufacture of bat- 
teries will begin with the new year, and deliveries should come 
early in the spring. The inquiries and orders ate such as to ensure 
that there will be no accumulation of the output, although provision 
has been made for an {nitial production of 100 horse-power capacity 

~ daily, although this Mr, Edison looks: upon only entering 
wedge. The factory was originally a plant for the manufacture of 
fine jewelry, and some of its machinery is still available, but it has 
_ been thoroughly renovated and modernized, and a large amount of 
new imachinery, tools, ec, has been put in. The main building is 
three stories, in addition to which there'are large wings comprising 
machine shop, drying rooms, nickel-plating plant, ete. Dynamos, 
engines, boilers, etc, are already in place, and the machine shop 
has a fine equipment, including some special apparatus. 

A mile or two away—the distance, depending on which road you 
take—is the Edison chemical plant at Silver Lake, Here the well- 
known Edison-Lalande battery has been made for some years past, 

‘and now the chemical plant necessary for the new storage battery 
has been added. Several aeres of fand have also been acquired, the 
site being an ideal one for manufacturing uses, and the plan being 

ee PEA Sa te ee 

‘tained in the new battery? Analyzing the cost of electric automobile 

‘subjected to the severest brutality that such an appliance could ever 
_ be supposed to endure in actual service, the element of depreciation, 


Of an inch all told— the separators are naturally thin to be in, keep 

to carry out here whatever extensive changes may be found neces- 
saty in the future, rather than in residential Glen Ridge, or in the | 

crowded Edison works g¢ Orange. Large shops have already been 
* “built at Silver Lake for the new “enterprise. One of these, will be 

devoted to the water digtiffation ‘plant. Another will be devoted to 
‘the. treatment of the nickel, and. is already cquipped with the neces- 
sary, vats, etc. A third targe shop is occupied by the plant for pre- 
paring the iron oxide ang the graphite. All embody many novelties 
i, construction and equipment, and show that not'only has'a master 

mind been actively employed on the various problems, but that no 
small amount of executive ability has been given to the task of 
Preparation. Indeed, at the present time, the attention is incessant 
that is being given to the subject by Mr. Edison's staff, especially 
ae W. S. Mallory, W. E, Gilmore, F, R, Upton and J.-M, 


When interviewed on the subject last week, Mr. Edison expressed 
himself with the firmest conviction as to the real success he has at- 

operation, he pointed out that by far the largest Percentage of cost 
lay in the, element of depreciation, Under the most rigorous tests,~ 

as‘shown by ‘the records, appears to have dwindled to an inappre- 
ciable minimum. These tests now extend virtually over a couple 
of years, but are still being persisted in, with the object of determin- 
ing any weakness, wherever it may lurk, As to the cost of the cell, Mr. 
Edison proposes to market it somewhere around the present cost of 
lead batteries, So far as can be ascertained, the type of cell noted 
above is the standard, such as would be used, for example, in auto- 
mobile work. But it would appear that for Stationary work far 
larger grids can be used; indeed, there is said no valid reason |: 
why they should not be 10 ft. high, or even as big as the side of a 
house, For separators between the plates, several successful types 
have been used, some of which are quite original, As a matter of}, 
fact the cell is so full of plates there is little room provided for either: 
separators or the potash solution; but with plates so thin—one-tenth} 

ing. The containing boxes are, as has already been noted, of steel,,.*.: 
The weight of the solution is put at not to exceed 20 per cent of the 

plate weight, 0...’ hia: poate 


. eS, 

8 ’ 
f ‘ ‘ s 
i : : : DeceMner 7, 1 
| 7 . 7, 1901, ELECTRICAL WORLD anno ENGINEER. 93t 
| F Theory of the Edison Nickel-Iron Cell. where » is the valency and } represents Naperian or natural lo- 
f ; ' : 7 ae Sener: garithms. . : r 
} “ ; By E, F, Roener, Pit.D. According to Van't Hoff there exists an analogy between the laws 
\ AVE read with much interest the communication of Mr, Woal- Of pressure of gases and those of osmotic pressure in solutions. : 
sey McA. Johnson, published in your issuc of Nov. 2. Mr, Hence the last equation also represents: the work corresponding to 
the change of one gram equivalent of an ion from the osmotic pres~ 

t Johnson's arguments are quite interesting, but do not appear to 

be conclusive. He agrees that there will be concentration changes sure P to p: in a solution. 

at the electrodes, but he claims that such changes would have small Now consider an electrode reversible in regard to the cation (like 
| effect on the voltage, and that the steady drop of the voltage during COPPer in copper sulphate), Let 96,540 coulombs pass from the clec- 
discharge could not be accounted for by the influence of the varia~ . 1 

tions of concentration upon the potential differences between the trode to the solution, so that 5, gram molecule of that kind of ion, 
electrodes and the solutions, His argument is as follows: “The 


ae te et 

in regard to which the electrode is reversible, passes from the elec- 

t / ‘ 
4 : ae 
mS : 
- ES : : . mf oF ie oleae sapere plate against hydrogen would be trode to the solution, and is brought from what Nernst calls the 
‘i ‘ations “solution tension” of the electrode to the osmotic pressure of the 
é i 4a 0.058 tog 2 ’ same ions in the solution. The work performed is then also repre- 
2 Pr sented by the last formula, if P now means tthe solution tension and 

where p: and fs are the aqueous tensions Of the caustic solutions, A the osmotic pressure in the solution of that kind of ions, in regard 

similar formula comes in for the positive plate, This would show to which the electrode is reversible. The work performed is also 

that the change from a 20 per cert solution to a 1 per cent solution - the product of the number of coulombs and of the potential dif- 
ference ¢: between the electrode and the electrolyte, so that, after 




. : a would make very slight difference in the voltage of the cell (not 
' . , mutch over 0,03 volt).” some transformations, we get for T= 290 (17 degs, C.), the potential 
This argument is not altogether clear. There is no reason apparent difference ¢: in volts, or Ni 
why Mr. Johnson should speak of the « m. f. of the nickel- 0.058 P d 
superoxide plate “against hydrogen.” So-called normal electrodes, a= ar ee log KR (1) Ni 

like the hydrogen electrode (platinized platinum saturated with and : 

surrounded by hydrogen) may often be applied to advantage in where log represents common logarithm, P the solution tension and 

scientific researches, but in the present case the hydrogen electrode? the osmotic pressure of that kind of ions, in regard to which the 

would introduce only complications. For ¢: would then he the electrode is reversible. 

c. mf, of the combination: nickel superoxide electrode, 20 per cent Now take a case exactly like that just considered, except that the 
osmotic pressure of the ions in regard to which the electrode is 




ki : 
% tee 
i 4 : + ‘ 5 , / caustic potash solution, hydrogen electrode, and. ¢: the ¢. m, f, 0 tC. presen 3c 
3 : ; . P ; the combination: nickel superoxide electrode, 1 per cent caustic reversible, is different from before—say, prinstead of pi. Thee. m. f 
4 ay , . F . potash solution, hydrogen electrode. Hence the difference ¢:—¢s, as between electrode and solution is then: 
k : . ; ‘ i : defined by Mr. Johnson, would not give the variation of the po- 0.058 P 
He ‘ 3 tential difference between the nickel su roxide plate and th hus qa log > 
ii t peroxide plate and the. solu 5 7) Ps 
i Ne . tion alone, but as well as the variation of the potential difference at = . 
i ° the hydrogen electrode, and the variation of the ¢. mi f. at the hydro- hence the difference of the ¢, m, f’s in the two cases 
. gen electrode, is of no interest whatever in the present case. 
| What would be important to calculate: is evidently the difference Cy ey = 2058 log 4 (2) 
if f.. . @r—es, where ¢ is the potential difference between a nickel super- ae 
a i oxide electrode and a 20 per cent K OH solution, and ¢ the poten- where pr and fs are the values of the osmotic pressure of that kind . 
tial difference between a nickel superoxide electrode and a 1 per cent of ion, in regard to which the electrode is reversible. We have de- 
may indeed be rep- veloped this formula under the assumption that the electrode is re- 

Tf it is reversible in regard to the 

K OH solution, Now, this difference, ¢:— ¢2, 
iffers from (2) in 

resented by the formula, . given by Mr. Johnson, 
quence of Nernst's theory of the potential difference at 4 “seyersible anion, the following formula is obtained, which d 
electrode”; but prand pz have then a peculiar meaning, and when this the sign, : 
tg clearly understood, it is impossible to use the formula for deducing 0.058 A 
the special conclusion given by Mr. Johnson. To prove this claim, 1 4Q- a=), tog “fy 
very brief analysis of Nernst’s formula, as far as neces- soe 
The osmotic pressure of a kind of ion is.proportional to the con- * 

as a conse- versible in regard to the cation. 



will give a 
” sary for the present case. 
Nernst’s theory deals wit! 
ae i surface of an electrolyte and a 
Fae oe, ae ** > meant by a “reversible electrode” can best be explained by a few ex- i, (2) we can write fs 
amples, When the transport of 2X 96,540 coulombs from a copper “ 
electrode to a copper stlphate solution ig combined with the passage 
of one gram atom of Cu from the electrode into the solution ; and 
when the transport of the 2 X 96,540 coulombs in the opposite di- - 

h the e. m. £. produced at the boundar, 
‘inevevsible electrode.” What i centration of the same kind of jon, so that instead of the ratio a 
Me . 1 

, where ¢ and ¢s are the concentrations of 

ectrode is reversible. 

but says that ps and ps 
tions.” This is not clear; 
re of the K ions or of the 

that kind of ion, in regard to which the el 
Mr. Johnson gives the same formula, 
are “the aqueous tensions of the caustic sol 

i my 
. - ef . in rection is combined with the deposition of one gram atom of Cu from but he evidently means the osmotic presst! 
. ‘ the solution to the electrode, the copper electrode in the copper sul- © H ions. This osmotic pressure is proportional to the concentration 
ible in regard to the Cu ions. In of K OH; hence, under the assumption that the one K O H solution 

phate solution is called revers 
he gets 

the same way, a zinc electrode in the solution of a zinc salt is re~ 

versible in regard to the 21 ions. A mercury electrode, covered with - 
ion with a solution of a a-as 2.058 log 20 = 0,038 volt 

a layer of calomel (He: Cls), in connecti 
chloride, is reversible in regard to the Cl ions. s 
When one gram molecule of a gas is brought from the pressure P  wnot much over 0.03 volt.” T his conclusion is wrong, because the 
ly be assumed to be reversi- 

is 20 times more concentrated than the other, 

to the pressure p—dp, the work performed is nickel superoxide ‘lectrode cannot simp 
RT ) ble in regard either to, the K ions or the O H ions. 

vdp= p ib; Mr. Johnson’s conclusion would be right if we had to deal with 

copper in copper sulphate, for the ion in regard to which the electrode 

onding to the change from the pressure P to the is here reversible is copper, and, the osmotic pressure of the copper 

ne gram molecule, ~~ ions is in this case directly proportional to the concentration of the 
The difference between the ¢: m. f. at a 

the work corresp 
lower pressure pi, is, therefore, for o! 

P copper sufphate solution. 
RT A . copper electrode in a 29 per cent sulphate solution and the cm. f, 
and for‘one gram equivalent Me in a 1 percent solution, would, therefore, be represented by equation 
a ay 2 DRT . : (2), where, instead of the ratio of the osmotic pressures of the Cu 
Lior : ions, the ratio of the concentrations of the copper sulphate solution 

nu ty 




eae TE 





a ENS Ey Ra 


would be used 
theory of solutions which is strict 
lutions, would also be correct for ¢ 

In the same way Mr. Johnson's conclusion would al 
zinc in zine sulphate, 
chloride solution. But the case 0. Edi 
ent. There we have to deal with 






’ ¢ 0 a nickel superoxide electrode, and 
with an iron electrode in a solution of hydroxide of potassium. The 

7 7 4 case is also different with the lead cell, where there are lead Peroxide 
woot Be ion 4d! and lead in a sulphuric acid solution, To apply Nernst's theory to 
: rel oe ont gute Ny eee hee these latter cases, it js first necessary to fix exactly’ the ideas as to 
the kind of ion in regard to which each electrode is reversible, 
There are two different theories of this type for the lead cell, the 
One developed by Le Blane, the other by Liehenow, Both assume 
that the lead clectrode is reversible in regard to bivalent positive Pb 

» Le Blanc assumes it to be re- 
ive Pb ions, while Liebenow 

st ; © bivalent negative Pb O; ions, 
With these Assumptions, it is possible to apply Nernst's formula (1), 

in which, of course, pis the osmotic Pressure of that kind of ion, in 

regard to which the electrode is assumed to be reversible (Dolezatek, 

Zeitschr, f. Elektrochemie, 1899, May 25; Abel, Zeitsehr, f. Elektro- 

chemie, 1901, June 27), This leads to equations representing the 

em. £’s as functions of ionic concentrations of hypothetical kinds 

of ions, in regard to which the electrodes are reversible, Later on, 

; the Jaw of chemicat mass action enables one to Pass from those hypo- 

thetical ionic concentrations to the measurable concentrations of sul- 

: bee ae Phuric acid. Both Liebenow’s and Le Blane’s theories lead to the 

coe 2 : same results, and which are in agreement with the facts, The method 

: ee just indicated is somewhat long, but is the only correct method to 

ean al apply Nernst's formula (1) in such cases, To apply it to the problem 

* aes * 4g 5 of the Edison cell, it would, therefore, be necessary, first, to form 

ty ; poe te Bee ee ; exact ideas as to the kind of ions in regard to which the electrodes 

: a heey, Sega ie cy are reversible, and then to apply formula (1), where P Tepresents 
the solution tension and (; the osmotic Pressure of these ions, 

= BaF Png hese Mr, Johnson's argument thus breaks down and the question of the 

i tn ited . "cto By ‘ oo influence of concentration changes at the two electrodes upon the 

. y ‘ é oue e. m. f. of the Edison cell is still an open question, I also believe 

: WEN es : : that the other question taken up by Mr, Johnson, concerning the 

. ies Meee ee eigety Bie effect of changes in the internal resistance, can be answered success~ 

2 ea Wane ; ha Has cy fully only by experiment, as it seems to me impossible to devise a 

| a: Priori an exact mathematical theory, taking into account all the 

cas . various, influences which bring about a change in the internal re- 
Bee : . 1 sistance. 


meee She ae : An Association of Ohio Farmers? Telephone Companies, 

pan Ni ine nai ei ae The Geauga County Telephone. Association, which was formed as 
ported aa Sat in ne ee oe an association for mutual benefit by five exchanges in Geauga County, 
thud eoeree . has been reorganized and made stronger by the admission of the 

: ae : Chagrin Falls Telephone Company, of Chagrin Falls, The associa- 
prec ee tion is unique in several respects, and it represents what is probably 
the most complete system of farmers' telephone lines in the country, 

ear The original association was formed in 1898 by the Bainbridge Tete- 
sme phone Company, the Chardon Telephone Company, the Burton Tele- 
phone Company, the Stafford Telephone Company, of Newburry, and 

the Claridon Telephone Company. The companies were independent 

. . y gh of one another, but under the association agreement the subscribers 

* . 4 ‘ Be Pate oo of one exchange was permitted to talk to subscribers of all the other 
; bd + oan yee exchanges without extra charge, Under the Teorganization, the ad- 

‘ ; vantages are increased, since the Chagrin Falls Telephone Company 

; = : ” wet ‘ has connection with Cleveland and the long-distance lines of the 

_ , 2 se United States Telephone Company, thereby giving the association 
the benefit of the long-distance service. The subscribers in the most 
remote portion of the county will be enabled to talk to Cleveland sub- 
scribers at the Chagrin Falls rate, 10 cents. At present the tele- 
phones of the association number over 1000, divided as follows: 
Bainbridge, 150; Chardon, 355;. Burton, 150; Newburry, 150; Clari- 
don, 50; Chagrin Falls, 220. Since the entire population of Geauga 
County is only about 14,000, it is evident that the lines of the asso- 

of the association to make important extensions of the toll service 


an iron core, you must admit that this machine will satisfy the sever- 
est claims on safe and dangerless operation,” 

words that the success of Brown’s dynamos must be ascribed to his 
“ingenious though simple” constructions, and the truth of this Say- | 
ing is borne out by the machines illustrated in Figs. 18 and 19. The 
magnet-wheel is overhanging, the exciting current is led to the field ” 
coil by two copper wires that run like belts on the slide rings, The 
armature can be moved aside to expose itself and the field. The 
armature winding of these machines consists of round bars, one 
bar’ per pole and per phase, which are connected in Y. In the pho- 
tograph the form of the end connectors is clearly visible, This latter 
construction also originated with Mr. Brown, 

two steel rings with pole projections, This construction, which 
found numerous imitators, did not Prove so successful as its in- 
genious simplicity might suggest, the reason being the great field 
leakage. Brown soon became alive to this inherent defect of his ma- 

chine, and he at once discontinued building it, while his followers, 
ciation reach nearly half the homes in the county. New officers of with the imitativeness of our species and with t 

the associatign were elected as follows: Charles Post, Bainbridge, | izing the human mind, did not even sec its seem 
president, and H. C. Tutile, Burton, secretary. It is the intention its inventor had long discarded the construction. 

and lines will be built into eastern Cuyahoga County, northern the short-circuit curve bend off at high saturations so that doubling 
Portage County and northern Summit County. It is probable also the exciting current, for instance, does not increase the short-circuit 

: in bul Fe standard, thereby effecting’ 
@ great saving to the different companies, 


The Debt of Electrical Engineering to C. E, L. 
By B.A, Benrenp, 

— , 


fs bass first and most needful step was to make a generator that 
could be used equally well for single-phase and for polyphase 
currents. Thus Mr, Brown invented and designed the “Lauf- 
fen Type” represented in Figs, 18 and 19. 

In his Frankfort lecture of Feb, 9, 1891, Mr, Brown thus describes 
the main principles that guided him in Creating this construction, 
“The generator must be an alternating-current dynamo, whose ten- 
sion we will choose as low as Possible, for thus such a dynamo can 
be made a machine in the fullest sense of the word, This will be 
clear if I adduce as illustration the winding of the armatures of the 
dynamos designed for supplying three-phase currents to the Ocrlikon 
Tool & Engine Works, which consists of copper bars 30 mm. thick, 


closed slots in the armature iron, a construction which I used as 
early as 1885 in my ordinary direct-current dynamos. If you con- he 
sider an armature of 40 volts consisting of solid bars firmly held in 


At the outset of this article we quoted Professor Amsler Laffon's 

The field coil consists of one circular bobbin placed between the 

he inertia character- 
ing advantages until 

The effect of leakage in the Lauffen type shows itself in making 


weg ape 



SRS Sah 


SU eee 

eae pee We 

| SpreMpen's3,,1902, 

irection. By. dividing one of the carbons, as illustrated in Fig. 4 
(magnet not shown), wires may be connected to direct-current am- 
‘d meters which will indicate the presence of direct or pulsating cure 
! rents, Constructed in this manner, the ammeters will not read until 
the magnet is presented to the arc, As soon as the arc is divided into 
the two wings, the instruments read the average current flowing dn 
each circuit, and also indicate that these two portions flow in opposite 

directions. fe ee 
If the current curve followed the c. m. £, curve, it might be repre- 

aes . Fig. 5—CURRENT CURVE, } \ 

sented, as in Fig. 5, and after the separation by the magnet, by the 
two curves, as in Fig. 6, where the current is passing ‘in one wire, 
when there is zero current in the other. The current curve, however, 

'< does not follow'the em, f. curve, but remains at zero until the 

e, m. f, of the Hine equals the counter ¢. m. f. of the are, This is 
? shown by Fig. 9, which is from a photograph of an ordinary alter- 
nating arc, as'seen in a revolving mirror (axis vertical). It will be 
noticed that the period of darkness nearly equals that of light, show- 
_ing that the current, does not flow until some time after the e, m. f. 
commences to rise. 

_ The appearance of the are under the influence of the magnet is 


; interesting, as the wings may easily be made to have an extent of 
five inches from tip to tip, and with an upward curve due to the cure 
rents of heated air. An attempt to photograph such an are was made, 
and it was found necessary to shield the lens from the strong violet 
rays of the are proper, in order that sufficient exposure might be ob- 
taiped on the wings. .This photograph is shown in Fig, 7. 

* Fig. 8 is from a photograph of the violet arc proper, extended side- 
ways by the magnet. It will be noticed that the ends of the carbons, 
although brilliantly incandescent, do not appear to give out many 


chemical rays. The exposure was made short to suit the violet arc, 
and, therefore, it would seem that. but little violet light was given out 
by the incandesce ds-oftHé carbons. The question, therefore, 

\ _atisesriscnét the curve of illumination for actinic rays for any arc 

. Sathp quite different from the curve of illumination for visual rays? 
* Probably the:most interesting photographs taken of the alternating 

arc-under the’ influence of the magnet are those shown in Figs,:10 

and: 11, These were.taken of the are as seen in a revolving mirror, 


_. Which-tend to shorten the life of a battery of the lead, 


and show. the separation produced” by the 
s direction being on one'side'of 

having its axis horizontal, : 
magnet—the arc from currents in one 


7 ve , 7 
a ee 
| : 
. . . 


I i , 

i ’ e “ 5 

bg 7 
4 n ‘ . 

}: : ; iC 

ba ‘ “a : 2 5 
the central line, while that from currents. in the opposite direction < To. 
are on the other side of that line, : 7 oy : a 

Thanks are due to Prof, Geo, Headley and Mi 
their valuable assistance in making the ph 


N a previous article (Eecrricat‘Wortp ANp ENGINEER, June 7), _&¥ oes : : 
the possibilities for a light-weight storage battery’ were dis: See ee : (tee eS - et toy 
cussed, Lightness is an important factor’ in traction work, = : re we M38 pds Aes * 
but not of such immediate importance as. durability, -:"" . : Yee te ‘ : eo ' Pers 
The greater part of the paterits taken’ out on ‘storage cells of ‘the q : ofthe ; ; ‘ 
lead-lead type are based on.minot improvements in mechanical con- AS ee : : F ee ee Nea bey . 
struction.’ These improvements are generallyintended :to increase, i eo . aie rae. a Reng coh ee Oe es 
the life of the battery rather thari to,reduce its weight, although some:: = ; pom Ao Ae at ' ia ee : eng es Sie 
are obviously ‘designed to: secure’ lightness: at the expense’ of life -- : Bee Nig ng denne ie ok Bae 85 ae 3 ‘ De tae : og 
There is room: for improvement:in' both’ dirécti ns in the.Jead cell, | _ sien 2%, 
but the improvements will tindoubtedly come’ from the..chemiical : pane : 
and physical study .of the active’ materials and: electrolyte ‘rather 
than ina mechanical way.) 2 00 ys Poet aes 
From the properties of lead’ with:respect to its equivalent weight, ? 
lack of rigidity, ete, and:from'the nature of ith reactions of its 
compounds during charge and discharge,:we aresjustified in’ the con- 
clusion that attempts at reduction‘of the weight of lead ‘cells are im: 
practical, but that there is.a profitable field 'of-iwvork : p 

cin ‘attempting 
to-increase the: durability of:a ‘cell from ttie.chemical side of: the 4 
problem. : BORE Se san BN *: . - 
‘What is wanted is nota attery: which will show: good ‘results 'o 
a laboratory table, with'a‘competent battery harge, but on 
which can successfitlly withstand ‘the average: treatin 
inexperienced persons, and ‘the necessarily great variations.of current 
output and the constant jarring to whic! if subjecte 
bile or street-car propulsion... tt Jcareetear 
Tt is the purpose.of:this“Article to bring out the principal 

other types, and finall: 
may be made. Meee fs 
- Taking .up first the lead-sulphu: i lead * peroxitie,; 
find that in actual practice the negative plates,“in a wel 

cell, will Jast- during two-or three renewals. of the positiv 
sure, the negatives gradually: lose -their, capacity,) hilt or 
depreciation is so slow‘ practical -to use’ 
sets of: positives, It:has. been ‘claimed. by 

to suggest lin 

tpon whie! 


siderable experience, that a negative plate can be made light and 

yet ast during: four of five years of constant service. Since the 

positive electrode is the weak point of the cell, I shall concern my- 

self more particularly with it ae 7 

In dischatging a lead storage ‘cell, lead ssulplfate is formed on 
. either plate! This sulphate being insoluble remains in its position 
and there is‘thus formedja mixture of lead peroxide'and lead sul- 
phate on the positive electrode, and spongy lead and lead sulphate 
on the negative. As the proportion of ‘sulphate increases, the con- 
-~ ductivity of the mixture decreases, In practice the proportion of 
the sulphate is not allowed to increase to more than 50 per cent., 
as at this point the. electromotive force of the cell: falls<(and even 
before ‘this point is reached), and further sulphation takes place 
rapidly if the cell is not at once recharged, . 
. It is held ‘by some that this mixture js in reality a complex com- 
pound; that thé Jead peroxide of a charged cell is not as represented 
by the simple formula PbO,, but is an allotropic form in which many 
simple molecules are combined into the complex one (PbOs).x, where 
+ is an unknown number but assumed to be 50 for mere convenience, 
Then the discharge of the positive electrode will be represented by a 
series of changes in the molecules, as follows: (PbOs)0, (PbOs)a" 
PSO. (PbOs)a° (PLSO)s, . . .. to approximately. (PbOs)2.° 
(PbSO.)u, when the electrode has practically reached its discharge 
limit. Each molecule contains some lead peroxide throughout the 
discharge and keeps the mass conductive, The molecule becomes 
less stable as the percentage of peroxide decreases, and when the point 
represented ‘by (PbOs)3s° (PbSO.)s is approximately reached, it 
readily breaks up with the formation of ordinary lead sulphate and 
simple molecules of lead peroxide, thus accounting for the rapid sul- 
phation which is apt to take place if 4 cell is allowed to remain long 
uncharged, This structtire of the molecule also accounts for the case 
with which the discharged plate is’ reconverted to the peroxide con- 
dition, it being gerierally held:that pure silphate of lead is very slowly 
converted to the peroxide electrolytically, and only with a relatively 
large expenditure of-energy,  - . 

This theory of thé complex tature of the lead peroxide molecule 
was brought forward by Wade in a paper read before the British 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, 

Theory is a thing to explain facts, . Whatever the theory held, the 
fact remains that sulphate of lead does form rapidly if the cell is 
allowed to stand: uncharged, and also forms under other conditions 
which are not well understood. Although.sulphation can be controlled 
to a certain extent by exercising great care, it is still a serious ‘draw- 
back to the use of lead in batteries, and is in a large measure respon- 
sible for the rapid deterioration of the plates, 2 

Another cause for deterioration is the.lack of porosity in the active 
mass. The plate cannot absorb sufficient :acid for its discharge, and 

50 must depend upon diffusion, A heavy discharge will exhaust the - 

acid in the interior of the active mass, and, as was shown by Glad- 
mh and Tribe, the normal. reactions do not take place in very dilute 
acid, ~ . ; : , 

A rapid charge may loosen particles of the active material by the 
too rapid evolution of gas. This is known as scaling,” 

In pasted plates the peroxide mass softens when subjected to severe 
service in'an automobile, and tends to wash away from the grid. 
This result takes place in a very short time if sediment is allowed 
to accumulate in the bottom of the cell until it touches the lower 
edges of the plates and thus causes a short-circuit, This sediment, 
consisting of lead sulphate, is continually forming and necessitates 
the frequent washing of the battery to avoid harm to the plates, 

In order to preverit the falling away of active material, due to the 
softening of the mass and to dislodgment by escaping gas, and to 
Prevent sediment from falling to the bottom of the cell, some battery 

makers ‘wrap the plates with some porous substance, as specially 
treated cellulose, glass, wool, etc. I do not know to ‘what extent this 
method is alleviating the trouble, but in my opinion it cannot stop 
the formation of ‘sediment, which I believe is due to the following 
Causes: * ¢ 
: Lead sulphate is soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, is prac- 
tically insoluble in dilute acid, and is again slightly soluble in pure 
water, In charging a ‘cell at a fairly rapid rate, sulphuric acid is liber- 
ated in the Pores of the active masses faster than’ it can diffuse out. 
Therefore the interior of the plates must contain fairly concentrated 
acid, in which’ lead: sulphate is slightly soluble. This strong acid 
carrying lead sulphate, slowly diffusés out of ‘the plates and is there 
diluted by the. weaker acid. The sulphate being less soluble in ‘the 

. 4ses this material in his work with storage cells, 

“Vou, XL, No, 11. 

weaker acid, is precipitated and settles to the bottom of the cell, Th 
action would take place througli the porous envelope and so form’a 
sediment the same as without it, ” 

The way to prevent this action would seem from the foregoing -to \ 

be by preparing the plates with greater porosity,’ so that the acid could 
diffuse more rapidly, ‘and so avoid. great changes in density of the 
electrolyte, or by preventing the, formation ‘of the white, sulphate, as- 
suming Wade's theory to be correct; preferably by both methods 
together, “etn Wee ; 

Mr. G. H. Robertson thinks that the formation of sulphate might 
be checked by adding somé stibstance to the electrolyte that will pre- 
vent the formation of oxidized bodies init, and which at the same 
time wifl not injure the plates. eee 


This cell, which uses an alkaline hydroxide electrolyte, possesses 
certain advantages over the lead cell, but also introduces new diffi- 
culties, which have rendered it less useful than the lead type. In the 
alkaljge cell there is no'such thing as sulphating and buckling, and 
no hatm is done to the plates even if charge does not immediately 
follow the gischarge, inlphin eke coisa 

The zinc negative, however, is liable to local action, and great diffi- 
cully is experienced in’ plating the zinc in compact form available for 
the discharge. To charge the cell, the temperature should be about 
54° Centrigrade, and the charg : 
duce the best results. These ‘conditi cannot always be realized 
in practice, and since the life‘of thie‘ce}f'is' rather short and its applica- 
tion ‘somewhat, limited, owing’ to the?comparatively short time that 
it will retain its charge, this' type hi been able to fulfil the exe 
pectations of its. promoters, | °° : : 

oe NICKEL-IKON cet. 
The nickel-iron cell, invented by Mr. Edison, I think will be found 
subject to certain bad: tendencies si jarjto those of the lead cell, 
but they may be found less difficult to control. ; 

The material of the positive electrode 
ably having the formula Ni Oj. ‘Inthe discharge of the cell, the 
peroxide is reduced, according \to" one ‘theory,*to nickelous oxide” 
(NiO), This compound ’.(NiO) -is difficult to oxidize electro- 
lytically, while a reduced’ peroxide plate is not: 4” 

Tt scems likely that the reaction of dischargéis in many respects 
analogous to that of lead peroxide, and that the capacity is only 
about half of the theoretical.“ In-normal dischargé, I believe that 
the lowest oxide formed is the sesquioxide NisOs (sometimes called 
peroxide), but under certain conditions the nickelous oxide (NiO) 
might be formed, and would present difficulties similar to those due 
to the formation of lead sulphate in the lead cell were it not' for the - 
fact, that the oxide is insoluble, so that it remains in place.and is 
slowly brought back to the Proper condition, ak BPs 

Overcharging does not harm the plates, because nickel. is hot 

of pure potassium hydroxide. Chlorides, nitrates and tartrates should : 
not be present, as nickel is more readily attacked in such ‘solutions, ! 


Cells of the zine-chlorine type, with a carbon plate for the positive 
electrode, have the disadvantages | of difficulty in. obtaining good 
deposits of zine, high internal resistance and difficulty of handling. 
the gas. Cells of this type will probably not enter into competition 
with lead accumulators, _ 


Of all the storage cells having insoluble electrodes, those using. 
silver oxide for the positive seem to be best adapted to maintain 
normal reactions under the severe conditions of service, Jungner 

As was mentioned earlier in this article, 
lead cell is very durable when compared 
The difference must be due to the metalli 
In tlie discharge, only about half of thie-spongy lead is converted to - 
the sulphate, so there’is always some metal present and this ‘is‘in the 
nature of Sponge which holds the mass together,. By obtaining «a 
pied Ui eee on the positive there should be realized ‘an 

case in tlie life of ¢ i imately‘ 
that of the negative dean Pi ae - 

To ‘obtain this condition, -a depolarizer -which“‘reduces tothe 
metallic state must be chosen and, moreover, this ‘metal ‘must have 


the negative plate ofa 
with the peroxide plate. 
¢ nature of the negative, 

te low and’ intermittent ‘to pro- 


peroxide of nickel, prob- 



64 “ . ; 
readily attacked by the nascent oxygen if the electrolyte is a solution { 




. State with ease. Spongy' 

September 13, 1902, 

the property of holding together. when ina spongy state, . Silver oxide 
is such'a: material, : Pee! Pactabinad ; 

Taking a silver-cadmium cell for ifustration, we have spong. 
cadmium and silver oxide when the cell is in.the charged state,‘and 
cadmium oxide and spongy ailver when’ in the discharged state. In 

; both these plates we have a condition very similar to that of a spongy’ 

lead: electrode. There is this difference, the silver passes from an 
oxidized state to approximately half oxide and half meallic and half 
negative plates pass from the metallic state to half metallic and half 
oxide or sulphate, as ihe case maybe, The positive ig never entirely 
reduced, and the negative never entirely oxidized under normal con- 
ditions, but they are.near enough alike so that we should expect them of approximately the same durability. . 

: Silver presents the difficulty that its oxides are slightly soluble in 
the’ alkaline electrolyte in which they are used, It has a great 
advantage, however, in the nature of its reactions, A cell may be 
left in any state of charge, or completely, discharged, : without 
danger of harming the plates. There is no tendency to form 


compounds which canny brought back to the original charged } - : 

-suver can be readily oxidized to the oxide 
‘(Ag.O), or to YA peroxide (4gQ), and the oxide (4g:0) may be 
easily firther oxidized or reduced. No other compounds are formed, 
Silver oxide may be made by chemical methods and applied: the 
¢lectrode which can’ then be. used immediately without any forming 
process, This is a good indication that the chemical reactions will 
not get out of order as long as they are confined to the ‘electr cl 

’ The'slight solubility of silver oxide is the weak point ‘in this 

but this drawback can’ perhaps’ be largely overcome either by. a | a 

method employed by Mr. Edison in the prepafation of copper, ele 

trodes or. by slight alferations in the electrolyte, 
The lead cell has, not:received enough ‘attent ion from its cheinical 
and physical side, most“manufacturers having paid‘ more: attention: 

to. mectianical ‘details, and*this has given: the -battery ‘a rather un? 
balanced development. .; However, the’ manufacturers are now gi 

more attention to the chemistry of-batteries, and we may expect to set. 

in the near future a rldicn Mie darts in lead: cells in 
way of'longer lifé and greater reliability. ay emt 
' T think the investigations’ should be'directed to methods for'see 
ing greater porosity and firmness in the active material of the positive 
electrode and'to improving the-electrolyte so as to prevent the forma- 
tion’ of lead sulphate, or at-least ‘render it insoluble in all densities 
of the acid solution;.so that 
‘to the‘proper condition. : Bey ve 

+ Other. metals will undoubtedly come: into’ competition sand 
may displace, lead in-batteries-for’ traction: work, beste sid 
in electric light and: power ‘stations lead cells will probabl; hold their, 
own for some time. vent ’ 

-1 Nickel is a‘strong: metal compar 

to that-class'of_depolarizers whi 

cell,,and in: this respect it is the. 

use in alkaline electrolytes. ‘The'e ¢ ermits the 

for the grids ‘and the containing vessel, and this gives’ cons 

both: light and strong. There ‘seems to be no’ reason to ‘believe:that: 

this cell will not do what 'Mr, Edison claims for it: 

Silver would be’a good metal to‘use in traction batteries if its‘cost |’ 

were not so great. To, be:sure,the silver in a eoadeatina hepete ; 
would go a long way toward paying for a new set, but : ve i scott y 
would be rather great. Silver is a rather abundant mete : ie oltg! 
to be produced for much less than it brings at present," ; 1€ 

for it should’ sufficiently increase." 
<1 In the’ lead: cell ‘the’ acti 

peroxide, arid‘not to the whole electrode cae ollie mat 
“would: be i posit 
ably’iton ; ape 
iments indicate ‘that ry, giving the: 8: 
ead sath battery weighing’ about! sso pounds, would 
nds of: si oxide, and perhaps 
ctraordinary ‘reduction’ inthe’ pri 

ve grid: aid 

ractical’ from a financial standpoint, and | 
‘ ove such a cell ‘could: be ‘made to have a f 
““eompyratively * iigh efficiency, and would require but 

‘for the; reasons: 
little attention to keep working order, 

materialof ‘the’ positive’ is : eur feet : 

i ie: weig nti ‘so the weight of silver oxide f 
+ half-of the: weight of the entire plate, so the weight of silver ox! 

a es uired in ‘the silver ‘cell: would correspond, to the ‘weight ‘of i 


aivie ‘power f : 



AER eon a SI 


cone ET ETSY SE wees 

eansjhat, the weil 
but sel dae 

As the mast 'p 

this latter type, we a tae an n oxygen plate of ni 

kel with a hydrogen plate of iron; isponge up 
it With the usual Plante and Faure types of lead 
The. alkali battery possesses’ ag: t 

pe sated for with lead fp 
ing together admit ‘of 
_ borne:in \inind, how 

A emical Society, 
r e lOrage Taecy 
aa a. Jt the relatiy ‘ingtits of 
terigs, In opentig, * Mr, « r ae tant 
and discharge, storsge. bas bat! 

yin ‘ecimuacatitely : 
a conductor ‘and 


t Sonnet than with | 

ning and compensatiny f 
[ection to..the. second method i is that the dense activ 

iffusion. ;An 
if nely, perforated ygover 
it, is well to note, “that the disj 
‘of another is in ‘no way due to the i (rinsic sist th r+) 
fother active’ material, or fo the difference in chemical action taking 
place ; ther he parent ny: fead eroxide reducing to 
lead oes lead sulphate should “fail;to pieces any more a ickly 

g kel oxidein fact, the rey 

packed with flake grap 
lead” plate. should not: last eres ws ( 
was supposed to be the case, It loses'‘no material ; 
chemically; but actually, its capacity lessens with age, and 
ts deterioration is not so rapid as that of the. peroxi pla te, 
rtheless be occasionally renewed. , ‘The opposite is ‘now hoped 
the iron plate; its active material is held igid by a,stiff. grid re 
nelanging graphite, packing, and apparently, hould ‘not lose capacs*~ 
Keel , can by 

Gheatery uses’ a ‘acid -60 ition 
arget by, the faatbrial® of tth 

cceptens*an électrolytic ; 
fi im. onc. plate, to the other. 

i; * shoul electrolyte to make fe 
wish bayer ‘arma “he 

ility of u ing a 
“Ae plates: close together, 

a! the alkali: batiery. lighit 

lessly dceoiipose i if 
‘amount lost is fixtd 
The relatiy 

 bieat the over- 
scly packed active material. allows of 
Fesulé: -that.a large pro- 

pute ve atin 
ina thes 
feel hy; two a 

88° ra att 
te, masd-edines to 
cn arout 

Ua AY ier trouble 
In large co: 

i » the acid Fic vaisis is conime ‘ 
handling. -This advantage will bez 
il] need no overhauling, but for the 
turned cells, over-filled cells, handling: of 

“gassing in overcharge, for the nunterot 

actual work, there can be no question thaftalkali is worse: than’ acid’ 

“for woodwork, clothes and hands. Acigi Fdocs ‘not creep—alkali both 

creeps and turns to.carbonate. ‘The nilviintage “sometimes clai 
for the alkali simply trpon' the groune ts not changing isa little: 
hard to understand, There i is, on, the, fa it, no reason why the 

. electrolyte should not change as well asthe plates; in fact, a battery§ °° 

with unchanging electrodes and, cl ging electrolyte would in many 
ways be better than its opposite instance, the change of elec: § 
trolyte density is, in the lead cell, ‘avery usefiil ‘and needed meais of | 

_ determining the state of charge’ and discharge, 2 

Adaptability to different uses Of one or, the other battery will be 
finally determined by a balance between utility’ and cost.. For central 
station work, which at present takes about 75 Rer cent. of the battery 
output, the position’ of.the lead cell seems ‘secure, Its low first’ cast, 
low internal resistance, high voltage and general efficiency more: § 
than overbalance the deterioration, This deterioration is a matter Hl. 
of careful figuring: in so many years so many plates must be manus, § 
factured and installed to keep a given battery in ‘good conditior; as 

.,. an offset, so many pounds of scrap lead and so njany pounds of 
ibattery mud are returned. The renewals ma mean no inter- 


ruption of work ahd. Hot n in in ig. 
ons, where W 

hole will .déperid. largely upon anncily and reliability. 
Data! is vanting (upon the 
< Folume, an 

alkali cell is ‘again ¥ 
put into ordinary ser 

careful goasideration: .t 
The commercial life of lead plates i in track or ‘cab service is about .§ 
15,000 to 20,000 tniles for negatives, 12,000 ‘miles for Plante positives’ ! 
and 6,000 mniles for pasted positives. In other words, a four. o 
ton truck running 20 miles per day ‘for 300 days in-a year requires 
new positives once in a year or once in two years, accordifig to the 
type of plate used, the choice of one or the other being determined 
by thg character ‘of service and Iength of run desired, Cabs and lighter 
wagons Shave, about® the same life, with a canny of jo to 100 miles 
oy ohe charge. . 
Work done under ihese conditions, actualtivorke redticed to dolinrs 
and ‘cents, has shown that ‘the electric wagon gi better city’ service 
han cag | be gotten from gas.or steam.or horse. A better battery, 
her. an‘ improvement on the old or.a better new ote, would contro) 
actically all city traffic not on rails. 


The unbound clippings cover the period 1899-1910. Most of the items 
were sent to Edison by clippings services. They are primarily taken from 
newspapers and popular magazines, although some are from trade 
publications, technical journals, and other printed sources. The articles and 
interviews pertain to a variety of subjects, including the development and 
promotion of Edison's inventions and the personal affairs of Edison and his 
family. Included are clippings relating to the personnel, activities, and legal 
affairs of Edison's various companies, as well as articles about phonographs, 
phonograph records, motion pictures, and storage batteries. There are also 
clippings concerning Edison’s cement plant at Stewartsville, New Jersey; his 
plans for a poured concrete house; and his efforts to develop a combined 
phonograph and motion picture machine and a process for the exploitation of 
dry placer gold claims. Also included are items relating to the suicide of 
Edison's secretary, John F. Randolph; a kidnaping threat against his daughter, 
Madeleine; the marriages of his sons, Thomas A. Edison, Jr., and William 
Leslie Edison; and the travel, property holdings, and recreational activities of 
Edison and his family. Some of the articles bearing an Edison by-line were 
probably prepared for him by his associates, and some are the result of 
interviews with journalists at the West Orange laboratory. 

The clippings are arranged in rough chronological order within each year. 
In many cases, several small newspaper clippings of differing dates are taped 
onto the same sheet of paper. Some sheets also contain archival notations 
referring to the Document File folder in which the clipping was at one time 
filed. Other archival inscriptions can be found throughout. Because of their 
deteriorating condition, all of the newspaper clippings at the Edison National 
Historic Site are being photocopied, and the originals discarded. The clippings 
presented in this edition constitute a mix of originals and photocopies. Some 
may be difficult to read because of the discolored paper. There are also a few 
negative photostats of journal articles that may present legibility problems. 

Less than 20 percent of the clippings for 1899-1910 have been 
selected. Many of the items not selected are based on wire service reports 
that were widely circulated and carried in numerous papers. In such cases, 
one version of the report has been selected as a sample. 




ee ear ee ree Gee eee Ne eee eae ee es as en eae 

First, Best and Largest. 



From the 


Nev yORK CY 
ar 0 

Fromm jnpen, [,- ~ Times Harald 
4, 18S9 

“f. a 

dé N 

: aug 
Wanted “ruernmnik for baabicteh 
Yheough the Malilny Their ie : 
Mxtending Across the avanhe 
Other Charger Agninat a 

on Sorcery eee 
' notorious ndicrs, George Be 
‘ mwo notorious pone senate’ 
Henschel and Eva Wilson, bette peeiaey 
their victims and to the police 08 sued eee 
E were arreste 
nd Baroness de Bara, pins 
issn afternoon In St. Augustiae, Baia 
capture marks tho end of a seare Roe 
has been followed persistently, an ne 

made by postoftice tnspec' 

| the direction of 
Stuart of Chicago. 
The direct charge 
are said to be numero! 
uso of the United States 
which they operated thelr bisa 
sitecessful traud, 
n this country an 
ie as the Edison Phono 
with offices at room $12, 115 Dear 
y eent circu 
ae sold, by means ot these, bogus 2 
for ingenious slot eee eat 
er manufactured. 
lected as much as $100,000 cram \ 
aln alone, and as maul rants 
. While con E 
Scheme the two were kngwn, 
Hensehel, general maragery 
son, cleris. 

their swindting sche 

Chief Inspector Inmes B. 

1g the frandulent 
malts, through 
gest and Lea 
vivtims bot! 
shich found vict , 
ad In Great Britain. Pus: 
aph Company, 
porn street, 
lars and letters a aeles 
which were nev= 
ad thot they cole 
Great Brit- 


Loug Seareh Beg 

Police and detectives bad been looking © 
for them for some time when the attention { 
of the postoftice department was called to} 
the case sbont two weeks ago. Wiliam 
Wryadham, Briush consul, notified the de~ 
partmeat then that he had recelved com- 
plaints from England and Scotland that 
many persuns had been victimized by the 
ro-calicd Egon Phonograph Company, Ho 
gave the officiaTs circulars and letters which | 
served to outline the methods used, and Tn- ' 
spector Stuart went to work, He found thas, 
the De Karas trst appeared in Chicago 
about June 1, 1848, when the man opened a 
printing establishment at Ts West Madison 
etivet, under the namo of West Chicago 
ating Company, Ite continued this unthi 
Nov. 28, when he sold out to his foremet 
Carl Graeff, who stil continues the business. - 
During thts time the man and woman llvot” 
at Hotel Everitt, Lake avenue, between’ 
Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh streets! 
There they entertained many (riends and to 
them displayed photographs of a beautiful 
summer home in St. Augustine, In July 
Henschel wag at the Merey Hospital guffer- 
ing from a carbuncle on his neck. It left 
a sear, which served as a mark of identt- 

Inspector Stuart discovered that the two 
left Chicago about Dec. 1, leaving orders that 
their mall be forwarded to Norwich, Conn. 
Inspectors were sent there, but found no 
trace, It. fs supposed tha change of address + 
Was a ruse to avold the suspicious accumu- 
Tatlon of mall in this ctty. While other In- 
spectors were sent to different cities, In- 
gpector W. S. Mayer went to St. Augustine | 
last Saturday, accompanied by Letter Car- i 
rier Hogan, who was to identify the man 

and woman, 

Caught in Florida, . 
Late yesterday afternoon Inspector Stuart 
recefved this telegram, which announced the 
arrest: * 3 ser 
Have fust arrested both man and woman 
‘upon Warrants lesved by commissioner at Jack- 
Ronville, served personally by marshal. Iden- 
tification complete. They refuse to talk, Have 
lawyer at Jackzonville to-night for henring to- 
morrow, Say they can give bond of $3,000 erch, 
Came here ono yenr ago. Own splendid homo 
and live in magnificent atyle, Previous hive 
tory unknown, , MAYER. 
It was In thls magnificent home, talked of 

In Chicago, that the urrest was made. Among |’ 

the papers furnished by Consul Wyndham 1s 
aa Follorine. advertisement Issued by Hens.) 
schels - west sot 
A fortune to be made, Wanted'tn every loz, 
callty intelligent man and lady as inspector: 

And collector for penny-in-the-slot_ machine. 

Good eatary and sharo of profits without leave - 

ing prevent ocetipation or residence. West 

Chicago Company, 748 Madison streot, Chicago. 

American letter postige, 214d. : j 

There 1s evidence in the hands of the off- 5 
cluta that thougands of replies came in ro- 
sponse to these advertisements, tho post- 
office handling at times ay many aso thou- 
sand letters dally from England alone. 

Operations Were Many, . I 

The query of the prospective agent was 
answered by a circular offering the agency i 
of the Phinagraph Company upon the re- 
eelpt of a certain sum, varying according to 
locality, and ranging from £1 to £10 in Eng- 
Msh money, Then there was another step 
in the seheme, Postal cards were sent from 
New York purporting to come from a firm 
of shipping agents stating that the goods or- 
dered had been forwarded ag requested, Ta- 
ter, when the De Bara’s concluded no more 
money could be obtained from an Individual 
agent, they would send o letter from an al- 
leged firm of lawyers, named Underwood & 
Yale, Temple Court. Building, Chleago, an- 
nouncing that the Edison Company had 
failed; that this tirm was tho receiver and 
that there were no assets. There !s, of 
course, no such firm as Underwood & Yale, 
as given. 

Other swindling and blackmailing schemes 
ere suid to have been worked by the couple 
One was operated under the name of the Chi- 
cago Press Clipping Bureau, 828 Opera i 
JIouse’ Building, and was a blackmailing 
scheme. It fatled to work. Then Baroness | 
de Bara started 9 monthly publieation called 
“Chicago Suctety,” printed at 745 West Madi- | 
fon street. In this ghe attempted to work a 
fake chain letter scheme, alleged to be for : 
the henefit of sick soldters, This gave way 
to the phonograph swindle which ended In 
the arrest. 


Trct Rect. e 
' First, Best and Largest. .. 


From the 


a- NEw yORK cy 
7 ce 0 
lutea? ( 

From Wewark,liJ.-News - 

WAN &..1899 


Objects to His Name Belng Used to Furt 
Questionable Schemes--Arrests in “ 
Jacksonville at is equoat 

The arrest of the persons calling them- 
selves “Baron and Baroness Debara’ at} 
Jacksonville, Fla, Tuesday, as told inj 
the NEWS yesterday, was made at the In- ; 
stance of Thomas «A, Edison, through hit 
counsel, Howard W. Hayes, of this elty, 
The action was taken in furtherance of 2B i 
new palley adopted by Mr. Edizon regard. i 
ing the use of his name by others in pusi- | 
ness, ¢ “h 
For yearg Mr, Edison hag been bothered { 
by the actions of irresponsible persons 
who organized Edison “companies or 
established themselves as “agents” of the © 
inventor without authority, Jn muny cases 
where people were duped by the alleged 
agents they would write to Mr, Edison for 
redress. A few months age Mr, Ed{son 
decided to put a stop to thé practice, ft 
was about this time that word reached the 
inventor from the Edison Electric Light 
Company of Chicago, that a man in that 
eity, calling himself George B, Henschel, 
was selling territorial rights for the’ sale 
of phonographs, Later u letter was re 
celved from the British Consul tn} Chi- 
cago that Henschel! had sold certalii” ai- 
leged rights to peopte In Englund, . "2", 

Mr, Edison concluded to put his nev 
policy into effect and the matter we 
placed in Mr, Hayes’s hands, It was learu 
ed that Mr, Hengchell claimed to have at 
office at 118 Dearborn street, Chicago. 
Monk & Elliott, lawyers, of the Wind) 
City, were requested to make an investi- 
gation, end word was sent back that Hen- 
schell had no office at the address given. 
Then charges were preferred against the 
man, and United States District-Attorney 
John C. Black, of Chicago, was requested 
to act. © 

When the Federal authorities were put 
on his trafl the man disappeared. About 
the same time a woman, who called her- 
self Eva Wilson, and acted as a clerk for 
Henschell, also left Chicngo. Henschell 
left orders to have lis mail sent to Green- 
wich, Conn, He never showed up at that 
place, but It fs sald that the couple were 
traced to St. Augustine, Fla., by the pos- 
tal authorities, When the Baron and Bar- 
oness Debara were arrested, William HH. 


Henry Harrison’ Scott, 

Hogan, a mail carrier, of. 

tively identifled them as Georges! Fen 

Beer i Sen Mee saa 

Dut both were held In ball na ent. 
Mr, ‘Hayes said this morning that no 

i} exceptions would be made’in the en ei 
ment of Mr. Edison's determination to : 

break up so-called companies and agen. | 

hail wot be taken in vain for u 
“ nautho 
‘ompantes or agencies, Word has renas 

{| pen sent to several loca) dealers to re- 

meve the words “ag Me ay 
mave the words ‘agency or -“agents' 

les. No exceptions will be take: . 
age of ‘Edlson” in trade names, Tach ae 
x Edlgor phonographs" or “Edison goods, 
jaut-ths: inventor will insist that his name 




Pratler , Lens 

Graduate hospital, in, ‘Ne 
uit of an operation, 

f-age.” Deceased: Swag, preiidént 
of. the. National Chautauqua’ assdbly, 
which j ‘he agaisted in founding. ¢ 
weeks’ago he contracted a, cold Shien! 
a ‘Last Stinday, 

ut ‘at that ‘time -his “eoridltion: 
considered serlous. a an 
poration “was 

a See 80 ‘sd 

Miller, is ‘postr 
lca; :and Lewis. 

aly ted ates a ht race 
jtostra ea fr ane ion: fe! 

Pa » Dispatch 

coe one gages 
phe tuty 


‘On Hin Way to Attend the Funeral 
of Wis Father-in-Law--When |: 
; Aerial Navigation Will 
i Be Possible. Fa 
*‘?homas’ A. Edison dropped, into town 
‘ last - rhs a passenger on ‘the 
-Now..York and. Chicago . Limited. f 
Edison is on his way to Akron, Q., ..t 
/attend the funeral-of his father-in-law, 
<Loufa Miller. The. wizard married “his 
‘second wifo in Akron.14 years ago. “He 
‘stopped off in ‘this city to get a good 
inight’s rest, never having been able ito 
sleop on a train, as he told a Dispatch 
‘reporter at the Duquesne’ Hotel. When 
asked whether he had any new Inventions 
up his sleeve, he sald: : 
. “ at two or three" new 
things, but [ am not far enough along to 
talk about them. Most of my time dur- 
{ng the. past four years I haye been work- 
ing on the concentration of fron oré in 
the highlands. of Now Jersey: There aro 
millions of tons of low-grade ore near 
Lake Hopstcong which ft does not: pay 
to mine and ship in tho ordinary way. 
-From about four tons of this ore it is 
posstbla to extract one ton of magnatic 
oxide of+iron. This is. mixed with rosin 
and petroleum and put-up In the form 
of-bricks. It makes the best Iron ore in, 
tho world, We have a plant up. there 
that covers soven acres of ground and 
cost nearly $3,000,000," ®° : Cece 
Mr. Edison. snid that many: inventors, 
were now trying to get electricity direct’ 
from: coal. “This would be ane of. the 
greatest and most useful invention of the 
iage,"" he added. “I belfeve that’ whenever 
it is possible to get electricity direct from 
coal aerial navigation will be possible. At 
present it is impossible to construct an 
electric motor of .suffictent Mghtness «to 
be of practical use in driving an alrships 
You can get some idea of what this new 
invention would mean when you consider 
that the power which drives. electric cars, 
for Instance, represents only from 10:to 
per cent of the electricity In the coal used 
at the power houses.” . iad 
iin reply to a question regarding his 
son's reported marrings to an-actress 
against the will of his Parents, Mr. Edl-. 
son sald taconically: “Don't ‘know any- 
thing! about it. I haven't seen him’ for 
two peare sea 
“tAsked his opinion of Tesln as an: In=, 
ventor, Mr. Edison, after musing fora 
moment, sald: "Ho Is the poet of science. 
His'tdeas are splendid, but they are-ut~ 
, terly:dmpracticable,” : 

{shows his ‘age, which Js 53,: Ho says, 
Paul works AMS’ neuve avers week 

eq “Cdtew TA. Pascal 

‘dison is in good heuitiranectmraly: af 


Chicegey Lie Times- Herald 

qnir Ay I TT4 

+ FRAO, Ul.- ~ Taesdiorala, 
"MAK & dbyy 


Hyadiuau cus. ene 
ut up the old one, and at i:za u cis 
the strik 

again as usual, 


{ Thomas A, Edison, Jr, Organizes a 
Company to Back His lnvention, 


NEW YORK, Moreh 1,~Thomns A. Edison, 
Ur., has taken steps to secure practical tests 
of his Invention of a new process for hard- 
ening steel, which, ho claims, whilo It costs 
less than half that of the Harvey process,’ 
gives much superfor results, “AU six-inch 
plate treated by his process, he deetares, {s 
equal {f not superter in power of rezistance 
to a l-Inch Harveyized plate. It Is also 
much superior, he asserts, to. the Krupp 
process, : 
aot pfneratontire-meW Clacovery the Thomas 

. Edison, Jr, and William Holzer 8) 
Tron Process Company has been incorporated 
in West Virginia, with a capital of $1,000,000, 
Thomas A, Ediyon, Jr., Is president, Mr. Hol- 
zer vice president and Franklla D. Palmer ot 
Poughkeepsie secretary and treasurer. ~ 

The foundry and machthe-shopa of tho 
Mitchell Heater Company of Poug' hkeepsie 
are belng refltted as experimental works for 
- the new company,” ee oe 


WY Tr bone 
Wb! B1F9F 

WN. Y. Tribtine: 
MAR 8 1899 

fr = 


The rumor has been current: in: town for, several 

days that Thomag Sapiadtzon. Jr., has organized a 

ening steel,‘ more: espeatally armor Plates.’ The 
methods employed. by Harvey and’ Krupp “affect 
only the’ outer part of a mass. of steel, but the 

way through. The company control 
on.the invention, ‘but, instead of Boing Interna 

Itself with ‘Heensing other concern 
“proceas. Owing .to Mr, Edison's ahsonos. feo, ihe 
city. It has been imposible to ‘verity the atory fully, 


FOagenNA, 9, =| 


Manufacturers’ Are Not .Enthus« 
Young Edison's 
(pag eer : 

. ° Discovery ONAL 
Whatever merit the Invention of.Thy 
A. -Edlson, Jr, may Iny’ clainy to, :tlie atcet | 
ny yturers, :with ‘headquarters ‘in thin’ 
elty, in Cussing’ the new process by 
which ‘the son of the “iwizard"’ claims ho |): 
will ‘revolutionize “the: steel’ manufacturing |! 
laduatry of. this cot advance’ various | 

opinions. Shee tate NB dae 
. Mat the localtotfices of the Carnegie.Com- 
» L pany, Ogden Aortman, tho :Pillndelphin 
representatlve of the firm, shld that he had 
heurd ‘soinothing, about Thomus: A. Bdlon, 
Jr.’s ‘new. process, but that he. was not pre. 
pared ‘to'enter Into a detailed. divcuusion ‘of 
the mattor, - 43. aa 
“TI do not-see: whereby ‘the. new process, 
differs materially from the Harvey meth- 
od.” Mr. Hoffinnn said. “It has been ‘the 
“/ object ‘of-manufacturers gradually : to dla- 
.| tribute the strength of the material instead 
;| O£ cantluing the power of resistance. to the 
_ | surface, There ts no question that the ex- 
erlence gulned in bis father's -worksho} 
fiw been invaluable. to poung digon a 
the great ‘electrician ‘himself has experi. 
mented in.the metal Ine during the Jast 
few years. But IT am not rendy to admit 
thnt “the: nethod - will revolutionize - the 
manufacturing world os $s claimed for It 
However, thne will tell what merit: es tr 
store for the procesa.”*) - ” 
‘The Penngylvanta Steel Company offictal: 
seemed rather anxloua to ‘avoid: discusslor 
In thesntatter, The sane reluctaney wa 
pevident when ‘the Cambria Iron -Compin 
people were approached, . ome 
. “We are too busy. with our own, offairs.t 
bother with those of others," wai 
ply at the ‘lntter: office, ae 

- 0 
Surprised His Relativ: 
Bernard, Corvin, of: this clty,: after t 
absence of twenty-flve years,-i8 sutpristt 
his relatives by reappearing at their home 
svhere ‘A bappy reunton 18° always’ cel 
cheated...) He: lost” one leg in any Indl 


stock company to ze & new process for hard- 

-new system fs expected to harden the'piate all.the. 

jpanufacturing. operations, it will probably content. 

WY evs 

PA jatte Lohit 






Lermenw seer BBs cast 


me ee Ree wren ee er ee ee ey cerrerren tay 


Sundey March 5.18979 




All of the Many Volumes on Sofentina 
Subjocts — Tho Inventor 1s Always 
Busy, But Takes Enough Timo to bo 
Corteous to Visltors—Sketeh of THis 
Iapld Riso. ‘ 


We wailed for tlm in the Ibrary of his 
magnificent laboratory at West Orange, New 
Jersey—walted nervously, for we were not 
there by invitation, but as Intruders, and 
Mable to arrest for all we Knew to the con- 
trary. No one had replied when we pressed 
the button at the gate of the high picket 
fence, Intended to protect the busy 
“Wizard” from a too admiring or too curl- 
oug public. We represented beth of these 
classes, also another, celebrated for its 
“nerve,” and we had come too far and 
were too much in earnest to allow a little 
thing Mke a plcket fence to keep us out. 
Even barbed wire could not have done It 
with Thomas A. Edison on the other side. 
We were quite willing to risk Jeaving sam- 
ples of our tallor-nade gowns on the plekets 
just for the satisfaction of getting Inalde 
the ningle enclosure, even though we were 
thrown out bodfly the next minute, 

But It didn't come to that, “Heaven helps 
those who help themselves," and this thie 
henven sent a small boy, whom we 
“poosted" over the fence, aud who wnlocked 
the gate from: the inslde, showed us the way 
into the Ilbrary and then ran for his Ife, . 

Waylaying the first employe that passed, 

we wheedled him Into carrying a card with |. 

A more or less “tender message written 
upon It, to Mr. Edison, and the Kindly word 
came-back, delivered by the same employe, 
now In a broad grin, that Mr." Edison was 
about to leave for New York, but would see 
ug before leaving, 

Lho Wizard's Attractiva Smile. 

Soon as the attendant’s back was turned 
we fell upon cach other's necks In a dellrlous 
embrace over what we considered our great 
luck; then we attempted to compose our 
selves In order to mect thls great man with 
tt dignity forelgu to pleket fence cllmbing, 
and akin to what we Imagined his own would 
de Ike, But how unlike the real Edlson was 
the Edfson of our fancy, and how much moro 
charming! Inatend of 1 tustldlously dressed 
“hoss" with severe countenance, upon thls 
ocenston puckered with displeasure over our 
intrusion and Intended to show us he had 
ho thme for women whe could no moro un. 
derstand his work than a couple of geese 
could; Snstend of this style and manner he 
came In sintiing, his well-worn pepper and 
salt ault as dirty as that of any workman 
on the place, and hokling one chemleally- 
discolored hand up ‘to the ear mude deat 
by the cruel blow of a railrond conductor 
who had no paticneo with the newsboy 
Tom Edison who was forever making ex. 
perlments with chemicals even on the traln, 
and who tuls thne had caused an explosion, 

But here he stood before us, the same 
newsboy who got his ears hoxed; afterward i 
the poor young telegraph operator wander. 
Ing from place to place, making a: record 
as a Wghtnuing operator, and atways hunting 
for the cheapest restaurants, ‘The same who 
Inter Invented the famous stock-ticker und 
who dldn't know what to do with the $40,- 
000 he got for the patent; the same wizard 
at whose magle touch were to spring [nto 
exfatence those marvels of Inventlon—the 
quadruplex telegraph, the carbon infero- 
phone, the Incandescent light, the phono- 
graph, ete, ete. Here was’ before us the 
poor boy, homeless, moneyless and unknown 
no longer; but a man now, 2 milonatre, the 
finest house In West Orange for a home, 
countless friends and honors of every kind 
continually being thruat upon him; © mem- 
ber of the Legion of Honor now, and during | 
the French Exposition af 1889 the orchestra 
played the Amertenn national anthem when 
he entered the Grand Opera House In Paris, 
and this-we know is a compllinent which Is 
paid only on the entrance of kings, 

Quite an Alffablo Irost. 

We found {t all hard to reatire~a falry 
tale in fact—now that we were In his pres- 
ence and he stood shaking his head In mock 
gravity over the situation, his kindly eyes 
full of a humorous twinkle and his rea, 
white and blue hand held back of his car 
to catch our denial of having climbed over 
the fence, which he Inughingly sald he 
wouldn't put past us, But it was all right, 
and he wag sorry we had any trouble to get 
in; sorry, too, he had to go to New York to 
bury one of his workmen; safd he atways 
made it a polnt to gee hia “boys” lald away; 
had just returned from burylng his father-In- 
Jaw, left Mrs. Edison with her people or 
he would take us over to “Glenmont" (the 
name of hls home), but hoped we would en. 
Joy our vist to the laboratory; he would 
send Mr, Hatlentine, hls right bower, to con- 
duct us over the building, and we had his 
permission to carry away anything loose 
thit we wanted, ete, 

But we only wanted to carry away his 
photograph and his autograph, and these he 
gave us himself, writing bla namo Jn the 
pretty way we have always scen it, and 
without the least nervousness, though ho 
was In a desperate hurry, 

The fine dock-talled bay horse and top 
Dugey stool at the door, ao throwlng himself 
into a dlsreputadle looking gray ulster that 
didn't seem to fit hin anywhere, he jumped 
Into the vehicle and was drlyen out of the 
Inboratory grounds, and we were taken In 
charge by Mr. Batlentine, a genlal Scotch- 
man, who had been some years with Mr 
Edlson, and who seemed full of veneration 
for the “Wlzard," though this we discovered 
was the genera! feellng among the men, 

Whilo waiting for Mr. Ballentine’ to “nt. 
tend to some Ilttle matter’ before he contd 
show us around we had time to examine 
thoroughly the pretty Ibrary where Mr. 
Edigon recelyes, his callers: and ‘where he 
must do lis reading, presumably, since his 

| sclentitic books are kept here, “You won't -- 

find any ‘novels’ on’ these. shelyes, girls," ho 
had sald,-nnd we didn't. All dry as 
punk to us, and thousands of them, ; . 


Somo of Edison's Trensures, 

This Wbrary room wlth [ts finkshlngs and 
furnishings, a framed card informed us, was | 
a gift to Mr. Edlson from all of the present 
and some of the past employes, Everything 
fs In onk, hard wood finish, ‘Che cane-seated 
oak chairs have Mr, Edison's monogram 
carved on the back. There are two gale 
Jerlex, on the second of which Is the $40,000 
collection of mntnerals exhiblted by Tiffany 
at the Parls Exposition and purchased by 
Mr. Edison. Almost the outire space on one 
side of the room I# taken up with an cle- 
xantly tiled Mre-place, in which terra-cotta 
logs resting on splendid wrought fron 
stands are apparently belng consumed by 
ortlitclal gas, Over this fire-place $s ono of 
the finest speelmens of wood carving, fn 
way of a mantel, sald to be In this country, 
and it was done hy homo talent. 

‘The eutire space from top of mantel to 
ceiling Is Mled by the face of a clock carved 
fu oak, A bust of Humboldt in plaster oc- 

euples one end of the mantel, and a bronze 

figure of Sandow, with all bls wonderful 

museles showlug true to Ilfe, occuples the 
other, while between them, with spreading 
wings, sits on Amerlean engle that was 
brought from the Paria Exposition, where 
Its eyes had been Ilghted by electriclty. 
Tn the centre of this brary Is one of the 
largest—and Mr, Edison thinks the flnest— 
Pleces of statuary, both as'to enrving and 
conception, in the world. The sculptor waa 
Bordiga, and the subject’ is the Genlus of 
Electricity represented by 2 woman sitting 
on a street lamp putting out the gas and 
holding aloft a mammoth clectric bulb, 
which Is attached to a battery which stands 
at her feet atong with a telegraph iInstru- 
ment, telephone receiver, a book of acience, 
a cog wheel, ete. The walls are well cov- 
ered with pletures of men prominent in art, 
selence and Iterature. A whole page of 
TuE Tises, dated March 13, 1890, giving a 
“write up" of Mr, Edison, with I{lustra- 
tions, fs framed and hung up. Another frame 
contalns his certificate of membership in 
the New York Chamber of Commerce. An- 
other holds an autograph copy of “Amer- 
fea," written by the author In 1832, and 
presented to Mr, Edison In 1894, 

Other Fontuves of the Work. 

Woe could spend al! ottr tlme in the Mbrary, 
but must hurry on to the great room na full 
of machinery as a watch {g of works, aud to 
the drawing room, where several men are 
continually maktug drawings for new ma- 
chinery, for be it known Mr. Edison Is 
Worklug out of electrical. and Into mechan- 
Jeal Inventions, We atl know of his inyen- 
tlon for extracting fron ore from the rock 
for the New York, Pennsylvania and Great 

- Bake [ron trade and the predictions that 

Mr. Edtson’ waa wasting his fortune in this 

j enterprise, and we know the ore is now 

being taken out by the freight car load and 
that tho stock of the corporation Is on the 

We saw the great wooden moiels of a 
sand separator and a atone’ crusher, and 
afterwards saw the wonderful machinery 
cutting the thing out In fron, whittling ang 
shaving as If the iron were plne wood, 
These seemed to us queer Inventlons for Mr, 
Edison, We had never associated him with 
this kind of work.: We felt.better satlsfled 
and more ag if we were with Mr, Edison 
when we were taken into a dark ‘room and 
allowed to see each other's heart by menns 
of the X-ray ‘and to hear clectricity made 
to crack Iike.a whip In the hands of a stago 
coach driver. But our cup of gratificatlon 
was filled to the brim only after we had 
visited Mr, Edison’s own private workshop, 
wherein we were told he had made 18,000 
experlinents with the Huorescent ray before 

i he got the X-ray, and the finprovements on 

the Crook tubes ng they nre used to-day, 
Wo had evidently left his work table In 

+a hurry to come to us and to leave to bury 


{ hla dead employe, doubtless, for, there were 

many evidences of a hasty exit on. the 
table Itered with specimens of ore, bottles 
half filled with unknown substances and 
leayes from writing tublets-covered with fyg- 
ures, The place seemed full of the pervon- 
ality of the man. A fecllng of awe crept 
over us ag we realized that here Ilved and 
thonght and labored the man whose In- 
ventions have practically changed the face 
of the globe, who tins gained and spent 
milffons In doing It; who has been honored 
ag much if not more than any man now 
ving and whose wonderful falry-tale life 
raises the ol question as to whether the 
opportunity: makes the man or. the man 
‘makes the opportunity,:  ( . - . 
So Die Le . Mea. 


W. Y. ak 
MAR - Me 


ce + oom, . . + 
Jahn Krust, Who Was Burled. on Feb. 25, 

Was Ono of Edison’s Best Ansistanty, 

> -‘Lho man who made tho first phonograph was” 
‘burled at Schenectady on Feb, 25,. ‘Ho was ons! 
jot the Httlo band of moh who worked wittid 
¢Thoinas A. Edlson at Mento Park and theotigh’ 
whoso skill nnd falthful assistance were devel-' 
jonod the many inventions which‘ gave to Edl- 

‘son the namo of “the Wizard.” It was in those 
idays that Edison used to. bocome absorbed In 
itho Yevelopment of an idea, work at it without 
Feat or sleop for two or threo days and nights 
hod Koop all those about him busy at the sama 
jtime. ‘Ho would calf Inan organ grinder from 
tho ‘atreeta to. keop his mon awako or rosort, 
:éome othor such device, and wher 
tee dtrain was ilnally over, chartera bont and. 
Ital all hands down ‘the bay of & Ashing ox-' 
jeuraion. -Amonse-the mont tircluss-of-the man! 
about “tho Wizard’. avout “that timo- was: 
ny Kruoai, the nian. who mado tho flest: 
honograph, Tho {dea had come to Mr. Edl- 
jon as_an insplration a few days before whilo 
fia. Ayns oxporlinenting with a'telophono disk: . 
The disk was not inclosed,- and. thera. was a 
sharp polnted pin on the back. of it, Ag Mr. 
Edison spoke ngalnst the face of the disk, Its 
vibrations drove the pin into his fager. 

2: “Il tho: disk has power enough to prick my 
Minger.” thought. the Wizard, “It has nowor 
lenough to make a record which can be res, 
‘produced. a 

("A few days lator ho called: Kruest to him, and, 
putting into his hands a rough .skotch of the 
Iphonograph, oxplatned what the thing was té 
ido, and told him to make It. It wes a roll 
{mnehine, the roll covorod with {infoll to take 
ithe record. 

‘Kruesi mado tho machino and brought it to 
ie Fdison, -Edlson sot It going and Broke 
ifoto its 

ix AMary had a title lamb, , 
der Ttw tleeco waa white an snow, 
bo, A lovery where that Mary went 
bo ‘The lamb was sure to go, 

Then ho started it to repeat his words, ox= 
{peetlin ut viv vost but a iwarse Murmur In ane 
iswor, No was almostawod when he hoard hia 
swords actually repeated In clear tones by the 
ifittle machine, ‘Chat [ngehina fs, ig now in tho 

‘tent Muyseium at south Kensing 

Mr, Kruest romained with Palnon and beenme 
ono of hig nartnors in’ the devalopmont of the 
clectric stant, and In 183d, when tho, Edison 

inching works wore Fromovod to Bchonectady, 

a wont there as nasistnut gonerat managor 
yng or Mr, Sainuel Insull, In 1892, when tho 
\ jeneral H lectric Company was forined and tho 
fwwholo plant of Rrent combination 
Ewhe convolldated, Mr, Kryest beeame genorat 
Fmasoger of tho works. [tavus under his super. 

Vinton thut the Seheneetady works, tho larcoat 
‘dad ‘moat complete of their ktnd Inthe world, 
were desiznod and-buflt, At tho timo of his 
death Air, Kruesi was the efilof machunteal one 

Aincor of the Gonornl Etectrie Company, Of 
ythe original ‘Batnon band of workers only threa 

Were nbsont fron the funeral, Theag wore 
P.O. Martin, editor of the Jectrical "Engineer : 
{Luthor stierlnger, and i. H. Johnson, allo! 
ils were unavoidably detained oluewhore, 

= Mr. Krust was a native of Switzerland. nnd 

Tai born jn 1843, Iie fame to this country in 

Gand Went to work for the Bineee jewing 

ty pine von pany at Eizabethpart, "Ta June, 

372, whi lod edison was making Gold and Stock 

Hxalianco ( a logranh Instruments: in:a Nowark 
hon. at joined him and was one: of-the 

freeot is Workmen, to ba tranaferrod: from. 
oommarel In} to. exper! mental work eye Ml. 
;80n goL.monoy a ope! 9) 
flove iorguent ot! hfe Fes on phir ts 
la Gr ne streot, Nowatis. te ; 

ee " PRenograph ~ Aleneral” 



First, Best and Largest. 

INCORPORATED 1885,_ --~ 


From the 

jlOnet 6 


Nev yoR dy. < 
ee 0 

- Tims 




He Received the Gencral Plan From 
‘the Wizard and Putt Into =” 
” Actual Operation. 

Through h ae sit an oe 
were developed the miiny: Invent 
save to Eaigon the name of “the Wizard.” 

It was In those days that Edison: used to 
hecome absorbed In the development of an 
Idea, work at Se without rest or sleey. for 
{wo or three days and nights and keep all 
those about him Iusy at the same thne. 

} We would call fn an organ grinder from 
the strects to keep his men awake or resort 
jo rome other, such device, and when the 
strain. was finally over, charter a bout and 
fake all hands down the buy on.a fishing 
sgxeursion, 7 
Among the most tireless of the men abhor 
he.Wizard” about that tine was Job 
-‘Kruesl, the man who made the first phon 

“graph, The lea had come to Mr. Ediso 
‘as an Snsplration a few days before whil 

be wns experimenting with a telephone disk 

The dixk was not Jnclosed, and there was t 

sharp poltited’ phic ontthe back of It As 

Mr, Edlson ppoke agalyst the face of the 
disk, Ita vibration. drove the pin Into bis 

Nogers "< ar 

“Tf the diak has power enough to prick 
my" finger,” thotight the Wizard, “it has 
power enough to make u record which can 

be reprodiiced.” ‘ c 

A few doys Inter he called Krues} to bin, 
and, puttlhg into his hands a rough sketch 
‘of the phonograph, explained what the 
ting was to do, and told him to make It. 
It was roll machine, the roll covered with 
tinfoil to take the record. 

Kruesi made the snachine and brought it 
to Mr. Fdlson, Edison set It going and 
spoke into it: 

Mary had a little lamb, 
Ite fleece war white ns s00T. 
Aud orerswhere that Mary went 
The lumb wae sure to Ko. 
Then he started It to repeat his words, ox- 


“peetiug at the hest but a hoarse murmur in 
jinswer, He was almost awed when he heard 
Jia words actually repeated In clear tones 
jby the Hirde machine, That machine Is now. 
An the Patent Musenm at South Keuslugton, 

Mr. Kroes) remained with Edison and be 
came one of his partners In the development 
of the electric Ught, and in 1s, when the 

fdlyon machine warks were removed to 
Schenectady, he we there 06 assistance 
i general manager winder Mr. Samuel Insall. 
Tn 182, when the General Electric Come 
pany was formed and the whole plant of the 
grent combination was consulldated, Mr, 

| Kruesi beeame general manager ‘of the 

‘works, It was under bis supervision that 
the Schenectady works, the lergest and 
most complete of their kind {0 the world, 
were designed and bullt. . 

At the thue of hls death Mr, Krnest was 
the chief mechanical engineer of the Gen- 
eral Electrig Company, Of the original Edl- 
son band of workers only three were absent 
‘from the funeral, These were |T. C. Mar- 
tin, editor of the Electrical Engineer: Luther 
Stleringer amd BE. H. Jelinsan, all of whom 
were unavoldubly detained elsewhere. -. 

Mr. Kruesl was a native of Switzerland, 
and was born In 1843... He came to this conn 
try {n 1870 and went to work for.the Singer 
Sewing Machine Company at Elizabethport. 
In June, 1872, while Edison was making 
Gold and Stock Exchange telegraph Instru- 
ments Ina Newark shop, Kruest Joined him 
and was one of the first of his workmen to 
be transferred from commercial to experi- 
mental work when Edison got money 
enough to open a shop for the developingpt 

of its Meas In 1875. That shop. sas" in 
Greene street, Newark,” ae 

oO au 

soreness peo ey 

: First, Be 



em erreteemerye Tent 






J uaieeneens 

ew WS Ae 



ind-producing ima 
joutiin: dome 

beAInyentbereays. xt 5 etter, 

” svarigua wectionesor ‘the ‘coun ry;rcomplaiatnes ¥ 
zt, the. failure of po-called *-kdison phonograph ‘com-"I: 
nies’% to-forward goods ordered by {mall, ‘an Lin. 
sayiinstances paid -for in ‘advance. { ~ : 

nfevery.éase-brought: to ‘his: attention, 
-attornéys, “has requested’ the ‘dis=\) 
if the-.use eof. his nama<where ,unan-)| 
nd:the ‘request-has invariably ‘been ‘com=* 
th.}The' first, to refuse. was pamies iG: 

No. 23' South -Elxhth-st.,-Philadelphi 
jatore, at that addr 8 


honograph '‘Company,’!. spar=)7'§ 
ording “to-the ‘bill: fled ey tate 

Himself -as the. ‘Edison*Phono-)|' J 
cand used that name .on*Jlettera,3 
js-and. other advertising devices, 
tha photograph of Mr. ‘Edison, /¢He was’): 
a} ‘discontinue this practice, sbut‘rdfuged |‘ 
0710 '80."and ‘the ‘present ‘suit was ingtit 3} 
the :bill-MrojEdison ‘says. that his na’ is po ‘close-%' 
‘ly fdentified with..the invention of the) phonograph, >| 
which he patented in ‘this and, other ‘cqimtries in : 
STi,vthat (the udé“of it'in ¢onnection “with the. sale!) 

-fhot falmllar Unstruments ‘.made.’ by “other. épers 
causes him great. pecuniary and other'loss, -§:.. 
n.*1887,,Mr-. Edison ‘says, he caused to be-formed | 

Edison Phonograph Company, -to which‘he sold 

horiograph patents-held by him prior to 1878. ;| 

‘ormed ‘the Edison -Phonograph’ Works, 

g ational .Phonograph Company gfor ;the- 

tmanutacture’and: sale of :the goqds covered by ‘the; 

"| :patents_of- the Edison”“Phonograph Company.-/The 

‘bill sfurthe?<relates that ‘Mr. Edison" controls ‘the 

stock of these several companies, and the-use of hig 

gine :-by. the’ defendant, Grifith, 1a contrary 746 

uity }and should, be ,enjoined. .. as 


| First, Best and Largest. 
ba oss eer ee 
i : From ‘te 

| pe Pers 

; PARK 2D 

_ byes aly 

Hy OX 

7 2747 3 
I I ce 
ae : 


ess: notable has been 

qe hea temiptations’ ‘which: reached ':; 
hi et Hardly ‘a homme was safe from, their 
ae trail ‘of theracetrack. “ ev il. ha 
Kk sue embezzlements, eT silicidés 
cSyery, Ren of society; ar 

ty these evils, faye been. checked a 

empo: aly. Of. colirse as soon as ‘the polic 


proof: ‘that pacrality cin be spheld a 

“itself'i is encouraging to: all’ good ‘citi 




ms OH Sts 
: Net gama yi gf noe 
? f Phe Years an 1D Wife: 
a3 Ono? Year in' Jail. i | 
‘| Baron:Edgar de Bara and his wite; Fannie, i 
#Phoswere” recently: sconyicted-in the: United |:'1 
fyptates3 District ‘court on eleven ‘indictmenta’y{,| 
f.fOrs using” thomails* to: defraud, . were-sen-; || 
enced«by~ Judge: phleaat :yesterday-aftor- 
noon. o-former,‘recelved a: sentence ‘of: 
hréo'ycars’ imprisonment in the penetentlary.f; 
(fJolet, while the latter recelyed one year’a : 
eimprisonm: ‘Du--Pi, + 
R PG Mage d Otay * 5 
1 -of' thecourt was pronounced; [ 
pfter’the motionsfor‘a ‘new trial. and orrest 
of\judgment ‘had peendonled, and after’ the’ | 
Jawyors< ‘for .the« defense: had mada;'strong |}; 

vie y u telately: leas: forclomency“in“bebalt‘of their clients.’ H 
this BB:-0%: ‘oubte \When"tho ‘court-had roftusod-the ‘defendants. }} 
haves Vegun7to;cc’ Ps . w:now'trial, Edgar'de Bara/arose,’and in. a}! 

‘His. pringip egy frembllng volo. ;asked that... clemency .“-be | 

gel fendy: tard phown his wife, and'that he recelye tho burden ' 

arto igationaliphysles, aud |i; ptithe\court's: sentence." While ha-mado hia.|! 
{injsonsstlone DU: sees: tea'for meroy:the ifo'gat at his aldo andwent |: 
Sently. " 

E ‘Snvhisiabor 
it-whon:jn:his if 

Py Theil ares, itis.clalmed, 

360,000through’ thelr scheme, :-They camo to; 
hicago:iast’falliand “toolc.rooms iat’ No. 116. 
enrborn*streat, ‘under tho: names:of George. 

BetHonschel_and(B Wilson.’ -'Thoy.act them-; 

polyes.up ag agente of.tha Ediaan-Rhanosy, BY) 
‘ompany and-bad numerous circulars-printed:. 
earingyIn “the corner‘a*picture ‘of Thomas, 
Edison,*Inv.thase;circulara’tho" Doe~Baras | 
fered?-thelr’.correepondents “large Induce-: 
ents’ ont ae apents oltthe, 
ain, ; 



ET ITE on, 

le démlse> theo se 
at Gee of the estate, 

i ita cs aster whet 

hg a 

‘Henry! B. Bap. 
\ theldefendanca 
sand: objected to 
ness. > Tudge: 

oh unpsstr}o 

y.who ara not jag-and lt Fe, i 


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views Cm grenuntry’s AGEN oe 


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Hy nadgeag (hey, 

cane op Ws 

one pate Bf 

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lief pecond ‘day! ‘ari.theyttal to; 
jor isk tose ghargod’ floor i Resa :: 

aioeedbabatass Dent metort 
faviln dling: plbvepmpiny A 
pune ce ming prosep nition 
bh B inse,twho, PCIneN ember: 
cima nena nla Xtto! 
eum onbeaete 

yas a pathol Oblcage ing I 
Si a faut q 
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ua ip aoe 

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o) bev So 

Borst ope fe 2 xf 
Rveral’ fatier’a jays, 8to' 
Gatodicay by; Hurd err 

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iy json: 4) 
i suotpnynient tot the ores 

rey ! — nyo eee 
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nea ese 

, Pivel ‘contester 
Aten oe ie thesoour}t 
nite Carr! sai ¥Cook as hs adSnott £0) 3 

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f it 8: a 

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ai ATES 90 Toil 
x receiving: agen 
a ae 

ott ie wa 
aoe onyseve 
bee cae ae ay WAlsonrbuilding, oun 
oie ‘ devadvertivcd ‘nia, Bi 4 
ns. a kandiagd Phonograph’ Aggy, “e 
fe) himeele as 2)cteon's agent 
pent au esl — ‘9 
% aby Ait les ass aa 
Robruary429, 1809, nS ne 
BostmantersVan! tae ot; 
ade ite ealeon € 
apr Foplted; 
Busine’ ana nw B 
y as‘ entitled: ome 
Sh BRLISRE porter ead 
escottiat: hin homo, 73!Orang ox i 
TS Sjast'dalghe-Rcane interview 
andad ‘Mc,7Presoattiatolipping awithyd 
Abavetiatatenjon esubstentially nebie 

ee eseet siaeaies a 
i fe Basie Tt: 
Kfire 28 A 

Cele oics tere 

nehate smidgen dont 

Q'alaon ‘Agenoyiat? ally 
ata on “omlees tnt e/Hdlson? say ‘i 
Hngyat=44) Broads “gontinued Mri | 
Pres poe i whereX Thasidlos ther sgramos 

phone! #inatrument} entirely;s*dittérent 
m? the; phonographs gud “one! in} which | 
Mroymdison} his” ‘no: invegtive! 
Hate: rhea 
aleteep arting <agenc: 
a pee ea 


Rae nibh ee Fnot 
eee jalmMeulty.', buthth te 
% acon ARCH 15“ ommployst renee 
Manes! ator tho! present Swe 
By edeona anni maka peters 
ait Wabitar “pe! 

Tf. oath this; busily, 
LS Bh, eth di beeritop 
austiSioortal Nparties:'as- 
mitt hofgrop inventor. elt-¢his: 
YoutuniecourtMradded ar, 
6 rofl fuoza bod 

rayon uel ight: 

a9 se Bein 
0: A Siig 

yr oe PMS oven a7 

Aue ‘Au Bee 

‘ juftal “Aug. 3 (Spectal), Thomas: val Edison 
“registered’ at the Iroquois this morning, and -bef 
he lett: Burftalo for Chautauqua, Where he will ‘spend, 
ten da: ‘gat the family cottage, he consented -to slys 
ba we opinions | about automobiles and possibilities. 
“Y “other: Ines of motor power, He was at lei int 
in tha discovery. that-he, had arrived! 
5 Just as-the Davia. automobtle- -made Ate. ean 
‘pearance: When told’ that the Davji maching hadi 
tmot- with, a mishap at Bergen,-Mr, HEdison, wh 
Yat-work-on an-improved machinatef that vari ty, 
isgaid:'“"The great trouble with, our people is th a 
‘rush on.the road. with. a “thing which 1s but, Bie 
invented,- tuslead of waiting until It is Mio make 
in every’ ‘detail. J have Lara that it pays to mak 
ly in theso matters.” 
= maui expressed his opinion that a moc! re 
ism the-cost of which would not exceed that. Shot, 
carriage and a team of horses has a great bach 
awalting ,{t. The effect of automobiles tee ates 
overy street will be to revolutionize modern: life, 
Mr, Edison always secs in his mind's eye the Ors 

dteplaced. The - noiseless carriago, gliding: ie 

mooth pavements like those © Ho many DOE 
any people, but ove ly 
sibiy all 8 good mecustomed. ‘to the new order. 

things, “ho bellever. , ontinued Mr, Edison, ‘with! 
net tata thule pasuats | Meglt to, aes ene: 
Sieay 6 ¢ Bhar in Oy inalocwil forfeit its name of, 
D aitent Sheed. There will be. others. Automebile! 
‘Busses: may possibly supplant to som6 & ob jente 
elegant * ‘strectcaré,,, because they will, be 
“ener ove en tat mort’ that 
Mr, Hdlson, made, OS tmportant, state world to 

ne of the eas! 
Ae moule  eieckriclty as a motive power. on the Brie 

“Canal. : The 

Yi hich. 
jatand in the way of an Impnroy ements mit of serious 

‘ ‘Edison was.a victin: 
‘argument, ‘Not long ago, Mr. Abyaeatattt 
of omercufals polon ning ‘as the result nf esl beey 

2 thing in Fis laboratory. ‘He. has now, fully reco: 
‘ered. i) 

Rare. pe .- Sentinel 

nUG ie ous 

‘otie of thee Wo 
hitroduce ‘eleo a bli f power 
on the Erie Canal:, HS thinks certain un 
named. but powerful iniliences atand In! 
the..wiy--of an. ulectrieni- “iniproyement,. 
which, tothe sclentilic mind, secnia too 
aitople’ to; ,adimit of serlons. argument, 
This ia abont the ‘strongest testiniony ‘on! 
ithe matter that has beon given. Edison 
{is not accustomed to talk about. things 
electrical without knowing whereof he 
speaks.": He is now. working upon .an: 
jeléctric automobile, but deprecates rush-' 
‘ing. upon the rond with a thing which is, 
‘but half invented instead of waiting until! 
« is perfected “in, every detail..,; His com-- 
( upon the numerous’ breakdowns of: 
ie Davis automobile, was: that {t pays y 
iwake haste slowly in these matters. . 


sit ust 

eS ado 

+.“Then you think Mr, Charo: 
“homei a beaten man, do you?" 
“question -asked ‘Mr. Edison at hia=! home 
fn-Liewellyn Park to-night. ~o220)* 
«Well, ho replied, “from what ¥ know 
of.the French automobile, I don’t*hest- 
tate to say that should Mr):Charron 
‘attempt to race from Chicago to’-New 
York: he would not finish In the. race 
at: atthe French machine would | go 
0 pieces on our roads.” 
: Mr: Edison admitted that for the past 
six-months he had spent most of' his 
4me.experlmenting with a hope of: plan-) 
nig sa read Ceacning suitable for ‘any. 
ise, - 
“Then you propose to go Into the: 
automobile, manufacture,” queried. ..the 
porter, “should your experlarign 8° 
eat: vour expectations?’ _ 
“Plat will depend,” sald Mtr. Eatso; 
He. declined to make’ public ‘the . kind 
of-machine, or the way-be wan experleg 
menting on it. 

aug &.. hegy 

a AUToMOnILE PossiniL TIES. mask 

Thomas A. Bdinon’s | Views, 
- olution in Modern’ Life.;,: 
‘ Buffalo, : NE Yay Aug. 4.—(8peclal, 
‘Thomas;.A. - “who Was in’ town! 
ryest ngentedMo give a few hints, 
‘about: automobiles and possibilities: is 
other Mnes of motor power,” =.=: 
!’ Mr, Edison expressed his opinion: that} 
ta-mechanism the cost of which: would; 
{not exceed that of a carringe..and.‘ai 
team of horses has a big markst awalt- 
ing. ‘Tho effect of automobiles ‘travers. 
“ing. ‘evory._streat . would - bo -to'.revalne} 
tionize modern life. Mr. Edison already | 
seos'in:‘his mind's eye .the horse: fle 
placed. ~The noiseless carriage | glidin: 
over.’smooth pavements like ‘those’ o! 
Buffato may possibly kill a: goad: ai 
People, but eventually overybody.:will: 
get. Bcoustomed | to the new . 
ha inga he believes. 

Te is astonishing,” | continued M eae 
son, “with what rapidity ‘the-. public 
adjusts ‘Itself to new conditions. - BY 
and by the bicycle-and I seo .a-great ~ 
many .of them tn Buffalo—will-. aertolt | 
its-name of silent steed, There-will:be, 
,others.> } Automobile: buses. will: possibly 
‘supplant ‘to-.some extent” our. elegant’ 
street- cars “because they will bie 4 
;ta-cover;every stroe! 

He. thinks’ it would be ‘one: 
‘easleat things in the world to imeeaues’ 
electri Teity: a8 a, motive . power,.on* thas 
‘Brie Thore-is.more 
:plelon. ‘nr higraind that there: are certain: 
tpowerful influences ‘thatstand‘tin™:! 
‘way. of: an: improvement; which,* 
‘xolentific mind,-seems too simple; t 
jof serious argument: 

eer py ee. 

ne fo: BelLen Than Tho: 
Tenm—Anicr eaten ‘Qmoblles 
Good .ns the. -Fronoh—Chnyron: Won't Ho 
Hoard Ofatthe Finish of the Coming Rrea 

at erete, 

‘tho inventor. {8 working on: plans: to, make 
‘putomoblle: voblalés: light ‘and’ setonomtcal..; 
: What his. pens fire or how tho Edison. motor} 
‘ enrrl voler At Eqtaon la not. 
‘rendy tos aay. tat that ho will ‘succeed in turn. 
ing out' something better:than anything yet! 
;Placod ‘on the market ho is confidont.., Te 
‘Jadghs at the Fronch {den: of motot ‘triogclas,” 
and. declares that he will turn out atrloyeio 
_ Whioh’ean bo gold at a low price ard which till 
‘run 160 miles without boing rochargod. “He is 
‘looking for. simpitalty, and he sayd: ho will nop 
, de satisfied with anything thata child cannot 
‘salely-oporate, and — will not? 
jolbeleas. f i 
“Come up hero some day. in, ajtow weeks,” 
sald Mr, Edison, “and you'll soo ue anning all 
ey ccd 
n is onthusiastle, He.doctaroa {t wilt 
“bed mattor of only a few yeara when: horsilt 
‘wl bo‘ curlositios, Whon tho: automobile.’ ‘is 
_Berfectéd. Mr, Edison saya, tho prito'of ‘A buggy, 
ae two-ssatud carriage will bo lesg than ! nat of 
:team of horses, and {twill 

Spoaking of tho proposed inter: tlonal auton, 
‘moblla rdco between Charros, ‘réneh' {n> 

Yontor, and Winton, tho Amori¢an:‘manutne.! 
turor, Mr; Edison declared that tho 
wound not be heard of at the Mifs! 
rron's machine autd Att disor 
bully for tiie ronds fo his own f untry, TY, yore 
they ‘havo: billtard tables to ri ey “When 
he eh over hore ho will got atuck-in the mut 
He Winton will run_away from: i im. Untl 
ix onths azo the Freneh automo! He. was 
“ahen the A Amorieon, but in ti eo lnst alx 
months, re havo made wondortul ‘progress 
qn ee 4 a. and | In tho hort wiz; months: :Wo 


am his own nt expor tmnt with the auto) bt 
Mr, Edison woul talk, although ang le 

mitted t ae he ha Hoon at work or aéve 
“mon nthe nnn att attempt to improyo. on tho. i val 

nes po 

reamonthn ho hns boon. shut up his 
_prorkshop ovoting his antire time,.to’ mre 

ing 6 pine of his inventions,’ Tho- £9 

* plot nt oO} rocess for manufacturing Ainort 

fant ordan coment resulted a few wo Ka ago 

{nth if 9, ipeornoratio of a aaron 

® the coment. pr oan, was 
Feom) neked, ifr, # Hulson hne devo: aa foe eoks 
“to. improvi: ne the oh onographt ‘wl auch ox. 
i caljont rosyite that ho says. his TOW mac hinos 
1 20. bo placed in the mark ot Bhorty, t renros 
tduea ata a sovoral Umea Tous Beit nn tho 


|Riay wicheaiee Ove gee Cae eng ans 
* 5,0: 
Syoleo ‘wh renn. bo Yoard" vat Porstno bai 



considerable interest just , now. ewhen 
80 much attention Is being pald to this 
class Of Vehicles, Mr. Edison's. driven: 
ition ta” ag yet incomplete, at least ‘we 
‘have seen no account of a public: trial 
‘of-it, but the inventor talks confident- ! 
Ay, even “béastfully, of the prospects.’ 
His ‘machino, he says, will ‘transcend 
‘in uttlity* any machine of tho sort. that’ 
has’ yet’been produced. ‘The motor’ 
can .be plied to bicycles and: ‘érleyles 
4 to four-whéeled volileles., 
‘French’ inventors will hang thelr heiids' 
din. shame when they sea what has ‘been! 
Accomplished by an American. ? Edison! 
‘ts ‘convinced that the meéchantam’ ‘tot 
‘his machino is far more practical, :i is 
_lereatly condensed and the clumey: ap- 
‘Pearance of the vehicle will be done 
‘away. with.and: the weight reduced. .° | 
.‘ Thecontroversy in regard ito he’ 
the French-and Amorican.a 
and’ the * proposed . ‘interna: 
jtloual ‘face’ had directed the attention! 
lot! the “great inventor to the ‘problemi 
ofilong: distance traveling, and 
‘itively: ‘asserts that when con 
‘his: machine swil have a. runni 
‘pacity: of ‘from 12 to 14 miles. an hour; 
‘and: that the motive power" wol 

jon, said that when the ‘genera 
“the ‘price ‘of a “two-deater 
-be-brought Mosier 
‘team of horses,'a 
ugey “complete, £ ae 
botght-for from: $300}t019400 
ue sall’ta <a 
mop! lex 
te wit 186, fhatise ats: eeeeaeeereny 

Nomepioes an 
eas ‘supar! foeity i ei 

y oft 

The rapldit Sigtpweh of the ou- 
ihas. agscarcely been 

fatiot aiiy other inven- 

‘thon considering’,the time that it hag 
been in vogue, and there is every indl- 
cation of its continuance. Not long ago, 

the number of motor vehicle nianufac- 

turera jn France ‘was authoritatively 
stated as 600, whilo the number in B 
Jand was estimated at 110, in Germaiy 
40 and In the United States 60, Since 
then the number has increased con- 
spicuously in this country, for new 
companies have been formed at the 
Fate of four a week, and a recent state- 
ment shows that the‘amount of capital 
represented by these concerns comes 
close to $300,000,000, Bicycle and car- 
rlage companies have gone into the 
business, and there are countless cvn- 
cerns engaged in manufacturing parts 
-of vehicles and equipment. Others have 
been formed merely for operating and 
many for both manufacturing and 
operating. Special tools have to 
be made, and the variety of 
inechanisms required is large enough 
to constitute several distinct: trades, 
The automobile trade papér {8 of course 
already in the field, devoted both to 
buliders and to patrons, | 
That the compantes’ do not find bus- 
iness dull js evidenced by the. difficul- 
4, ty with which orders are filled. A lo- 
cal physician who not long. ago’ made 
inquiries for an automobile for. use in 
his profession, was told that he could 
not expect to receive ‘one within a year, 
In Boston and other cities, where these 
vehicles are already in operation, the 
number is increasing but — slowly, 
though surely not through any lac): 
of popular demand for them... The 
French model has ‘hitherto stood ,as 
the standard, but Thomas A. Edison 
is.authority for. the state e. 
American makérs have progressed: 69, 
rapidly that another six monthe should 
evolve. a better machine in this“ cou! : 

eriferion, the automobile-has com 
only to stay but to multiply" exceeding- 
ly, Time may be Yequired for the‘ evolu- 

x but it can hardly be. that human 
iingenulty” BT unequal ‘to this: “demand, 

jaind {f “it is not,. time will eventually; 
‘bring ‘down: the price. The aiitomobile, 

Cae Sane kee 

muy suis cuerisn tneir trotters, Pacers, 

‘saddle horses, matched pairs and four- 

in-hands as formerly, and the. horse 
will find his condition elevated rather 
than degraded by the introduction of 
the new: method of rapld transit: Dob- 
bin may be driven from certain flelds 
‘of labor, but he won't be killed, 

Grange, Hef nal 

iis wie See 
Having Tiaprov ep ptionoxtap ¢ yi 
Now Develop Ink ¢ Horteloss Carriage: 


Automibles ar ‘egsthoinag,, Ax-Wdisen's 
_latest; hobby. Fongthe past 81x month 
the-has been devoting his-t time tov 
‘proving a number of his “Inventl 
and .having completed a proces : 
manufacturing American . Portland <ce-, 
‘ment and improved the phonograph hel 
‘is devoting his entire time to the auto 
‘mobile, + ' rete 
Mr. ‘Edison 1s not ready to say BB, "yet 
what ‘his plans are or how the Baison! 
; motor. carriages are to be propelled bit; 
ihe scoffs at the French {dea of! 
tor bicycle and declares that he. will, 
turn out a tricycle that can be sold at, 
a low price and that will run for 160. 
miles without belng recharged. He is 
looking for simplicity in mechanism’ 
‘and operation and asserts that he wilt: 
not be satisfied with anything that ‘a’ 
child: .cannot operate or with anything, 
but a noiseless machine. In Mr.‘Edl-, 
son's opinion «jt will be only Sie 
‘years when Pees. | be almost: en-; 
tirely: ner ay automobltes.! 
‘When motor carriigt is are perfected | he, 
says they will cost less than a. “good! 
team: of horses and will be maintained! 
for one-fifth the amount required to: 
keep: a team. eee tin A 
“Hila process for manufacturing ‘Ame 
erlean Portland -cement is a profound; 
secret. It is said. that the cement-can: 
be made at a much lower cost than the; 
imported and that it fs fully equal to} 
that ‘obtained from abroad. = * 
“fhe new. phonograph’ which is. .to- 
placed on the market in a short’. time, 

‘with and ‘the new. talking. , 
'be heard: distinctiy and” n 
rdistance_of two or three t dioe! 



The Gret Inventor is Directing his Gentus Toward the 

Construction of an Electric Motor Carriage 
“Cyrus P. Jones I 
HOMAS A, EDISON, the century's 
greatest wonder-worker, Has been or- 

For one whole week thisjsummer he 

- - hausted by the intense application he 
Was: been giving to his work. His great brain was 
never more prolific of ideas, but the strain of eighteen 
hours a day in his laboratory was beginning to tell on 
him and to threaten collapse. ; 

I was astonished at the thoroughness of the wizard's. 

dered by his physician to-take a rest. ; 

was confined to his bed, physically ex-: 

a Q , p . Q a 

A Cheap Automobile Needed ar 

Quick as ever to grasp a situation, the inventor has 
evidently forescen the need of just sith a machine,— 
one that will cost less than two iandred] ang fifty 
dollars, and consequently be within the medns of the 
horse-owner of to-day.. If the horse is ‘toibe super- 
seded, by the motor car, it must be by mbans of a 
vehicle that costs less thanthe animal. If itcpsts more 
it will not be generally used. ‘The cumbrous electric 
cab now used, heavy and inartistic as it is, tosts two 
thousand dollars, but it is Mr. Edison's. parpose to 
reduce the price, to five hundred dollars, a make it 
lighter, and more pleasing to the eye.” Once he can 
demonstrate that a cab can be“produced on {he:above 
lines, he will extend the pros @ to hundreds of other 
styles and sizes of vehicles, somé of which will be put 
on the market, in all probability, as low as on¢: hundred 
and fifty dollars apiece. 7 || 

The Approach of the Horseless Age * | 
“ "Something of the magnitude of the field in which 
i) Mr. Edison's efforts are now being directetl may be 
gathered from the figures of recent incorporations, 
Six companies are now organized, and thre¢ of them 
are engaged in the tianufacture of horseless: vehicles. 
‘The aggregate capital of the’ six companies ls eighty 
3 millions, Several kinds are made in.the United States, 
including gasoline vehicles and storage battery 
electric cabs. The average cost of the formeris twelve 

methods, ‘The great institution which he simply} hundred dollars, and of the latter two. thousand: dol- 
terms a workshop, in West Orange, Neiv Jersey, is"lars, ‘The gasoline motor costs less to run, as it docs 
really a combination of vast machine sliops, experi-: not require over.a gallon of the fluid to,makela trip of 
ment rooms, scientific test rooms, and apartments set: fifteen miles; wherens, an electric wagon. miist be re- 

aside for draftsmen, It must represent dn outlay of 
a million dollars, ‘There are delicately contrived in- 
struments that required the best skill. of Europe to 
produce. In the galleried library there are scientific 
volumes that cost their weight in gold. | 

Upstairs in the music room Raymonj);Moore was 
singing a tenor solo for record making while a dis- 
tingtished pianist accompanied him. A new engineer 
was being drilled in his work as 1 entered; Mr. Edi- 
son was doing the drilling. He never requires a man 
to do anything that he cannot do himselfy If his em- 
ployces were as good mechanics ‘as.he,,onb-half of hi 
tremondouslabors would be saved but, S itis, he is 
constantly obliged to be in attendance wien putting 

charged every trip of fifteen miles at consideranly 
more expense, ‘I'he automobile is rapidly assuming 
‘a detinite place in the public mind, and this condition 
is bound to result in an extended market as soon as 
construction can be simplified and the price reduced. 
The United States government has taken the first 
steps looking to the use of electric mail wagons. for 
both collection and delivery purposes. A company of 
capitalists in Morristown, New Jersey, has experi- 
mented with a view to establishing a regular Pas 
senger service in that city, neither cable nor tro! ley 
“lines having been permitted to obtain franchises there, 
It is proposed that automobiles shall do the same 

service there as electric street cars in other places, A 
great many wealthy men now own private convey- 
ances, and several physicians employ this means of 
answering calls quickly, but it can hard) y be said that 
motor vehicles are becoming common. England uses 
: ten to America’s one, while France uses a hundred to 
A England's ten. If the conditions mentioned ever pre- 
vail,—and it rests with such inventive genius as Mr. 
Edison’s to bring them about,—the day may not be far 
distant that will usher in a horseless age 

up a new contrivance, As I watched hig, his hands 
grimy with bluckened oi) and his pockets Bulging with 
nuts, bolts, and bits of machinery, I began to under- 
stand one of the ‘reasons for his marveléus success, 
He studies.everything and knows everything concern- 
ing-his inventions from the ground up.a 

Edison and His “Boys” 1 

Just now Mb. Edison is bending his talents to dis- 
covering a perfect cement, one that ‘shall take the 
place commercially of the article used by builders 
and in hydraulic construction. In addition, he 1s try- 
ing to perfect a motor-vehicle which shall be of popular 
price, ‘hese two are simply his leaders, '. The other 
six or eight inventions upon which he bestows daily 
attention are in connection with his great concentrat- 
ing works at Edison, New Jersey, where he is revolu- 
tionizing all known methods of crushing;iron ore,— 
and‘in-making improvements in-his phonographic and 
telegraphic departments. He works on thege improve- 
ments constantly, and no sooner is one perfected and 

atented than he starts on another.:’ His }'boys,” as 
he calls the two thousand employees of his various 
plants, need constant attention to kee ian going, 

[exe heat 

and of course Mr. Edison is notsatisfied with anything 
commonplace. He wants the several busitlesses to be 
‘up*to-date, and when competition comes. he. contrives 
something to put them ahead of their competitors, if 
human ingenuity can accomplish it. 5 

‘T think he expects to win the grandest success of his 
life in giving to the world an automobile that will be 
within the reach of the average person, He would not 
say this,. His well-known economy .of words,—in ad- 
vance of-the completion of.a triumph,—precluded any 
hope | might have had of an explanatory interview. - 

“It's too early to talk of this," was all could-get . 
out of him. Veep RS eas ‘Works? will shay bultts 

aa 3 

shen ae 


tae Jqurerial , ~ 
N.Y. Morning 1% 1399 

“Qhiste mnetrefe a 

‘lt Will Run ‘ by Electricity, Mill. Be. Light,. . Simple {liad it will Bink the wheels to.the hubs In’ 

~ Enough for a.Child, to, Manage, ‘and. Will Be Sold. 
for No’ More ‘Than ‘a‘Horse-and Garriagé.*-» ~ 

: “TF --"As the demana tmereases.”. He continued 
A’ announced exclusively: In -the Jour “and should my ‘yebicles prove the,succes 

nel Inst Thursday, Thomas A. Bat J-anticlpate, Twill eltber 

for thelr manufacture or 

pon is at work on an automobil) $0" some bicycle concern 

» whieh, he «ays, will transcend in artlitty 
any machine of the sort that has yet beet 
» produced. 2 eas eae eee 

“ Of course, being an Edison’ prpduction gttention to the new mode 
the new marvel will be run by electricity. and will lay the spooks of 

‘““‘Ppough the Wizard will not-now'makt gonity that people who hare not ‘looke 

publle the full plans of bis Intest\creatlot into the new vehicle worry 

- -The ‘Finish of the-Horse- a i 
ihe very fact that Thomas A. Ealson:} how Ce: 
Retting out a horseless. vehicle will attrac 

the soft roadways. The wooden ~ spoked, 
wheels will bog down in the sand and the: 
mud and the dust flying Into the unpre 
tected benrings of the French machine will 
eguse more trouble, 
. ‘Another fatnl defect In Charron’s vehicle? 
waa oe oe on ordinary country ‘ronda 
i HU weer, ‘acs, 
P Niematt weliicber made sbortiy~t97 sue 
Ye: t daprlone: ofthe ~automabiie, 
he dum arts ' 

anorner et THOW In usel 

pulld a 

1 Tigh 

i news 
= Theres ‘pranchtor- character -of 
tractjon- for: which. athecantomonlie ‘Is, not 
g for addptlon.. At: the ‘automobile, 
wv. {n-. progress.-at~ the-: Tuileries; 
Gardens, ‘In: Paris. there was 0; prize ‘for, 
a race imong. volturettes, driven “by~ chil-: 
1 ec haeth tea es a 
frAny child olf enough ‘4 Shetland 
: ‘pony, Is-old enough ‘to run one-of.the baby? 
go much abou, ‘automobiles. and. the children, of. some ‘of; 

of progressios 
danger and dl: 

he gave some of the detalls ofrit.te:% When Edison says nn’ automobile’ isas several of the great familles of. the canital 

Journal reporter, who round him -in-blet non-explosive as & church 

workshop. Sate + handle that a ten-year-old 
“Sfy experiments are practically’ ¢0 

pleted,"’ sald Mr. Edison, “and with 

age It as Well as an enginecr,. there is-no CU Bvery: f 
In:.t ionger any rengon to doubt that the roads ‘nutamobile In-America.—.An-automobile cal 

and so easy. to ‘of France 
ehiid enn man- -the-park 

run their toy-Ike ‘volturettes.. In} 
very! afternoon. 2 

day. sees a’ wider: spread. of - the 

few weeks we Will have motor¢ of the ‘future belong to the horseless: ve- company” {s- organizing ..Jn - Chicane + Wh, 

leseles'on the roads hereabouts. - 1 hate hicle. . 
jbeen working on the motor for six-months He promises an electric 
‘and It now fulfills ‘all. my ‘expectations, Bh 
be in.the same clings with ‘mine,sand thy than a good alugle bugey 
\Ynventors, avill hang thelr heads “Wwithrdig cost at ‘present. He ‘has 


y ‘an ‘nut6-truck” company — is: alread, 
runabout, such = 89; Mismia r ee em . 

as a country doctor would use, for:from 
wphe: French naphtha ‘machines: will: not three to four hundred dollars, hardly more 

and falr horse 
cut the welght 

iguet when the’ one which 1s. ndvws belug of the machine down to n- figure: the. re- 

{completed is placed beside those df'Erenct YOrsr, of alarming, and has 
RK E. * he ad 

wt a cheatin be 

“my, machine I driving a gentle horse. 
1 be done away; vith To use his own words: 

few yenrs In every class of 

earrled ‘the au- 

tomatic priuciple so far that the. procega 
may Of running the vebicle 1s less difficult than 

ds: 5 cae 
~ "Phe nutomobile will. displace, horses In in 

work. Our roads 

ate now suitable for thelr usage. Horses 

apace ea “iy «tor families are only for. the--rich,--and 
excld{medsthevgreatinven When a demand comes for the automobiic 
ean runs itstw hpytstb thes will be cheaper, and the “expense. of 
MANY body: SAULT ta cee keeping them In order will be ‘about one. 

Uae ans 

1s-concerned) -Is ithat.the, motor, thet beays 
leat“ part of the automobile, is-forward, im- 
imedlately above the front axle. - 7 

i Any farmer's-boys ‘accustomed to the ruts 
land bowlders in the plke that: Icade ‘to the 

As ta the cost. Mr. Edlsor 

fifth that of keeping a horse. 

” 3 
n sald'that when" 

the general demand came. the ‘price of ‘a> 
two-seated vehicle would be brought. down 
to the cost of © good tean of horses, and 

jmaorket ‘town, knows too much to: put .a that, a one-seat buggy complete, hte” enld, 

‘heavy the front end of ‘his: wagon, ji 
‘Speed witha “vebicle, thus-unbalanced is .1t- hundred dollars, 
iterly «ou ut tl question, - und anyhody 
‘trying.tow make’ A 
for, a..fnll."" > 

b..Gharro New York. 
sich spoed ‘ax he ‘made: when‘ he ran the few York. 
‘recent automobile race. from Bordeaux: to 
Paris. pour. ether upset’ or knock hls Why," continued Mr. 
es Ps areas of the-Automoblie, : French machine would go 
With’ automobile’ cabs’ taliing’ cate! of” the 
treet “Pagsencer trade, private: antomobile 

ark’ drlves—for~.the “ probibition “against nice smooth roads in 

aAppenrance~in’ the; Central, | 

‘dolug? all. the express cand) — rondk, - y = 

French Machines: Will, N 

ctWinnt I know of our automobiles in that 

ywould be bonght for from three: to: four 
te . 

nvillzot in discussing the proposed “titer. 
: bares atlona ce anid ‘tothe’ Journal. that 
: n-rond. talk, riding | Charron could not bring his Freuch bujlt 
It-he attempted. to ridé-at any machine over the ronds from Chicago to 

00. > 
Elson, | ‘the 
to pleces on: our 

roads, or at lenst. on’ the ronds’ which 
qrould have to be travelled over on ‘the 
B : adurse, and the Frenchman would find thint 
eatriages, thronging the : boulevards . and) his machine, which is practicable ot the 
Mrance, would ft 
2 only ‘®' stuclt - the mud before renching, its f cs 

6 aie 38, 001Y,..2, nintion, or would be shaken to pieces 
Binbase “of; the Kreat <changesand = poming in contact with the bowlders ithe 

thay are built tn accordance with the-rea) 
yeare ot which Mieycaee made to runs", <'s 
‘Ond,of:the:big:b ad “CIE was true, up to a: few months Ag! 
dering, the-t sald Edison, “that the French vehicles we 
ificent © N' “ ured: Int America, 

bit we are “and- have he 

‘| {ay ahend of any manufact! 

machine than the Frenchmen ever thought: 

thine, he fins n geod one, and before -the: 
yaco ‘$s: finished the Frenchman. will sind} 
himself and machine stuck nthe mud; 
along tho road, twhile Mr. Wiaton, » with) 
his.American idens, will be speeding mer! 
ily along. toward the purnal office.”- mete 
Tue yenson -Cbharron’s amuchiue. ¢ 

en inking: wide 

atrides In the advancement of ‘the .nuto- 
moolles during the past six months, and to- 
doy ure potiine out .o more. practicable 

‘of, or ever can put out, and in the next six; 
months America will be whend * of tho! 
er 4 } world tn the manufacture of the machines,: 
clerorstricyel q eres eA ne American engineers ard exercising thel. 

R f Prank experimenting, and from present [n-. 
ee contro Ae) dications 00 per cent of the horses now inj 
ndvethex proposed y inter wee wil! pe replaced by tls, late ‘Invention: 

At ¢ y the next year and a wait: eT 
foe ee ecoblom Suprom ‘lint I read of Mr. Winton' 

compete on American - roads, haa” already 
been! elaborately .set” forth In the Journo | 
Inzthe. first.nince the. avelght Is so. great: 





Thy "22 (9 
infer, . 
FonMansfeld 0 ews’ 

JUN 23 (899. 

bee “THOMAS: 4. EDISON, J! 

“Of New York Chea Move O! ees 
{ shelby. |: o 

{Thomas A. Edison, Jr., of New York! 
' Clty, dealer in and manufacturer of 
{ electric Jamps, will move his general 
offices to Shelby in a few days... This 
; } arrangement was made yesterday by 
. C, K. 3tiliwell, general manager for Mr. 
Edison, who has since returned to New 
York City, and will ship the ‘Ofllee 
furniture, supplies and, employes ‘as 
‘soon as he arrives. Rooms have been 
arranged for in one of the business 
‘blocks.ou. Main street, and these will 
-be fitted up as soon as a formal lease 
has been entered into for them.” The 
offices ‘vill employ three or four people, 
? and the businegs “svill largely add to the 
|"importsnce of “shelby. Several Shelby 
|, men are inthFested in the getting of 
' Mr. Sdison'’s offices and sales depart- 
! ments here, and there is no doubt but 
| the enterprise is one which will prove 
+ profitable to the promoters. 
i. Mr. Edjson invented a new and su- 
* perior electrical lamp about a year ago, 
{ which was yery largely advertised by! 
ihe metropolitan newspapers at the 
tme, on eet of his being a 50D. of 


2 1m profiteole business has been d 
i «hig? invention: , Mr. Stillwell, “thi 

are for Mr. ee formerly 

“From Cincin®ait, 0, - Gomni. Tribune 

UL 3 1699 

Special Disdatek to Commercia), ‘Tribune, i 
yc ICAGO. July Riese 

‘But | littic, was. Known about: them by the: 
elder Edison. 
+ Mr, Edlson, In, sald he had sévered his: 
connections with ‘his father, to. launch j 
‘himself .az an electrical inyéntor, Inde- | 
pendent of the tutelage of: his father. g 
‘sald when he married against his fath : 
wishes he had prepared to. establish him- 
‘self as his father's competitor. a es 
H ““Reared in’ omy father's laboratory ana: 
leducated by my father himself, i think i: 
lam capable of ‘continuing the work. which 
ihe, perhaps, wilt not live to finish, and, tn, 
my’, “fidgment, tite man “who ‘invents must: 
bo, ‘tho, originator, ‘and: not, ‘an tmitator, : 
thy: father was always’ opposed to act= 
ebadeb” ag Wivés; bit it 

Well I think at any. rate, since his bosom" 
friend, Samuel Insult, took unto himself, 
‘one, he is tess annoyed at my course.'! 
Misa Marle Loulse Touhey ,made ne? 
debut on the stage in Chicago during. 
the World's Fair, In that season she: 
played in “America,” The following sea 
gon she toured with Eddie Foy in “Rob{n- 
son Crusoe." She" later, played in “Gay- 
est’ Manhattan,” ‘Gay Corley Taland” 
and “By the Sid Sea Waves.” She was 
With Lillian Russell in “La Belle Hotoné 
wheh the youiger fatson first and godr 
afterwaids. martléd -hét,. Mr, Edison, “Jr, 
‘old, Ho ‘le Préatdont | of: a “dum 
eat ipaniéd, 

Fatson thinks. 
elie ed tothe 

1699 “Sean, TA. 
7 Di eiraaces 

W. Y. Tribune: 
JUL .8 1899 

-.Youne "RDTAONS. i SIEARRTA ion 

Chiengo; July 2 (Special). rhomas “AL “Edison, , en 
ead the bride he married against +m ra 
will are living quietly. Ini-Chtengo, Mra, Edison 
wes Marie Loulso Twohoy, a (Chicago girl, who has 
been an actress. Sho- owas ‘playing in “La Belle 
Ticlene” when young Edison met her. Her home fs 
at No, 335 North Clark-st., where the couple is 
stovping with her mother. 

Mr. Edison has not been reconciled to his father 
since~his marriage, although friends of the ‘two 
have a, ges bf sought to end the differences.-Mr. 

15 fath her wil tin Uma become recon: 



“Using ILis Name. 

cKppitétion was made to Chancellor 
Meat on behalf of Thomas A. . Edison, 
the inventor, for an Injunction to restrain 
Frederick M. Prescott, of Montclair, from 
using the:name “Edison”. in his business 
of buying: and setling phonographs: and 
‘phonographic supplies. Tho inventor also 
sks that the Montclair man,ho, restrained 

igrams.or other mait matté 
‘Mr, Edison, and that he be- mado, to ac- 
gount for and pay to the inventor: the’ an 
‘come and! profits which accrue 
from the use of the nanc. 

“The'application cites that tho. phon 
graph-or:talking machine: was, the 
Vention of Thomas A. Edlson, ana. 
tho eccired ‘patents on it In 1878 and-later., 
tand’ that-on account of his reputation, 
‘as an inventor tho uso of his name ine 
creases. tho value of phonographs. and, 
‘amine’ machines in the markeot..-! 

; Next the Application states that in.1895. 
Prescott” engaged in business of cbuyingi 
‘and. selligg/phonographs and supplies, -as| 
‘tu broker? but that in .1897 or early. in; 
‘3890 .he ‘opened an office in the Edison’ 
building, 44 Broad strect, New “York, une 
ider.tho namo of the “Edison Phonograph) 
L Agence: !fhe charge 1s made ‘that tho 
iselectton: of the Edison building and. of 
:the: name) were made so that; . Prescott 
imight,: Bectire possession of letters and 
‘telegrams. addressed to tho Iinventor;~aiid 
‘also to ‘obtain audience with, ; pereons, 
sealing toisco Mr. Edison. _. v faa 
i. {Tho inventor had received complalhis! 
‘trom customers who stated that Prescott! 
jhad received money from them,: but‘ he’ 
‘had failed to ship goods. Tho inventor: 
‘wrote, to ‘Prescott ordering him. to .dis-; 
‘continue the use of his name, and, the #p-, 
plication states, Prescott replied jthat: he! 
‘was:about closing up his -business: and 
‘would.then discontinue the uso, of. the 
iname.:- Another allegation is that early: 
iin. the :present' year Prescott.jcontinued: 
‘pualness under the namo “E."M: Prescott, 
is ccessor; to, the - Edison Phonograph: 
Agency,” and .that ‘circulars have..beeny 
‘sont out by the {printed fii. 
‘Spanish and purporting to como! from: thi 
Edison: ‘Phonograph Agency. {ATES 

public: by} th f 
snd tha! ‘Jn' récelving;m 
: ofiavelt 


jeingithd|n name; 

fepute..with? the ¢publt 




A ee 
a tes 

aiee him, ‘and it is ‘not a ‘vain. mh put: to 
: hag conditioned his givitigsupon 
he real. trouble with : Mey di, 

abey ‘the’ Jaws’ that ‘ra 
be happy, and ‘it we. don’ “we' are Hable: tojf: 
set. hurt,” sald Edison,- Farilling ‘Brim! 
“The world -is ‘run’ Just Mke -a “great: rail 
rond—only better. ‘Here ‘the system of ‘rules 
is‘so perfect that:the:president can go off on’ 
-@ vacation ‘whenever-he- feets ‘Ike Jt and all 
traing -will. run ‘along’ as “smoothly: tis‘ ever, 
5] Do: syou” suppose the inteugence. in ‘char, -of tl; of op 
6£..the universe, with “its.,bUlions: of fying, B fot ino lawn 
So enever ching since: th: y 
: Rca cara Hagry ‘began, and never will:tillthe world ‘Bhail,end. 
that’ happens’ to ‘stub his* “tae oe alee of | &-. “* 

* ‘Praye t 

‘to! bex 

‘Fire will burn’and water: wlil flow‘ant 
J RM. Like, causes,unde 
nees will prod ce. ke" result 
this in 

iataw ‘the 

: Tit ta: Sell ton siti , 
“;the’ evidente ‘of-mird< 
eles and ‘moral “utter” 

his’ Jatora ry, tl 
he Pip piled -— : 

emistry” ‘undicubtediy proves the exist- 
ence of-a Supreme. Intelligence. ‘No one-ca} 


“Do you pelreve, ans 
asked. face fie I, 

vay in’ which certain elements combine wit) 
‘the nicety of the most delicate machine ever 
‘@evised ‘and’ not’ come‘to''tho: inevitable “con: 
clusion that there 1s a’ bi “engineer who és 
running this-univerge.: 3 
“Why, after. 

! ty Mtr, Edison that’ chemt: Ty: ‘provi b: 
: +; extatence, fof. a. -suprem 

she_ Inventor, turning -suddenly. ardund and 
peering into my. face with ‘2 ‘look of sympa- 
thy, and ‘sadness, ' “Are ‘you “hayppy?" ‘Well, ‘Is one’, thing’ 
most' people are not.: Many -are ‘alek: nearly ‘ot: sclénce ‘the: ¢ 
all/are ‘miserable from some trouble ther. ‘a’: B 

ne the processes 

ot nature, I no.more: doubt tthe, existence oF 
, an. ‘Intelligence | ‘that. ts’ runnifi¢* things that 
I do.the. existengo; of myzelf. ‘ake, forey- 

“ample, -the substance « that, forms ft It I could solve the'riddle of this ifs, $ Gno, gli 
therg; are “hurt me: ideas about'the next.? Oh; nit | ‘demonstration & “Bh 
rh,’ crystals’, he: “sald meditatively, ; ‘Haid eloatng: hi 

ius he! mad 

y; one of “them, “of ce, Binks | ‘and’ Jeantng ‘on, "a:bench; in“the® tao 
f water, “Ice, T’say, doesn't.. And it is. rather sf 
icky for ‘us mortals, “for” it it } 
iW [would " all, be .dead.. why , 
i meg “If tee’ 


“used: in referetic 
“dnd it ips 

che” mia fo sbe <a 

A f de: 

as shown inthe fundamental lnwa of 
-cheniistry, seems‘to: be go ‘strong | 
as to. be beyond cpntrovers: Year .by ‘year 
new" relations and affinities: toms ‘and’ele- 
ments are discovered, .and ‘so + 
| Bl Sots thoughts, ‘otter atin .The'ap- atts at 
plication of these laws—God's ‘thoughts In.this |. = , sfacto: 
connection—are producing immeasurable ben- alt view ae haturo is:gotten by him who se 
efftsito man. So God's thoughts usward are.|> thereln the,hanilwork of an infinite Ante 
love, ‘We galt there benefits—I.'e:; mind rules lgence, whether it’be manifest in‘the beau 
‘matter only In so far as we apprehend the "lee thethaeaat the mrneenitace ties aya i 

e a . 14 i 
af impressed on matter iby, Its: iCrento “are: revealed to .the’ student of ‘physteal ‘se: 
‘ence.' Front this viewpolnt_the. study of ‘ms 
-terfal thingy has a‘dignity and‘a’ worth.sure]: 
eat that ofthe: humanitles—ih! 

eeil,: superior, one! ma: yclalm—a: 

of the highe telilgene “thie -work 

in’. imay, ‘rome “alone “by and ‘by ‘and djj- 
cover Other attributes nature“teaches aboyt |. 
this Being. «, But Intelligence’: is all my. rf- 
search ‘has‘ revealed. .: Indeed, the ‘sclentist pt 
the: future’ may make~ nature tell us as mu 
about this intelligence’as the. Bi 
to reveal.” 5 
‘Would you not. en! 
“Creator ?"": was” tes 

noes it does, ena Mind believe this’ ‘Sup 

-Ahough, xou, ki 
than "He ‘does. .-He 

‘does, /He-fs tlg 
from. us‘ttle, babies. 

pings if. 

cially directed i us as ‘his ‘children: to ao it. 

is. the latest: -adulter: 
- the. shape’ o: coffer beat 



Re bist 
‘Chicaworg How buildings nope 
se aes guna amir 
ee oe 
oa on 0a +e Hort, 
Iie ante batine oni 


maior ane 
Eni ae 


iG a ees 
faa er t tnol Sige phono- | 
} pidposed* th phoutd’ 
, 8 
ational | 


fs forced by heavy pressure, He aeeyoreee 
all Spéning and guided to form saift 
ae desired cross section, which Tork, 

 ciadaee ete Sneett 

attempt to. kill” 

_ bullet, killed him it was a chant 
ie fio ot 


Bost Sneck iat 
ae Sonal 
Of, Ct ~deopold, | 
Sor “Phonograph Avarks, “h a 

Liwhat is -belleveé to-have-been a'" 
bth works, by Mulebaeveral hundred dollars in, 
»honographs,: ca) néts and other goods ‘have- 
ready-been stolen.:“Yésterday two empl 
;-works,- Walter Singer and James Mek cere 
8 don charges of larceny.” At the’ homes® of! 
* ed hn pt ther ‘a large quantity of phonograph goat 
fryab <found. “Meienna was: Ischarged for Inck. of, 
evidence; sand --Leopold :and Singer were held “to” 
i Walt the ‘action ‘of thé Grand Jury. “Superinten 
i dent’G ro {s of-the opinion that the thefts, hav, 
thoantmade'on a larger scale than has yet been dis. 

qWedand on investigation of the, most, searchin 
be] a 

ter be made. et 
Sone nt 

sisted tpue Mats i te 

Por os 


{ According to the complaint, the first 
positive step was in the spring of 1893. 
The complaint says that Charles-E. Ste- 
i{ vens, who had previously made himself 
. useful In copying for the Edison Com- 
‘pany the lst of customers of a rival, the 
United States Phonograph Company of 
Newark, came to him and sald; | ‘’That 
neither he, nor Mr. Gilmore, nor Mr. Edi- 
son was sitisfled with the. manner in 
which your orator was “conducting his 
business, and he stated that’ he “was 
about to resign his position with the Na~ 
tlonal Phonograph Company and to go 
Into the export business in phonographs 
in competition with your orator; that ‘a 
large export house fn the City of New 
York had offered to fit office for the 
sald Stevens in New York at [ts expense, 
to furnish him with capital to conduct 
the business, to_put him In charge of the 
sald ofiice,' arfd to‘divide the profits with 
dint): sald Stevens stated that 
he \" Egcelve @ proposition.” 
that’at that time he was 
the Edison: Manu: 
tur! ny, that h: slelded -t 
threat and took Stevens in'ag a parti 
The latter put in no money, dut recolyed, < 
a salary: of $50 a week, drew out $2,881" 
profits in léss than four motiths, and 
took" $1,281‘as his sharo of tho 
when the firm dissolved: .:: 
In August Prescott went to: Europe 
for a threc-month trip,. Troubles. fell: 
thick at once.’ When he landed ho re- 
ceived’ a dispatch ‘saying’ Stevens dé- 

au From the 


He yoRt ay 



manded a dissolution of the partnership | 2 
by Septembor:1,"and ‘another: that” 1 
discounts had” been: withdraw: rea} 4 
‘cott hurried” back, ehed.. i 
‘September 2> and_ thi partnership wast, 
Alssolved. immediatel: i .° 


could. net use the nama f 
rap gency, 5! 
rates £0; i 



ng my fa 

“attention to. the fact that people who y 
‘sentshim moneys.had?recelved nothing. b 
fn, return, for thems": ‘a 

Td" oes bm pe 

sy crange, Ne of. that “company} “etree ere) 

tl: Company, ’. Twenty-sixth’ 
ii “quote the'c mplaint, | “offered to sell your 

Broadways,. ‘New York. 
* Prescott says that Af, ‘ 
vestigated the matter’ and’ refused: to: 
ur. orator to: cease buying phond- turn over his letters to Mr.” Edison’s 
the. United States Phonograph; , |.company. The’ complaint closés with‘ a 
and to biy. of the, Natlonal! Prayer, for an: injunction directed‘; ‘to 
hy Compiny; that your orator Thomas A. Edison, yWwitliam -B, Gilmore,’ 
- buying” about $5,000 worth: of the National Phonograph’ Company and 
pha monthly of...the}- United Charles E," Stevens,’ restraining’ them 
2 Sti es Phendgraph Company, .and that “from “using or availing themselves “of 
a to: the- interest of the National any Information’ obtained by. the satd 
2 : Company and the- Edison Charles E, Stevens while jn Partnership 
graph Works to secure, your ora- ;with, your orator, and’ frong:‘ysing-. In. 
for. tt jany way the lists of customérs of your 
orator,: ‘secretly,. made:* by. the. sald 
iCharles E. Stevens in violation of good 
faith, or. from | using and availing them-|. 
selves in anyway -of Information sur- 
reptitiously obtained _by them? or trom 
circulating among" yotr orat 
‘ers, or among the trade: reports, derog=. 
atory. to the credit. and’ financial‘or 
By pes “standing: of ¥< taenien 
Y a gotting up anlexclus! ve. Tig. 
nd Became cs of:. genuine : Edlson*” phor grays; "ay 
from selling | 
violation of!) any? re 
made by the’sald defendants; f iny,¢ 
| them, and from conducting business. tin- |. 
der. the. name’ of: ‘Ealson’s- Phonograph 
; Agency,’ or any other. namo similar. to” 
the “name”, ‘Edison's: :- Phonograph 
Agency,’ and Calculated to mislead: and 
from diverting mail matter Intended for 
your;orator, and from interfering in‘any 
way with your orator's, business: and 
with his purchases of Edison's phono- 
graphs in the market and the supplying 
of the same to als customers. 2 

forator at fower' prices than any. other 
“customer, so that It was. to the interest 

Som wom aret on FY; 

eral. discounts allowed to him, 
scott says that hie ral 

tensive foreign’ trad 
on ‘of the largest Sustomers i the Edl- 


Thomas A. Edison, when asked about 
this sult. yesterday, sald: ‘We have 
asked for an !njunction to, restrain: Mr. 
Prescott from using my name. Because 
we brought this suit, he has instituted 
the proceedings in the Chancery a 
af is only, a bluff sult.’ ..” 3 


| BA, zaibl6 i Uiaae 


ving ae hs bead 

1 WEL sis, 
ow afforded. : Full. particulars on page Ia. 
: Y : 


{ ° Fredrick M. Prescott, formerly head “of! 
» the Edigon Phonogr raph Agency, 44 Broad: 
i Street, has brought™suit in Chancery in j 
Le Jersey against Thomas A. Edison, . 
the National Phonograph Company, Wil- : 
| liam E. Gilmore, Charles E. Stevens, and 
; others, for.a “conspiracy to destroy” his; 
- business. ‘The complaint takes the fol-° 
i lowing: allegations: 
“In' 1894 Prescott bégan selling phono- | 
jerepne for. export... His business grew ¢ 
!rapidly, and in the Autumn of 1897, | 
| Wittiam E. Gilmore, general manager of | 
ithe Edison Phonograph Works at. West } 
Orange, N. J., solicited him -to’ ‘purchase i 
! phonographs: of” that. company, and, to: 
i quote, the complaint, :‘* offered to sell’ your | 
.orator’at lower prices than any other cus-"| 
‘tomer, so that it was to the interest of your 
orator to cease buying phonographs of the 
i United States Phonograph Company, and 
‘to buy of the National Phonograph Com- 
pany; that your orator was then buying 
about five thousand dollar's worth of phono- 
| graphs monthly of the United States 
Phonograph Company, and that it was to | 
| the interest of the National Phonograph: 
Company and the Edison Phonograph 
: Works to secure your orator’s trade; for the 
‘teason that they would thereby increase 
‘ their sir trade, inasmuch as the machines sold 

to? your orator were by him ressold in foreign 

; ‘countries, where’ithe Edison Phonograph 

\ Works.and the: ‘National Phonograph Com-: 
pany could: pot lawfully sell;phonographs. ’ ‘| 

With: liBeraldiscounts” ‘allowed to him, 

_ Prescott says s that he rapidly worked up an 
extensive foreign trade, and became one of 
the largest customers of the Edison Com- 
pany. ‘This success led, he says, to the 

. conspiracy to force him out of business so 
that the profits might be diverted to the 
National Phonograph Company. 
According to the complaint, the first 
. positive step was in the Spring of 1898. | 
The complaint says that Charles E. Stevens, ! 
who ‘had previously made himself useful: 
in copying for the Edison Company the list | 
of customers of a rival, the United States ' 
Phonograph Company of Newark, came to, 

'“him‘and, said: ‘That neither he nor Mr: 

. Gilmore: nor Mr. Edison-.was satisfied-with’ 
‘the manner in which your orator was con- 
2 ducting his business, and he stated that he : 

: ewas about ready to resign his position with ‘ 

‘the!National Phonograph Company and to | 

go:into the export business in phonographs : 

in’ competition with your: orator; that a 

large | export house in the ‘City of New 

ork had offered to fit - ‘up an office for the 
said’ Stevens in’ “New York at its expense, 
furnish him-with capital to conduct the. 
uusiness, to put the said— 

“office, and to divide the profits with iim; 

} that the said Stevens stated that he was 

ready to receive a proposition.” 


Prescott says that at that time he was 
'-so dependent on the Edison Manufactur- 
ing Company that he yielded to the threat 
} and took: Stevens in as a partner. ‘The 
*Jatter put-in no money, but received a 
-salary of $50’ a week, drew out $2,881 
"profits in less than four months, und took 
'.$1,281 as his share of the assets when the 
..firm dissolved, 

*’ In August, Prescott went to Europe for 
a three months’ trip. Troubles fell thick 
‘at once. When he landed he received a 

t dispatch saying Stevens demanded a dis- 
t: ;solution of the partnership by Sept. 1, and 
i another that all discounts had been with- _ 
drawn. Prescott hurried back, reached 
New York Sept. 2, and the partnership 
“was dissolved immediately. While he was 

ee cena EMS 




Later Gilmore notified him. that lie could : 

not .use:‘the* name “Edison Phonograph 
Agency," and Mr. Edison wrote a letter to 

: Postmaster Van Cott in which he said: 
: “T have recently received some letters 
, ! from foreign countries calling my attention 
to the fact that people who sent him mon- 
1 eys had received nothing in return for 
' them, and one of the parties who has writ- 
ten me advised that he had written the 
Chief of Police of New York City to look 
into the matter. I consider that the young 
man is using the mails to further his own 
ends and to hurt my very good reputation. 

4 sears 
| away, he alleges, : ‘Stevens copied his list of 

I would like to know from you if it is not, 

possible for you to arrange to divert all 

mail addressed to the ‘Edison Phonograph 

Agency,' New York, to the company who 
has the right from me to handle the phono- 
graph business; this company is the Na- 
tional Phonograph Company, ‘I'wenty- 
sixth street and Broadway, New York.” 
Prescott says that Mr. Van Cott investi- 

- gated the matter and refused to turn over : 
| his letters to Mr. Edison’s company. The 

‘complaint closes with a prayer for an in- 
‘junction directed to Thomas A. Edison, 
William E. Gilmore, the National Phono- 
graph Company, and Charles E. Stevens, 
restraining them ‘from using or availing 
themselves of any information obtained by 
: the said Charles E. Stevens while in part- 

nership with your orator, and from using 

in any way, the lists of customers of your 

orator, secretly made by the said Charles E. 

. Stevens in violation of good faith or from 

Pee meas, anes Ber eareret 


_and from diverting mail matter intended 
‘for your orator, and from interfering in 


s ee owt ud 
Dery Ps Raa 70 
using and ayailin themselves in any wa; 
z 3 a 

of inforaa ion fi 
ae + 
them, Or-from cif 

ly obtaine! 

tor’s customers, 


business standing of your orator, and fror, 
setting up an exclusive right to the sale o 
genuine Edison phonographsimdtdm fell 
ing phonographs for export in violation 0: 
any contracts heretofore made by the said| 
defeidants, or any of them, and from con- 
ducting business under the name of ‘Edi- 
son's ’Phonograph Agency,’ or any other 
name similar to the name ‘Edison's Phono- 
graph Agency,’ and calculated to mislead; 

any way with your orator’s business and 
with his purchases of Edison’s phonographs 
in the market and the supplying of the, 
same to his customers.” mN Btcae nent ook 
“Thomas A, Edison, when asked about: 
is.guit yesterday, said: ‘We, nave-asker. 
for aninjunetion to restrain "Mr. Prescott ; 
from using my name. Because we brought | 
this suit, he has instituted the proceedings’ 
‘in the Chancery Court.” It is only a bluff ; 


suit.” . ee: 
: oS 

— =—_ 



Thomas A Edison Invents a Process 
ThaP"PFomises Fabulous Results. 


Elght Hundred -Milllons of Dollars to Be Taken: 
- From New Mexico's Waste Land. 

[Special Telegram.] 

« NEw York, Sept. 10.—“This ig certainly 

the biggest thing I ever Invented—this elec- 

tric process for extracting gold from sand- 
Near Santa Fe, N. M., thera is a region of’ 
200 square miles containing gold worth 

$800,000,000 that would have remained there 

had this process not been discovered. That 

;Bold will now be taken out and added to 

the world's supply. There are large deposits 

‘elsewhere that the process will also make 

available," : 

» Tals is what UTE esas today 
‘as he gave part! or his Javention and ° 
of the practical uses to which he Droposed 
to putt 2 a. as 
Hidden -in the. waste Iands of the south 
“nre tong upon tons of gold. Up to the pres-, 
‘ent time’ this gold has had no value to. 
man. Mines could not be worked In that! 
region’ without water, and the cost of get- 
ting $100 worth of gold from this land by. 
former. methods would have exceeded the 
value of the metal, The machinery which 
Edleon has devised has been completed and 
ts ready for. shipment to Santa Fe, where: 
i it will be erected und started. It is boxed 
‘Up at the Edison works at Orange and sur- 
rounded by every safeguard. a 
. Work to Hegin at Once. 

: "I am the patentee of the process," sald 

,the inventor today, “but my only interest: 
‘in the corporation, which js called the,Cates-: 
tro Company, {s my employment as {ts ex- 

pert.’ I expect to go to New Mexlco:with:; 
jthe machinery and to euperintend the: con- j 
(Struction of the plant. We shall begin work: 
yat once. At the start we shall produce $10,="; 
000. worth, of gold every day. ‘There is $800,-7 
000,000‘ worth ‘of {t there. ' "The electric: maj 
chinery-will take It directly trom the’sand:} 
i We-shall handle Jt.all on the spot and. mere-! 
Iy-phip‘the. pure gold.“ My process hasiwoly ed 
the ‘problem of gotd. mining -without fwater's 
Xt has-been tested ind found to fillall-re-3 
quiremént.s The gold ore In some Places. ts! 
not-more. than three feet below the surface; 
und it extends downward In some localities: 
{for 100 feet: before bed rock is reached.” { 
}. Mr. Edigon's system of gold extraction by; 
jelectricity 1s somewhat stmilar to that which. 
‘ho uses at Edson, N. J., in getting iron from; 
iver .ore by magnetism. Changes were ; 
imeeded’in the fron extracting machinery to:, 
make. It npplleable to gold are, and {t was: 
tho-making of these changes which caused : 
the long delay in completing the process, : ~ 

< Method of Wandlng Ore, 

; At these ‘Iron mines the Inventor utilizes 
& grade.of ore #0 low that it was looked: 
upon ‘as valueless.” Icnormous crushers :; 
seize upon pleces of rock sometimes weigh- 
Ing..a8.much as five tons each ‘and crush! 
{hem ag easlly' as'a man-can crush an.egg: 
shcH.. Then’ by passing tho material through 
a Keries ‘of crushers it is reduced: to a: pow- 
der.» The crushed material is made to fall in if 
a thin shower in front. of a serles of mag- :. 


1899 "OuThitteng ~ Ort here” 

nets, ‘The metallle particles are deflected by tia BN rae 
the magnets into a receptacle provided for- iCinelarati be : 
them,. while the sand goes Into another. H Hac, Fast 
There are three series of mugnets, twelve- “35 
ireh, etght-Inch and four-inch, and the ty 
crushed ore falls: In front of ench kind of 
magnet Jn succession. When it has passed 
through the entire process the resulting ma- 
terlal carries u percentage of 69 per cent-of 
wt would not think of setting up a big 
plant to work an ordinary vein of gold,’ 
sald Mr. Edison. “Even a belt 100 feet wide, - 
forty feet deep and half a mile long would 
not pay ma. I want deposits two miles long 
and 600 feet wide, I have figured out a small 
profit In a gold ore that assays as low as 
$1.35 per ton. Ore of as low a grade as that 
could not be mined profitably by any exist- 
ing process except mine."" ae : 
Mr. Edison estimates the cost of erecting 
one of his plants at $1,000,000. - : 

g digon ‘Wilt ‘Treat . Gotd 
Neely Purchased i : 

~ i 

entember 7—In ‘the 
fexico “Mining: 

we sAgN: 
< asd 
_ RWS o aoe ‘ai grant 15,025 acres were ‘80 

: original e sto fhe. 

1 and‘ Iron :Co.,. leaving’ 54,000, 
oe i eer Airis grant as! ‘now eaetitetern 

Bmauel-H. Elkins was appointed receiver 
of}-th . 


‘ rant May 15,~1! Every ‘claim; 
against has been. patd ‘and, 
jmany. improvements made. ‘> Mr.E Ds! 
iturned“the property: over. to’.87G- Burns 
who takes charge of the the: ¢ 

: ies erest:of Thomas A. Edlson,. who. s -pu 
pina Discovered an New Process, Which: ohne of: the: roperty. for jconiiaareds 

tiwhich he jwil 

“He Will Try 1a Hitherto Unpronte rge:yeduetion: plant_at:1 
le Will Try in Hitherto Unpro: iteeatsttig gold Strom tha 0: tz ‘mil 

able Fields in New Mexteo, C6 i. 
pias p 7 v fv, is 
Sig! s ad *. Aripune: 
3 ie < : : 
pThomag AwEdison believes he has dis-: mr 
covered. a succes i concentrating and} ROT : 1899. 

fae, ting “process =for.- extracting. gol 
‘rom low grade ore and . from - ‘grave 
‘This explains the recent Announcemen 
rom:Santn Fe that Mr, Edison lias pu 
:chased ‘the Dig Ortiz land Brant for: : 

YU, r < ut IT Bete’ 
ba 5 i AIOE: a 
SERS Wet contain Sth aoe, nd gags AME alte Moncan an are 
fautempts hitherto to extract It have not: Hepreentins the iS aes te Ge ae - 
proven prdiitable.. The scarcity of water. © ‘Thomas A, ested and ‘whic 

in‘ that section has also been an obstacle: ,Pought the: controlling interest in ‘tho Ortis ‘grant, 
{n'the*way of success, . ce jouthern Santa Fe County, for $3,000,000, wil) leave 
“¢Firat,of ail, it is stated,.Mr, Edison's :Dolores to-morrow’ for New-York, where the- pure 
new process Cin ina tes ae fe of: water,’ ‘chasers live. He will return in October with a com. 

whe basis of his ee pflectrictty,; ‘plete. corps of office assistants, engineers, and me- 
eved, wtifes « i 
gold, automatically, There has apparente- -Ohanics ‘for tho purpose of beginning active opera 

- =| tons “‘upon'- the yauriferous deposits, To guard 
Go for’ the purchase. of the Inet weene.“aeelnet any ernie in mechanical: construction, ‘a 
and‘ the additional money necessary, for, ‘small‘plant only will be bulit on the return ‘of-Mr. 
the installation of the machinery,.°" + sBu «With ®& capacity for handling one thousand 
“As-tq the details of his process:: Atr2 “tons, of eartha-day, -° . - ae 
Edison} will not talk, “When asked if it ‘SIt-$8' Intended, howover, to’ build tater-a plant to 
Jon ord eie nee ee 2 eee a | handle twenty-five or more tons daily, and this 
sald:'4- cent ae TAY bo congtructe® without trying the work‘on'a 
2. “Any: one knows that a-magn willl “smaller scale, if the test to be made.on}a,.few 
Not-attract gold.” Re oa ee: “4 }-moré carloads‘of earth to be shipped at once proves 
) He'has, It fs “sald,:. several tents | satisfactory. The first work to be dono will: be to 
‘Pending on-his gold ‘extracting miichi sink ‘fifty shafts to. bedrock, which. rang : 
twenty fect ‘to elghty-five feet in depth, ‘all’ the 
earth above being gold ‘bearing. The output: trom 
sinking the shafts will’be first treated’ by the ‘ex: 
“perimental plant, and/in: this manrier wii!’ b “deter- 
vmined- which ground is ‘the -richest, a th 
“Will ‘be scattered over the grant in order | 
“practical tests as to the extont and focatlo: 
‘most profitable portions, ~~, * 
E-Blectricity-is. not-to-be-an~ agent? In. 
1a. from thé other material,‘as popularly ‘sup: 
Dut. {t-WIll.{be'satr, alghough:'th : 
the -plant.-will_be electricity. and 
rything. ready, for another, force ‘todo 
jeparations ‘which electricity ‘cannot.s S33: 


jery..*The machinery. that Js to be 
ytallediat Ortiz is belng constructe 
'west/ Orange. Patt of the plant hi 
ady been ‘shipped to New Mexicd, 
'4-Metallurgists—have. ihe 


: “es Ueig’ pears 
“Mr, Edisoh has done ttle for two y ‘ 
balie perfecting id gold brintontigs Bee 
cretly did the work proceed ‘tha a into 
a “epneerning --what;-he~ was 
feeked. out” until Mr. Edison announced the. 
completion of his eet god’ 
“Mri: Edison’s system 5 . ext : 
wa iectrielty is somewhat 1 atmilas acer 
ich he uses et Edison, N. J. iny ing | 
jean trons river ore—by ‘magnetism ae ne 
"i> the handling of the {Bold Po oughed ak 
‘tits: est.-process conels ugh yin: 
: fe his lant larger ore. crushers jure: 
‘required.. There are three sets of magnets-- 
liyvelye-inch; elght-inch and: four-in 
be qrushed ore. fallszin_ front. of. ei! 

olores; -New : Mex! ¥ 
-the inventive - genius, 


on; ant thesaan! 


‘lions in Gold Will Be Taken: 


e'Says @hat Eight Hundred. Mil- | 

Out by Electricity as 


Used by Him. tet - 


NYT Gace 
4 ‘NY. COMMERCIAL rusting 
"REPUBLIC SPECIAL. oe . : ane with 
+ New York, ‘Sépt. 10.—Hidden In the waste‘ Sei fe 3 sineers 
ilands of the Southygst are tons upon tons esr ed | losy ¢ ,<and 

:of gold, Up to 3 present time thls gold - 
hus had no y¥afie to: mun, Mines -could - 
| not be worked in that region without wa- : 
ter, and the cost of getting one: dollar's © 
» Worth of gold from this land by: former ; 
:Methods would have exceeded the value of 

ithe metal, ey ee eo 
*  Thomus A, Edison, however, comes to-the* 



Lo: Mon Compuny “Will operate. Not 

iby Li M.- Lawson ‘of New York:and? 

New. |Mexico :Mining-;company,=a 

: 4 : hag amounts, practically, 
ifront “now with un electrical apparatus |. Only in England but “Also in the Tora inta of the erant property. tho che 
- which promises to clear up the problein ‘Mransvanul, Where Gold : Will ‘Be the bulk of the: money: involved;.wil, 

of how to xet this valuable ore from -the i citknoted ta : be'pald’ unt!) a few ‘squatters wh 
“sands: of New Mexico, and other Sonth-- aaa em 3 Cake hold:claims on ‘the’ grant are jaust 
‘western States und Territories. Speaking’ lal'to New York Commercial, =| |. : settled with, and ‘this:may. requir 
to-duy ‘of his Invention, Mr. Edison, satd:: {f ington, Sept, 20.—John Lawrence,’ of” years’ ‘tlme, ‘Under: the ‘lease Perry? 
ingnnlg, certainly {gy the biggest thing I ever. solider, the chairman of the Linotype Co, of! lhimself to diligently explore-ang qi 

vented, thiay process for extracting gold’ |’snglatid and managing. director of ‘the new’ t ty-and one. of.the 
-from sand, Neur Santa Fe, N. M.,. there ¥ jtne ron te 

‘Westinghouse Co, of Engian®:.who came‘over to! 
seb. the International yacht races, has been see- 
ing the sights of Washington for the*past fow: 
days. : ‘ 
In addition to the Interests mentioned, Mr. 
Lawrence is a lurgo stockholder In o number of; 
other enterprises, many of them with an Ameri- 
can foundation, Among tho latter Is the Eng- 
Nsh company which has purchased tho tights 
to the Edison process of extracting ores, known 
ag the Edison Ore Milling Syndicate. This com- 
pany Is composed of 26 {ronmasters and capital-, 
Iats of England, and it sproposes not only to, 
utlllze Mr. Edison's inventions in the extraction 
of iron ore, but to turn It towards the extrac- 
tion of gold ore for application {n the ‘Transvaal.’ 
Mr. Lawrence will visit Mr, Edlson at Orange 
on Wednesday and go aver his works where he 
conducts his experlments. Ho wilt then visit 
-Pittaburg to seo the WestInghouso works, a re- 
pica of which will be constructed by the 3nglish 
company on 40 acres ‘of ground near Man- 
cheater, England, which have been ‘purchased, 
“Our company,” said Mr, Lawrence to-night, 
“Inteneds to erect In England a series-of shops 
which ‘will be capuble.of turning out; engines, 

dynamoz and elettric plants cqual to: anything 
produced in America, England is far in the rear 

ia @ region‘ of 10 square miles, containing 
“old worth $800,000,000; thut wonld huve ree 
"mained there had this procesa not been gle. 
j; covered, 4 : eae 
“That gold will now be taken ,out’ and 
added: to the world’s supply, © ‘There ‘are 
large. gold deposits elsewhere: that 
process also will make uvuilable. ; i 
: “Iam the patentee of the process, but/my- 
only -interest-in the corporation, which is 
to work the gold out of the sand, which js. 
called the ‘Calestro Company,’ is my .em-! 
<Ployment ag its expert. I expect. to’ go: to! 
“New Mexico with the machinery and to: 
;8uperintend the ‘construction of. the:-plant: 
‘We shall begin: work almost at sonce, | 
tMAt the start we shall produce! $10,000 
‘worth of gold every day. There is $800,000, -* 
000. worth of it there. The electric. ma- 
schinery' will take it directly from the siti 
Where will, be no transportation. of the:or + 
We\'shall handle it all on the spot.‘and: 
merely. ship the pure gold. - >: 
~"My—process has solved the problem 
‘gold’: mining without:-water,—It_ haa: been! 
tested and found. to: fulfill all requirements: | 
The: gold ore'in some*places: is‘ not: more. of nations in the use of electricity, We confess 
than. three-feet below the’ surfacd,‘ and “it, and Geteiye beon passed by America, France 
extends downward ‘in gome . locallties!; for; “We ‘believe there is n-great oponing:in-Eng- 
jand for. tho use of electricity; the: application 
of it to electric Ighting, to clectria power, to 
the construction of al! forms ‘of electrical aj a 
vances. We have formed a company, with. i =: 
500,000 capital, which was, by the way, largel; 
oversubscribed, to manufacture In England ail: 
fie machinery. which, now comes from‘the: United 
lates,’ eee ets ek Seg oh : 
*~. “English | mantfacturers~and! English’ 
imen ore backward’: about taking ‘hold of ~1 
proved : machinery. i 
to’ accept labor 
every instan: 

100 feat, before. bed ‘rack /ia-fotind:" 


First, Best and Largest. 




From the 


Nev yORK iy 

eros 0 
TERR Le vertiser 

S4P 0% [gs |, 


ve Re 
Caught? Carrying Away | 
jad Secreted in - 

( saw'a man io tng abay : x 
‘in| the Lakeside avenue entrance: ‘of. the. 
de works and acting spiciously. “Keeping 
eg, [Out of ae ages! + Busold watched the! 

‘}man, and ily suw him draw. a pack-! i 
age through the fence and walk away ! H 
toward Valley road. Busold followed the; 
men and arrested him. st 

‘At the police station the prisoner ga 
P-lhis name as Charles Leopold, of New- 
(atk, and his package turned ‘out to be 
a phonograph cabinet, which he had taken i 
from tho assembly room, where ha Was; 
employed before quitting time and hid: } 
"}den In a fence corner until the Sround 
n-/ would be clear for him to carry it away, 
&,| He confessed the robbery, and this morn- 
{e-ling Willlam G. Gilmore, manager of the 
‘e-| works, made a charge against Leopold, 
10 {Judge Condit held him for the Grand Jur, 

——— ee 

— oe 
The appended ist of quotations on the 
in| active local securities is furnished daily 
In|to the ADVERTISER by George P. Healy, 
sdjdenler. in local gas, electric and street | 
n. | railway securities, 773 Broad street: 
"tCoannalldnted Trnatian A= 

nes geccesensete 

Gincinnati,0.South West 
Gul &.. babs 

af lnventar Puge inken'te the Asylum. , 

To.epo, O., Oct. &+Thomas- Page, 
‘aged 67 years, was committed to the: 
dteane asylum. Page at offe time wast 
fa great inventor, and invented a hand 
‘sewing machine that netted hin §300,- 
1000. Page vw, n intimate friend of 
ET hom fison, and -the | former's 
‘bre narried to Edison's, sister 
Page was.captured at’ Milan,O., néa 
tog house in which Rdison was bora, 


Thonn Cratan Arrives 
“ dike With Part: of Alaska's 
* ee cr BExhibi a 

pia man walking down Fifth avenue ‘witht 
five large dogs chained to him attracted -tha 
yattention of downtown pedestrians early. 
jthis marning. To the Chicagoan™the sight 
jcalled, up memories of .the world’s fair.and 
\Vistons of the Jskimo village on the Midway 
floated before tho mind's eye, for the-dogs 
wwere Alaskan Huskies, fresh from the Kion 
‘dike country, sett este, 
{Thomas Cranan of the Klondike Expost: 
jon Company, the man :in’ charge’ of sth 
‘dogs, which. are husky in -nature, as*wel 
‘as name, Chleago over tha-Ni th 

‘western this: morning: direct, from D: 
via. -Benttle.. He. wes2accompanicd 

ik; <Bonine of :the . laboratory, 
fYork. city, who las’ been in Alaska 
dng-Kinatescapo' views of: the count: 



“y , p; _{ a 


Mewark,NJ.- Wkly, Call 

turn: of the. Edison Expedition, 
ni Exhibition Company Formod. ; 

sition Next Year—Im-— 
- proved Kinetoscope.’ . - 
_ Machinery. * . 

| homus A aBateortha great electrical? | 
wizard, ust jcomed back.from the: | 

Klondike the party which: he sent’ out! 
barly. this year to obtain kinetoscopic! 
pictures: of the famous Klondike’ region. 
Theltrip was a great’ success, the filma! 
haying been developed lJast week in the; 
laboratory on Valley road, West Orange: 
vBoér the development of this scheme sa! 
newj company: was organized which is’ 
Btyled the .“Klondilo Exposition -Com- 
pany,” the primary. object of which was 
to-obtain. moving pictures ‘of. life ‘In: the] 
Klondike for exhibition at the great Paris 
xposition of 1900, Spee a bee oe ass? 
“Mr. Edison: is largely intesested in. the: 
compuny, and has invented special ma-’ 
ehinéry, which was used in the trip. The} 
heads of the party were Thomas ‘Crahan! 
and-R 1s. Bonine, the latter the personal: 
Yepresentative of Mr. Edison. The party} 
Heft for the famous gold fields In the carly, 
ipartiof£ last June, Mr. Bonine had made’ 
‘a.trip to the Klondike the previous year, 
@sgan ndvance study the country; 
‘and slay out the most ‘feasiblo and af- 
ltective route for‘the party to take, Mrs 
Bonine.and his party have just returned, 
home, their efforts having been. crowned 
ywithicomplete success, The party. has ob-: 
tained moving. and statfonary ~ pictures 
from Skaguay on the Alaska “const. ‘to 
'Dawson in the. Yukon territory,. and: 
jthence south into the famous gold ficlds 
which have made the Ktondike a -houdey; 
hold‘word, These pictures illustrate the 
old and new methods of-getting into’ the 
country, beginning with the transporta,! 
tion methods as originally known by;pack- the backs of Indians, on horses, 
on’ mule back, ‘and by hauling: witht.do4 
tenms ond goat: teams, ‘These ard con: 
trasted with’ the new. methods of, the, 
railrond trains onetho White .Pass“and! 
Yukon Railway; and - interesting ‘scenic, 
points are noted: from Lake Bennett, the: 
Ineadwvaters of the Yukon river, along thé, 
course of the stream, showing the steamer, 
trazisportation to-.the landing at Miles 
Canyon, the transportation by the horad, 
‘tramway. around the White Horse Rapids; 
fand:the lower rivor with,tho boats plying) 
fon'it), Nearly all the pictures obtained are; 
motion ones, a few: stationary” pletusen) 
ifelshn: tho- various mounted® p dpa! 

nd:tho: various’ stations. °'. <> mag 
he‘ gold fields the ‘views taken !lus- 
the. peoullar: methods‘ of . mining, 
mjthe thawing of. the ground by, huge 
bonfires; ‘the washing’ out ‘of, tho: virgin 
Bld sfrom ‘the gold-bedring gravel, re 

feat’ below. tho surface, and the final pick-) 
ing of the gold on pack trains for. Dawson. 

'Mr!Crahan -has a fine’ sample: of ;the! 
gold‘from tho Klondike fields, which, ling 

{to the usual belfof, ts not .in fine 

or dust, but in small nuggets, vary- 
ing'in sizo from. bird seed to.a good sized, 
cheatnut;: A*pecullarity of each of these 
fa2that they. show islgns-of fusion from! 
heat, and of subscquent abraston! 
m'-the disintegration: of’ the quar! 



stospactors onthe: ground is that. the 
soareh will:prove futile, it being the bollef; 
that these quartz veins were originally; 

‘near the summits of the mountains, and: 

ithat the disintegration and wearing away: 
‘of cycles. of yenrs-has, destroyed, them,’ 
Nerving thelr riches only {n the’ beds of: 
sgravel where they now are found. : §, ” 
i. It had been the intention of the company, 

r ‘put this series of moving pictures ‘on, 

to é 
Iviem first at the Paris Exposition noxt, 

igpring, but it has just been decided: | 
jplace them on exhibition at once. Com-: 

the. subject, {lustrated by these film: 
!Phey will cover the entire field of life in: 
>the. Klondike, These pictures are taken: 
with the newly perfected giant ktneto-: 
‘scope, in which the pictures taken are, 
Lnearly nine times the size of.those in the: 
vordinary machine. Up to‘this time the, 
“kinetoscope pictures on -tho' films have: 
Deen three-quarters of an inch high by: 
‘one‘inich wide. The new pictures are two: 
{nches high and three inches wide. To; 
produce these pictures it has been neces-: 
sary to reduce the speed of the machine,‘ 
and, whereas the old style pictures wers; 
taken at tho rate of forty-five a secon 
theinew ones are taken at the rate of: 
twenty a second. A great gain has thus 
been secured In clearness of definition, as. 
well as affording much greater scope for 
Fooloring the films. + Pia an 

“Mr,-Bonine and Mr: Crahan expect to. 
to ‘the Paris Exposition with these 
Ftractions in March. - v osial 
‘she party brought back with them. a: 
team of six “Husklés,” or Alaskan dogs.’ 
These are the same as were used by 
Peary in his Arctic explorations. They; 
are a,cross. between the: wolf and ‘tho!, and are hardy and ‘tough.: 
‘They are as a rule good-natured and of an: 
affectionate disposition to those that.they! 
know, although -strangcra do not find it: 
easy to make friends with them. : The; 
‘party.also, brought:back.with them a large; 
collation: of. curios; illustrative of the life, | 
uBto d}mannora of the:Alaskan na~ 

ae irc areas 

FO jeton Parks 4 
~ News York?2will 4 ‘at free 

talk pat fF te or tore thes ‘oung 
Bootety of the Washington Baptlat Church ;Pust- 
day: evenings ot dt . * PRS 
1ethas practically been decide by. oongre. 
> - Con, jonal 
tho: Orange Nolley 0! A eds 

gation ‘0: 
‘Chureh to exten @ call tothe 
(den; 1 of* Greenville, ‘Mich... to 
Charles A.’ Savage, deccaa 

has .been mpen : 
returned home," 3" - rer 

4 congrogation -ot. the- Park Avenuo elhiod’ 2 
plasepal Church; of ‘Esst: Orange, - has: decided 
to ask the neéxt conferen: rond as pagor UDd: 
Rey. imalph TD, Urmy,:now od at. Mexdhi 

gy - was-untl) two yea! 
Banford Street, Church: én “Bi 
NAViliani . Konnedy.- Lat 
‘who. has, been “in. 
for; the 

" Neri Petter -Aensral” 

N.Y Mail 2 Express. 
“ger. 1889. 

pana oof eden’ Munee.> 
Tire pletnres taken by. ‘Tho: ! 
{the Dewey. celebration will be shown ex- 
Ively at the Eden Musee during jthe 
fig week, ‘These pieturcs Include views 


com ¢ 
‘ot. Aslmiral . Dewey -on the Olympia, ‘the 

naval parade and the land parade. In addi- 
‘tion, moving. pletures: of the yacht races, 
‘aken: by the Edison Compuny, will) be 
‘shown. Theag.. moving pictures, will bd 
‘shown every hour during-the afternoon and 
‘evening, and will’ be alternated. with. the 
festebrated mysterious pictures which have 
‘gauged: so much wonderment. ‘The outside 
decorations of the Musee were greatly. ad; 
haired -by the thousands who passed by. the 
‘puilding: last. week, and are stilt attracting 

‘attention, The deck of a battleship is t 
‘effectively presented, with the. big: 1s 
, from the portholes, represented: by: 

ie, buildin 

Badaon Developing Largest: Continneus 
“Fils Ever Taken, 2° °°: 

at + -Bpecial to The Preas, i 

{ ORANGE, N.'J., Oct. £9.—Workmen are: 
busy in..the Edison laboratory,‘ in West, 
Orange, developing the most unique collec: 
tion of moving ‘picture films. ever yat ex-; 
hibited.: Tho: pictures ‘were brought’ back: 
by. 2 party of photographers who were sent: 
to tho Kiondyke by tha Edison Company, 
‘andrare intended to be part of the Edison; 
‘exhibit in the Paris Exposition. thee 
{All of- the films which so far have been 
‘developed are successes, and the ‘entire. 
sories will exhibit the actual life in the 
}Klondyke regions a3-it has never ‘before 
ibeen filustrated. Pr 

RK. Bonino, Mr. Edison’s personal °P 
resontative, and Thomas Crahan were ‘tho 
heads of the photographing party, which, 
started for tho Klondyke in June, 1898,:. Mr.’ 
Bonine previously had visited. the region, 
and, was in chargo of the route ‘and/aelec-* 
tion: of. scenes to bo photogrnplied. Among{ 
‘tho: films are. scenes ‘in. the Klondyke/a 
along the route between Skaguay, on.tho 
Alaska Dawson. . They also;show! 
views of mining and washing. o! gold. 5 
“The pictures wero taken with a new. 

machine arranged: by Mr. Edison. forithe 
‘trip. 4 It took pictures nine es: tha ysixe 
ofctho ordinary’: ‘To. usp$t 
largeranim= itp p nee’ 



“Near N.C Aarti 

Brought by Inventor to Pre 
Sgae of It May Be, Des 
elded Adyetnely, F 


TTepegial Dispatch to » the Dat 
“RENTON, “Oct 

Pinay yesterday. heard “the “argument. 

‘counsel, ‘In the suit brought: by Tho 
‘Ag {Edison against Fred, M,,2t08 
wwhich-Mr. “Edison: @ restTa. 
‘Presgott,.from rec alvin: 
1078 2" Fadinuno8 = £60 3 
‘higiness, ’- 
‘Agency, + 
P janurraph Agenev. 00 ol os oe ef 
4 Tha Vice-Chancellor didnot. render,.any, 
decision yesterday, but he expressed ‘hims 
self OS strongly of the. opinion that: Mr: 
Edison: could not maintain “his suit. ¢ Mr. 
‘Edison wus: reprosented :in the argument, 
iby. Howard WW. Hayes, and Mr. Pres; 
cott by. Francis J. Swayze. : Ce 
_ vutg, We argument counsel brow; ht, 
‘out the fact that for a number: of !years; 
att had *been in business: selling: 
speaking machines of various. kinds,: and. 
‘that; ‘afterward he had entered inta+,a 
partnership with C. B, Stevens under. the. 
name of “The Eidison Phonograph. ene 
cy"; This name was assumed with, tho! 
assent of Mr, Jdlson and the National: 
Phonograph Company, which 1s the man-. 
‘ufacturer of the Edison phonograph: 
Lately Stevens and Prescott dissolved, the; 
‘partnership, put. Prescott continued “to, 
adyertise as the successor to the Edison! 
Phonograph Agency. He Sie? Bon Go ey 
Mr. Hayes insisted’ in his argument! 
that' the uso of tho word “agency” “1ed) 
persons to believe that Mr. Prescott per-| 
sonally represented Mr. Edison In ‘the, 
pustness, although it was admitted: that, 
Mr. Prescott has no right to soll the, 
Edison phonograph, . oy Aa 
\ Mr, Swayze, on behalf of Prescott, calted| 
‘ttention to the fact that Prescott pol 

jerttsed his business a8 “The Edison 
Phonograph Agency"-and not as “Els; 
jon’s Phonograph Company." He also ‘des, 
nied: that his client had been‘ recelving! 
any:of Mr. FEdison’s mall. eine a 
At’ the conclusion of-the ‘argument the; 
Vieo-Chancellor expressed” tho ' opinion; 
that. since the Nationul Phonograph Come; 
puny has tho excitiaive right to sell tho} 
‘Edison phonograph it. should. hay¢.been 
the fcomplatnant, in theccqas. < y 
howovery;that “her would .turthe 

‘tho {papers Inthe case,’ befdre.ré 

his decision. 

Be Kaan 

' ‘He};sald, 


Newark, NJ. - News: 
Roe Pepe Os 


posters oat Bu : 
} ELIZABETH, - Nov. i i 
Fowler Travers ‘to-duy became the ‘wilfe: 
of Willfam Leslie Edison, youngest son] of 
Thomas A.‘Edison, the Inventor, : Pepe 
“The ceremony wag performed at noon|a 
‘Sunhyside, the home of Miss Mary -@e-" 
cella. Ryan, whose protege the bride: was, 
Rev. Dr. Otis Glugeliugk,- ceciui~ of > BG" 
John’s Eplscopal Church, officiated, There 
jvere‘no- bridesmaids or best man und. the 
wedding was a quiet one. ly. 

f “The bride entered the parler on the ar 
‘of Mr. Edison. She was given away by 
‘Rr. Fowler, of Delaware, her uncle. ‘The! 
tbride‘was- the daughter: of the late “Dr.. 
‘Travers., Her uncle js Senntor Daniel; 
Virginian os fra the toe 3 we 
;i There Was “a ‘wedding: breakfast -derved,: 
Inventor; £dison and ‘his-wife were among. 
“those Who, partook of ity The hongymoon 
‘af, .the-young-couplo will he spent-in, Bus 

‘Philadel phia, Pa-Ledger: 
“.AUd 8. 189g 

nvyentor,Edinons ‘Son, Married] 
‘ew_ York, -Nov...7.-Bilas Blanche-Travs, 
, daughter of. the late: Dr. -Travers-and 
niece; of Senator; Dantel, of ‘Virginia; 
4. married: tor; William “Lesile. Edison, 
iungest “son of: Thomas: Edison,’ the 
entor,- at, Elizabeth, “Ned. to-day; by 
: Dr. Olls- Glazebrook, ‘rector ,of 
Episcopal. Chirch..? The: honey-, 
he'young couple; will be snpent:La 


of Ni 

ominating Root for Vice 

D ys i 
{Fatary,of War,-\vould be the’nomineo for. Vice) 
yPrestdent ‘next Year, on:tho ticket. with Pres- 
jWent. McKinley, ';Some of Mro-Ro rien 
isuld'that they knew nothing of the report, 
wseptrthat they bad heard such a rumo 
Awas:sald by others, however, that the ma‘ 

had: gone-so far. that an intimation had-bi 
made to tho Secretary and that-he w 

eraé to the: suggestion. 

JeinerzWoodrn } ed sin! 
‘connection with the: Vico Presidency,” but ft! 
‘is the opinion of the politicians that.M Root; 
‘Is a more kely candidato for the place.! “The: 
Republican triumph=in- the state outside of 
this clty adds to the probability, it is. eald, 
that a New York man will be the companion’ 
of Mr.. McKinley on the Republican national: 
ticket. : As the organization regards the vic 
tory’ as a distinct organization triumph in: 
which .the personality of Governor Roose- 
velt- and the Influence of : his — friends, 
counted heavily,-it Is thought llkely thatthe 
Vies Presidency will be offered to a man eat-; 
Isfactory-to and very friendly with the Gov-| 
ernor, -- Doe 7 

ee aud His Children, - 

With the marrlage¢ot Wiliam Lesle Edisoi 
it@ Miss Blanche Travers in Blizabeth,iN.J.;; 
OQ. few ‘days ‘ago, the. great -) Invent-: 
or, practically has become. estranged: 
‘from: fall three of. his firat’ :wife's: 
ichildren, His eldest daughter, Marlon,-has’ 
‘*been abroad for several years and.was mar-{ 
ined in!Germany without tho presence of.her. 
futher. | The recent marrlage of Thomas Edi 
son, Jr:, and the opposition made by his’pa=: 
irents to his cholce of an actrest fora wife, are 
‘still current gossip. Now it is neighborhood 
stalk that by marrying Mies Travers, who is'a 
niéce of Senator John Daniel of Virginia, ihe 
:youngest eon of the Inventor by his first wife 
‘also has cut-himeelf off from the famlty circle. 
‘Being ‘tho third to oppose the father’s wisher 
jim. his selection’ of a-Ilfe:companion ‘the act 
iseems the more flagrant at home. oe i 
oUntil’ two years ago, both sons worked tn 
ithe West Orange.laboratery and lved In thé 
family-home pt Llewellyn Park. Then Thom- 
as went to New,York and got into tho business 
‘efiaventing on higown account. Miss Marion 
had-lett home: before him, ‘after her thier 
jad" married his‘ second wife. -Thomas’-e: 


agemont and marriage to Miss Touhey,'.a 
chorus: girl, ‘placed. him. under the ban. of 
|paternat alspleasure.. Neither he nor, his, 
wife: bas ‘visited. West Orange since. thelr; 
marriage.’ °° 3 Pe ER Wi ae 
>Willlam, the youngest’ son by-the fnventor’s: 

‘frat -marriage,. met Miss Travers jn Haltl-, 

ore .two. years ago, and an attachment. 
tonce ‘sprang: up. Both his father and 'M 
| dizon thought“the boy too: young for-mar 

ridge: and’: forbade’ an ‘engagement! When: 
{William avent tot ener id te straights! 
pleyed.,the, entanglement; would be straight: 
levee aa the eve ite térgowtens WUE 
lam went through the.bittle of San‘Judn and! 
ithe: slege of Santiago;:and. came-back home; 
#tanmed-and thin, but with hie-attachnient Zo: 
ert as strong as ever... .* 

: Although Mr. and Mrs. Edison botli'refuse 
0 “Aldus ‘thie subject, It "1s sald'there'wab’a 
cene Inthe: Edison home when the sonian- 
inounted his, intention: of marrying the girl: 
‘of :his chotce, with-or without .the. parental 
‘blessing. » ¥ More. than‘ a.year: ago ‘tho estate 
jot the first ape, Balen wes. tabje tort anid 
‘bath {boys came,in.for a comfortable /fortyne 
when Will ‘follawéd ‘his brothor’s “skate! 
:He left the'laboratory and wont into busin 

Fi in: New;York; selling, phonographs,and elec? 
trical supplies....:He bas home since 
this Sweet: 
shis.. 8 Mis Was, 
‘nounted o few’ months 2 {ther Mr. 

‘iors idison: attended. 
Blizabeth on: Tuesday. > 

: ue 

Pe ieee 

iN-Y. Evening Journal 
BE 26 1egy 

ON: OF: 

Villinm,. the. second 
llsenmathe wizard}: 
Mie’ recond time tlint: fh 
Lass, Bunch Fowler” Travers 
Haltimore, ‘there is. no’ certainty 
Wedding. will ‘come ‘off... 

4 ‘point. tothe, woddshed - 
where ‘the wizdrd andthis 
eld a ‘conference Immediately * dfter. thet 
ret announcement a:year-ngo,- 726. .8 ¢3? 
. The-stepmother of the young man” ways: 
‘now: that. she? knowss nothings attout: the 
wedding ‘thot ts reported, to be act, for the’ 
near future... die el te et ee Nt 
2 -Yoting” Edison has’ hiid“a'’stormy . time: 
with “his love’ affairs, and all. beeause he 
clings to the Iden that he will sone day be 
the ort ror stig Travehes-< But ele 
WW Jilgt. tiventy-qne—and. ne Ty :.88) 

that may jinke same-difterence, It ett 
that: the- family - bad: no: objection; te, Milas 
Travers; but ‘cons! the“boy. “Fi 

tress: wife: last, ¥: 
hte, Cathar, 


"Louis, Mo Stal 

NOV 1 1899 

es i 
YORK,. November aha 
- of “William . Lesite-: Edson 2 3 3 os = : 
Biariche Travers In. Elizabeth. Ny t is “to — : 

afew days ago, the great inyony : eee "a ; a . ; (y ‘1 1 Bas on 
‘practically hus become estranged: trot ‘most fai able“ gs oO i Th | d Kl I " d : ‘ 
Bil: three of his first wife's children. Hook ningestoddy-at Mannan at Bunny ree Unildren LarTIC ‘Tl. 
2 sHis' ovdest daughter, Siarions has Ryan; ‘on. ‘Garden wtreet,, at Elizabeth, a ee Spite of Hlis Commands os 
‘abroad for severa! years and was. the presence of fashionable assemblages; ae : We: 
ried in.Germany, without the presenc : . The. bride: Ww + Miss Blanche’ Fowler; a < sous 5 
‘her father, while the recent marflggo. af; ‘Travers, of Maryland, and the groom, WH- 
‘Tom Edison, Jr., and the opposition madv, ‘lam Lesile Edison, of New Xork, youngest, 

by his parénts to the choice of an actross ‘gon of ‘Thomas A. Filson, of Orange, N. de ‘Pet. of the--Home, Who Won Southern 

« ———— 


‘tor @ wif, 18 still current gogsip. Now. it “Phe partors were },. ‘tifully decorated. In. } z : D, ve ee 

‘Mg waleaberhootl talk that. by marrying white, green and gol. _The south bow: Bolle, Latest to Daly. Parental Seaed 

Miss: ‘Travers, who fs i nlece of Senator window, where the ceremony was, per: ® ps ea nee ate 

John Danlels of Virginia, tha youngest formed, as a bower of paling, and white ‘ Displeasure. 

gon of the inventor, by his frst wife, also chrysanthemums and smilax were used "ly, ‘ 

vhas cut himself otf from the family. cir- profusion with artistic effect. ek ie . 

‘ele. Being the third to oppose the fathy The bride was attended bi} ‘her tinele, Dre : 3 

‘er's wishes in his sevection of a Ufo come, taward. poutine ps Mahaare: oie wave Aa ‘| Spectalte The Press, ‘ 

M4 uy oH ™ id eo = . “ Ss ‘7 - Nov. pate, “ 

BE home, lo: Ay soe) Ne ee paper her away. The best man was Samuel Rob: | ORANGE, Ne Sos: Nov., 10. ‘With the 

"until two. years ago both sons worked erts Fowler, of Syracuse, N. ¥. ‘The bride marringe of William -Leslio Edison. to. 

a the. West Orange Jaborwtory on slived: fvore f tailor-made gown of custor-colored = Miss - Blanche ‘Cravers in Elizabeth, 
3 a (ee 7s ” 7 ny a x] ey y a . 

“Then “Tom ‘Tr, went to. New York: and: cloth with walst of white silk and chiffon NY J,,.a fow days ago the great inventor 

tgot int he business of inventing on ht. ayd hat to match, and curried why vganthes Bmensceee 

igot into the oatiss sfarlon had lett home ams. : the; practically has become ‘estranged from, 

jbefore chim, after her father ‘had married the Wnnrtieee porvice of th fe nal all'three of his first wife's children.” .' 

his. second wife. His ‘eméa: yement ‘arr Church was performed by ayo Ae : " a 

marriage ‘to Miss Touhy, Mt Chorus spiel, Glazebrook, formerly of Ba}, oat she _ lite oldest daughter, Marion, hasbeen. 

‘placed ‘him under the ban of patdrnal dis: benediction belng pronounced b,.0 32."De abroad for several years, and was mar-, 

:pieasure. Nelther ho nor his ‘wite hava 
‘visited: West Orange since; thelr marr, 

age. —~ 
yo William, the youngest 

Newland Maynard, of New Yo. 21 -e0r ried: in Germany without’the presence, 
congritulutions had been show: yo4Pn of her father, while the recent: marrisge’ 

he the this the bappy pair an elaborate brea . ,.st Wos 

: has as 
‘Ventor’s first marriage, met: Miss - Tra, served. an i .of. Lom Edison, Jr., and: the opposition’ 
vers in Buitlmore ‘two -yeurs! Ago and..09 ‘The bride is a cousin of Senator John W. ‘made by his parents to the choice of ~ 
‘attuchment - at_once~ sprang: up. * Both Daniel, of Virgluin, —. - ; actress for a wife Is still current’ gossl; 

the father one oe oto age. nee ‘Although the wedding was quiet and Ho Now it is neighborhood talk ‘that ‘by! 
ese oy Loe aeeinent! Fn am avont formal Invitations were sent out, the yucats pomaae be nee who f fey side <f 
to Cuba’ the parents believed tha were representative of Elizabeth soelety. marrying Miss Travers, wao ts. usec; 
ontunglement wold bo straightoned: out ‘Among the Southern people present. were of Senntor Jolin Daniels of Virginia, the 
and the love affair forgotten. , Willan Mrs. Oliver Craft, of Maryland, the bride's youngest son of the inventor by hia first: 
went through the battle of San Juan and mother; Frederick Craft, of Maryland, and: fo also lias’ cut biméelf off tesa tha; 
the siege of Santiago and. came‘ homey, mother: varine B, King, of Baltimore. |: | Wife also has cut bim' rom -tha: 

tannerl and thin, but with his vattachs Mevand Mrs. Edison will.take a wedding: family circle. Being.the third to oppose; 

Rihough Ne and Stes Edlgon, woes trip to Burope, and on’thelr. return: aw" tho father's wishes in-his selectio’ 

Aged Co ee ee also nehemel liye In’ Now Xork, life'companion ‘the’ act’ scems' the 
e 5 ie x ons. . 3 oe te * as 

when‘the son announced his Intention ,of; flagrant at home. * Nata e 

marrying.the girl of his. choice, with *o OL ALL-THREE LEFT IOME SINGLE. 

}s More'than_u year ago tha estate. oftth 

without: the parental. blessing. | U -Until two, years, ng0. oth sons: workedsin. 

frat Rare, asson: ne, nn yok ‘tha West Orange laboratory and jived inthe) 
came. in fora comfortable, fortunes sThe ‘ ;family homa in Llowellyn Park. Thon ‘Tom, 

Ir.,-yont to New ‘York-and. got’ ti 
business: of Inyenting on‘his own. 
‘Miss Marion had left home before him, 
sher.fathor had ‘married’ his: second . wifo 
His : ‘engagement - and marriage , to «Miss 
/Touhoy, a chorus girl, placed him, 
pban of, paternal,displeasurc., can 
1. Neither ho no his, wife, hay visitad .1 
{Oranga-sinco - their. marriag' Wiliam,-tho} 
syoungest’ son. by the inventor's: first mar-: 
‘ridge, mot: Miss: Travers in -Baltimore: two’ 
years.’ngo.;ond:/an attachment at. once 
sprang-up.-.., Both his father ‘and. Mrs,: Bdl-; 
rethought tho ‘boy too’ young, “tor! 
age,-and. forbade an engagoment. faiad 
“When; \Villinm *went to twar'in “Cuba ithe} 
parents believed tho entangloment.would-bo, 
algntened out and the love affa’ r forgot! 
i Willlam-went ;through’ tho battlaof; 
neJuan7and s tho; siege of «Santis; rand: 
enme. homo: tanned’ and thin, ; but-w! thyhis; 
attachment for Miss. Trav wy 
ever, ees are et 

id abe ek NL 

he .laboratory ‘and, went: -intps bust 
iness7in New York, ‘geliing.. phonograph 
‘and electrical supplies,...H10has-notrheg 
thome: incovhis engagements to: Ais Tyra: 
vas; announced..ct fens mop! 


arid: neither MpsoriMreEdison 
the wedding: In Bilzabethyon : 

peaAlthough Mr. and:M ‘Edison:both retu: 
|tofdiscuss’ tho’ subjec! s7ahtd; there swas 
|w*seons -An‘the*Edison-home-whon!tiie!aon 
nhouncéd his intontion of marryin gE 
4 ‘his cholce, with or. without tne sparen: 

2, . os 7 
«More than .-year-ago:thoe-eatato! 
lnret !Mrs,-Edlson, the’ mother: of: Tomy: 
jand Will, was alvided, and, both 
Hin-for a, comfortable fortune. .Then Will fol- 
Howed his brother's. example.’ Ho’ lett” tha 
jlaboratory: ands went -into business, jn> New ; 
ork,» 88 ings »Phonographs and «électrical : 
‘supplies {n.«No!45 Bsat’ Mitty-ninth street: -)! 
(Hethas ‘not’ been‘ home sinée ‘his fon, 
jmont: to: Miss-‘Travers was iannounced?a.few + 
‘months -ago-and nelther:Mr..or. Mrs; ‘Edison ‘ 
inttended, th Ps beth’on Tues- ; 



rgreat thing.” ~ A 
Hp xHow7long since Mr. Edison ec 
| Atssend,/does he: intend. to manufacture 
‘them:héra?” was the next.question. ° Th 

ame,the ‘shock of the disillusionizi 
‘ake ‘em?.”. Why, that was 

| Thomas: A, Batson, ‘the ti 
‘a.lot:of people in the Orangés.. . 
‘and few.will know thay wero ‘fooled; un} 
‘they -read: thesa ‘lines, Whether thd. 
(was ; planned..or.. not_tha.Wizard_ref 
4 any this morning. In fact, he: retu : “It Wun bought. fram.ane. of 
‘to'see’ newspapermen at all, sendliig 3 WS) urers and.runs ‘by gasolene,' a 
‘down: from -his laboratory. that: she: didg if a xpected explanation.. “Did you‘t! ni: 
‘have: timo’ to breathe, let alonojtaltet s} id that was ‘the Edison automobila?. ell; 
<t.:was.dnnounced- ite AD aa ta dt'lpn't. “Mr, Edison is working atvhis ma-; 
‘weveral ‘months -ago’ that Mr.” Edisor wp 8 |'chine. now .and then, when he ‘gets time 
‘working on an automobile. which;was}to| trom the coment'and other machinery. tg 
outclags all other horseless carriage hich he {s giving:most-of-his attention; 
a bikelasrnitiee era. te be run by motive ut I'want tb tell you: that-when the Jcdl- 
quntilt the: carriage was —portected’ OW: Son machine comes out there:won't be’ any 
would. make automobllos aa r 2 
cycles...) -- 

xe "of the. Messerer. Automobile “Company, 
,sald to-day .that the company proposés 
_maniufacture’ in, this city a new. kind 
automobile, ono that will ascend: the, 
cepest hill.. The inventor has. bufit-one. 
ployees-in the laboratory an nlowed ‘by,| automobile, .which has been.. tested | in’ 
ithe-Hdlgon team and carriagé;‘containing | Newark. with satisfactory results on level’ 
Itch Edison, everybody ‘jumped{to,ithe|‘ground and ordinary"hills, but he,has per-; 

‘fected another. which ho 4s, confident! vil 

isald Mr. Edison at the time, # 
of Mr, Edison's children rodo'do 
‘street yesterday afternoon-in achan 
Nautomobite gulded by one 

‘up steep hills.- 
“When the now automobile is fntahed 

the ascent aA savserstily. wa the- inven-: 
Pr dortifidently. expec! 3 
‘begin: themanufactu “the -new "ma! 
z chine. at once, * We can t sive, out. any ot; 
23 eta rth ow. 

sence. ented ou and. jar inith 
if {ts mechanism, and Edison‘sto 
fa) always: at.a premium in‘Orange;-w: ere 
{the., inventor. {s regarded: witht somel hat’ 
[rine by'his: fellow, townat mn, 5 

added the: automobltestoy thet Hi sth of}6 
|wlaard's great inventions; 


' Philadelphia,Pa.- Times \ 


pitalists Win Ereova Million Deite? 
IMU for Production of Cements”. | 

Ee Philipsburg, Decembor-8—A_ company of 
seapltalists, headed by Thomas A. _E, in, 
{has ‘bought the John W. Ole ree 
arfsvitle, five milled from this place‘ and, 
his :secured optlons on a number of- adjoin 
Jug: furms,, Pug tats 
x2, The “company has been Prospecting : for, 
Feenient rock-for several mouths past and 
‘Edison “himself has been here several timer. 
;An excellent quality of rock has been found; 
sAnd :people who seem’ to know the Inalde, 
workings of the comprny shy Wh millton-dol-; 
lor -inlll, “with a eapactty df 5,000 barrels | 
day, will be erectett,: Pe Fee ee 

*: Operations are’ to be begun without delay, 
‘Warren county contains rich deposits of co-! 
ee roek and two Inrge plants at Witake 

and:Vulcanite, afew miles acrogs,the county’ 
\from, - Stowartayille,. are working- to” thelr! 
falleat Capacity; sandsire: enlarglog-and, nd) 
ng new, machinery constantly. a!oc sis 

‘Philadelphia, Pa ~ jngninép 
DE. 27.1 b99° 

[epee Gaia 

ine. 52. mer 
{tatty or Mrg, 88 
Seam fienro.: 





“ 7 _ 
cLouston, Lex. ~~ Post B Chisess : a A ; £ 
“DEC 10 1899 ’ 

sean oh VAG, : 
ch an instrument 'r3;cl 
rinds justi:ag: they: ai Pronqunzed., 
vIn regard ‘tothe amount: of. ‘cutront 
réquired to send: a message. acrofe: tte 
ocezo’] ‘can.only say that tho-old-theory: 
of a. necessarily.: heavy current wast not 
?) considered after we had goue very. deeply 
{intévthe-matter. :T: belleva the time ts:noz]- 
far distant when ‘we shall ‘bo} send 
{.2télophone-anessage straight: acros4" ; 
leoWithcutidelay. or Use ‘or relay ia’ 
3 this “isi tow- imporsible owing .to 
at “Gondition ‘of our electrical ‘de-. 
¥! With: some necessary improvements, 
alone-ticre: Inés relay statlons. will ibe 
{made ‘unnecessary. : As It-13 We figure. that 
){-We'ghall require but one statfon:-: If asses, 

Meany ‘obstacles. -*To.-hls’ mind the el ing ts needed it can be built, but;-we" 

£/ Tinposst8l 

X wbysthe intrcduction of -an- in- 
tienithat wilt ensblo:us-to talk withour 
misiin London, or ‘Paris, or S}. Petets- 
wburg? : To believe; “that . such ‘a thing {3 
‘among | thie’ probabilities -of tho, Immediate 
fptite ‘regitires. @ stretch7of. the Imazina- 
tloni;that’ will -:make-one feel’ like a reln- 
cS irnaticn of’ a*Baron- Munchausen: and-a 
J és Verne rolled into, one, but, tn spite 
OF -this, wo: have tid:uasurance ‘of"tworfn- 
ors that. such an achievement’ 13 ono 
jo ‘most probable things in -the: world). 

means .of ‘conveying fl --telephons: mesaagy! see no renstn why there: shoul: ibe 
actos: the ocean ‘successfully would "to by{ Hdre’tkan one. i . . 

the erection ‘of .relay ‘stations every Sno) Efforts: are alrexdy being mado“o‘pér; 
hundred’ miles. ‘ To-dd‘thta-wou'd be £0°e) 

i siiade the young men to organiz> % 
Pensive -that- ‘the “cost” would render-“t{ho 

Bary ito agsist them‘in carrying thi 
1 ‘the “errllest possible complet 

NaS Se gee ee 

acheme- almost impracticable. otha t ‘ ; : 
\Ansther: Inventor who has attenipted. to! c this will eventually be don; but: 
master: this problem: Is“Nikola Tesla. ‘Ye | 10! Until the Inventors have been able, to 
Madea careful study :of the queition and] demonstrate to the. world that they shave, 4 
at'last dismissed ‘it-with the opinion that | positively overcome tho Problem of ‘sub: 
Successful transatlantic ‘telephony would maring.<telephony. Then. they pot 
§ not-be Poseiblo’ until the problem of tol- |Just what they aro disposing of cand will 
that’ within a ‘few: years,-at! leas, it will | ePhoning. without wirés‘ Had been sglved. | bg able to profit accordingly. “In the pets 
be\as.oasy to say “hello” to Paris-central| Tesla. found that tho.chlef ditneulty in ths | tlmo-n survey of the bstt=m of hs tore 
‘astic't8 now to tatk between New York’ and | ¥8Y. of submarine ‘telephony dld ro: :1.e at the shallowcst points Will ho mada tt A 
Bostén..* B Slee dm: the statle oapacity-of-.the cable, but the Sables may be anchored of th> bighest 
;; Tho: two Inventors who. ask ‘us to accept; 28 due -to the. fact. that. the clectric ;eleyations, ; Camber Per 
this;. prediction ag tinndulterated toot are Viorations were’ too-ensily ‘distorted by the ; dn regard to the amount that i 
Thom 1 Bdisoi Jr.,and Witham’ Hoi- | aves. -He explained this. -by Ukeaing a ‘cort to carry out such an ome ment igs 
werd | both are young men‘ they cable to a‘big reservoir through “which {willbe necessary jn order to mal eon a * 
lready ished‘ themsel¥ea inj Small disturbances: must: be tranamttiel. ‘lutely porfect test of tho -new. inven ion 
sown’ ficlds'and when: they say thac| The reservolr: would take up tha.d's.urb- (Mr. Edlson {s silent, but from the z eroxt 
‘they ‘havo. beén: so ‘successful in their-ex:|2Nce produced at’ onevend!and weuld ;at- that tho commercial’ world has ta en in 
periments ‘that they are. now Prepared ‘to tempt to carry them’,to tbe other end, but the°invention aince the time w on jews 
stake their Teputations upon the-assertion,| Very. -Ilttla’ of the original disturbance first announced there 1s no reason fo donb 
that /they vill soon. be‘ Prove: the) Would: stilt exist when: the’end of the In fhat “the requisite ‘amount will be fozth- 
Possibility of telephoning across ths'ocean!|.Was reached... . i Rial vo) sgt: coming as gcon-as the two young taventorg 
ono does -not: feol- inclined. to reject th2|:-.a' makjog ‘his experiments Tesla’ euce. bre -ready to show. the wore that j they, 
statement us:the' dream’ of a vistonary; £6 veeded tn:conveying:a scund'frem the volee feally-hava something that ts ial a 
iiany wonders ‘bave already~been’ accom, through 3,000 miles of wire, but the sotind Tf_ono may judge: by. thelr: entiuala 
plished, by ‘electricity that It’ requires | ‘Was Ittle -more’than a -confusedno'sa,:en- ay’: bo far distant 
Bald: man ‘to. ass wt uch tirely, undistingulshable-as-to its meaning , ayes . 
ittalninént has “been reached.’ - Then,” tooj} and: ho: explained’ this: by. tha theory ithat 

t oho. ‘inven t Jof'thy| tho clectric ‘vibrations had’ been “distorted 

i action: roubled. "Mz. Tosla an 1;! 
according to their “present plans, there’ will) 
bo ‘one :relay ‘station. between. this country: 
iil be located mald-} 

they .are Very, much. tn 
er, the experiments jay. tu 
ie-not the ‘slightost‘ doubt. tha i i- 
Te. ;perfectly ‘honest when’ ‘they “ox Way in't nd- from: that. point. tha 
the opinion that-they ‘are-so soon “to suqs| message: will bo “resent: bya. mechdn{eal: 
ceed) in ‘accomplishing: what “so-many "in. ‘dovice--. In.a measure this-devico pa 

Yentors have deemed. the -{mposeible. emble ja “megaphone an: 
deseribing:-the experiments that, ba: 

Fgady” been made Mr: [edison ‘said ‘t 

intended to.’ show “that, contrary: to’ 

sion,” It wiil-ndt ‘talc 

| Come. 

ada” much: chenper?” 
do. not: barat é 

bo! the ‘reeetver?! 

Mireflo. tant-nart ¢f-the ens 
casion ‘they’: su Ave spent a greal 
made: olve:nt thi Wo::Intend- that’ st! 
‘yevo posstble. . Tt wilts 

“tha; greatest “dlelinc 


Fawr tie hte Advertiser 
Newarigits. Advertis 



ho! Orange Wiknrdi MayWant( Mo 
~Neom to-owin Ino 

: : yu 
‘Within the past week Thomas A: Edison 
jas become owner of the tract of Iand op: 
losite the West Orange Laboratory 
{ .the southeast - corner of Valley 
‘oad . and Lakeside avenue, The Plot 
is-- 171 feet atong Valley rond and 
‘extends back 331 fect on Lakesldo ayas 
‘ue. :Tho price pald for the Property to 
Samuel WW. Baldwin and others was 
$9,500, : 

: It Is proposed to erect a large’ factory 
on tho plot, for what purpose Mr, Edison 
‘and others connected with the Edison 
‘works refuse to divulgo as yet. Two 
large buildings are now In Process of con- 
struction in the block bounded by Vatley 
road, Alden street and Watchung , ond 
Lakeside avenues, which fs entirely owned 
‘and occupied by the Edison companies, 
with the exeeption of half a dozen sinall 
dwellings on the corner of Valley xoad 
and Alden street, | : gS 
‘ The factories now being built are to be 
used, ono for a box factory and the other 
8 an experimental cement factory, © 


Ra 9 Mag, Te ees 




dog silorg of, New ¥6 rc. 
a really tr the “Cores 

cies mage dies -the ‘biging 
Tttle's report 

"the “Dlatweot the ‘inate fal ito 
aig sting Com celal Ar .OP) 
ela Seta ia goats siete 

ive commit 

; oe ? 

. ; 
Sees ay” eek ed 
<om ange ae ae 

gel? instead: of” passing; or 
Fa;;,they.-.o “hear strango soundd? pro: 
on ‘om-‘that barn,.which: cause.them 
juestions; and {n that way ingulsitive 
ae have ‘learned: that this’ Isolated:placé 
felocted ‘by ‘the: phonograph ‘sorapany, 
affactory in ‘which’ thelr rolls ‘ate, made: 
/ morning the rallway trains from!New, 
(bring: to: this: big red. barn .partles:of 
vaudeville -- actors, -and.,.specialty, 
ts; who (sing -and-play.-and shoutyinto 
vitig machines, and:thus make what arg 
mins.the “master-records’’: from:which 
ralis:that are tho public and‘used 
oxhibition-machines-aro duplicated. 714 
6 ‘people have..voices that’ are ul: 
Ayly4-adanted . to. -the.:graphophone =: 
bhongsraph.: Col. Bryni, for:example;*t 
at people ‘whose :volces :ara; 
hy ‘strong ‘and: sweet’ can: make “VOry; 
fon.Their records aré, “usaally, 
good. phonograph - artist=-thati 
3 or’ a-Wwoman performer iwho: <cant 

ce‘good-results on‘tho filme—can’ make; 
'$16-.tol $30. f. doy. singing: andfreciting,- 

ey are. paid. ‘1 
qcord’’ produced, a7 
b erred: ‘barn\at Oral wer belong: ; 
‘*Phonogra} 1b company: :'Thdsgrapho=} 


ea ona a'6 attallar, ‘business at Bridg 

for each: perfoe 

ighth-st.,, ‘charging ‘th: 
edsan: advertisemon and’ that Stron, 
under pretence of: going: into” par 

eed intinotig- Want 
i Talicine ‘Muchine at the Sun~: 
dayiMorniug Service 


yee md 


D . From 
\{oo rittsburg, Pa,-Leader 

sw oO! 
nomersin-law se 
realdens Tatts ob ides Gear Ree Ko 
“ang, is-ar-the-pote net Risting. reacts @ 
ies ‘Page’ is: tho oul; os 


shen “Cannot -Endanger- Liv 
Upening Lamp. to? Light Pipe 

oS ae 

‘Posen salt -the: stored: u; 1g0; of. 
ie Itetime’spent:-In-tho- tmosphere‘ or ‘ete 
:trical Anvention:: Ait} ithe. successful 
-troduction: of the‘ clectriéat current fo 
Juminating purposes: it -was-thought: -that. 
| ilts ‘use: Inv mines. Id prevent: a-. 

5 x ive.costsand: 
e oselementi ‘of dange 


erirte nies 


It Shows, the Most Minute Workings ‘of 
“Tet “the Proposed Milk "2%." 

the Work to be Automatle—T R 
Night and Day. 28 

The large coment project of Thomas 
A.Edlsou near New Village is already 
working quite a change in that locality 
as.a STAR reporter discovered on Mon- 
day.” ;T'ne 20-ton steam shovel is daily 
at'workon the Uarhart farm this side 
of;,.Btewartaville stripping the’.top | 
strata of earth from the cement layer 
beneath and a 90-ton steam shovel has ; 
arrived ‘and will soon be put at work; 
there...Twenty teams are kept ' busy. 

carting' away and. dumping the soil 
thus removed. In some places this 
top soil is ten feet thick and ‘in other 
slndeatleos.«-Nuarby” a~urill~ worked 
‘by: horses is uaed to locate the cement 
and bore for water to be used in 
ithe-boiler of the steam ‘shovel. So;far 
the.borings for water b: not 
‘feuitful‘ns desired.” ae : 
‘On the” Pursel’ farm” near ‘the. ‘New 
Village { depot” another. force of men 
are building.a switch which: is-tosran 
to the:plant when the latter ::has ‘bépn 
built, The plant, or. cement, mill, will 
be situated near the north; side’ of :the 
railroad} “about td eens the: railroad 
walting room... This switch was putin 
by: the railroad only as far as the limit 
ot, the railroad property.» Beyond that 
the Edison: people, are. buildin e i cite i 
‘was the latter -who had..the: dificulty 

last week with Farmer. Isaac: ‘Deremer. 
They, finally. arranged to,-pay. “him. f 
the:prospective damage ; to -his: wheat 
crop and no injunction - was -lesued; as 
béfore reported... foie Ra 

&-‘atorehouse is” being - built: near 
where the switch joins the railroad and 
work was began on Monday.on a tem- 
porary machine shop a few rode farther 
north,’""This shop. is to be 60 x 320 
feat and,O. J. Laubach has thecontract 
for ita.erection. A-track will be:r 
from''the mill to the quarry on ‘the 
Oarhart'farm’ to convey. the raw,'cé-, 
ment:to.the former. Other tracks and 
awitches' will also be laid in the y f 
the-mill-for' various purposes. = - 
¢ Mr .. Theodoter-E.- Knowlton is in: 
charge of the whole work just now. Un- 
der him are about sixty men. His office, 

*- 4g, Jocated in' the: home-of-Mise-Mary:. 
Pore ein shred yauds' from °tbo 

reel a few, hundred yards’ from |tha: 
mill sité.:"; In ‘a faw days. bis ‘office wlll: 
probably be moved to, athe .storehouse 


sj Reset Me ee teieu, eas, suited 

” ie) al ny 
\foo Com gut 
on the Boyer farm, the .farm , havin 
recently been purchased by Mr. Edi- 
son.:: Laborers work ten hours: per 

day and $1.25 is the rate paid. ‘Aa the 
work proceeds many more will be‘em- 

plo; 2 82 Sear 
The rain and thawing of Sunday, bad 
caused a respectable sized lake to form 
on the Parsel farm on Monday, : In 
,Bome places it was several feet deep. ‘ 
This interfered quite a little with; the 
work, bat.itisthuught it can be easily 
drained off and prevented in future; j 
Superintendent Knowlton was ex- 
tremely courteous to the reporter and 
gladly submitted to being “‘pumped.”’ 
‘e thought the ple mill might be com- 
pleted by next fall, but. he could not 
say how many hands it would employ. 
nor where the hands would live. The 
plan of the mill would follow closel 
the model in Orange made for Mr. Ed- 
ison, Mr. Knowlton had nothing to 
say about the proposed steam rail con- ; 
nection with igeleville. As for as 
the Washington-Easton trolley he had 
seen men surveying for it and their. 
stakes were met with quite often.” He’ 
would be glad to see itin operation, he- 

said. a 

A view of the preliminary operations | 
for the big plant will convince anyone } 
that intelligent und energetic brain . 
work and unlimited capital are behind’. 
the enterprise. in which. the.‘ Wizard | 
‘of Menlo Park” is so conspicuous a 
‘figare, It means much to Warren 
county, in general, and Washington, in 
particular; and our people will be glad 
to see it realize the expectation of Mr, 
Edison and those associated with him. 

Below will be found a few remarks 
by another writer concerning the con- 
templated mill and’ the cement in- 
dustry. . 


‘Thomas A. Edison has stated that 
the big cement plant about to be erect- 
ed between Stewartsville and New 
Village would be one of the largeat in 
the United States, and that it would be 
equipped with modern machinery. 
Arrangements are being made‘ to com- 
mence the construction of the huge 
buildingsinthe spring. . es 

“fhe importance of this brief: an- 
nouncement might. says the Phila- 
delphia Record, be readily overlooked 
without some further explanation, 
which may be, perhaps, afforded by a 
brief description of a very recent visit 
-to‘Edison’s laboratories at Orange, :N. 
J., where a complete model of the new 
cement plant alluded to, constructed 
upon a scale of two inches to the foot, sixth of the full size, making, 
perhaps, the largest model of ‘a ‘im 
ever built, was shown by Mr. Edison 
himself. ‘In the first place, it may: be 
said that ‘the term ‘laboratory?’ fails 
tocorivey any adequate idea of: thie 

nique plant... sheet 
*"Waen we state that there are more: 
than;dne thousand “employes: engaged 
in Edison's laboratories at Orange, N. 
Ji;=in ‘operating special’. machinery. 
ofthe finest description, much of iti 
,being: so nearly automatic that: one! 
attendant serves ten or a dozen turret! 
lathes; another’-looks after an equal’ 
‘number of drilling.. machines, and'that: 
many ;otker, tools, ofthe kind that: 
ordinarily‘ require the attention ofone 
man-to each, or, perhaps, One inan ‘for 
two machines, here work by electrical 

guidance only, some idea may be gain- 
ed.of the extent of. this manofactaring 
establishment, , modestly ; called: “Eadi- 
son’s laboratories.) gies noni 
‘One year ago the Engineering and 
Mining Journal in its annual issue, 

iving the mineral statistics of the 

nited States for 1898, said, oj 2: 
...The greatly increased demand for 
+Portland cement in the United States 
}in 1898 led to a depletion of stocks and 
_ taxed the domestic productive capacity? 
‘to its utmost. At present the acturl’ 
, production is less than the current con , 
‘sumption, and stocks are very small, 
“The increase in consumption is attri- 
butable partly to the extraordinary re- 
:guirements of the Government: and 
“partly to the extensive construction of 
puildings, dams, bridges und otner 
large works. It is noteworthy that 
‘the cement is taking the place of ime 
and mortar in a,good deal of construc- 
tion work, Notwithstanding the large 
increase in the domestic demand, the 
{mportation of foreign: Portland ce- 
ment fell off from 2,787,760 barrels in 
1897, to about 1,700,000 barrels in 1898,, 
which shows the extent to which Amer-: 
ican producers now control the Port- 
land cement business of this country. 
OF course, the existing conditions led 

} to an increase in prices, and American 

Portland cement ranged between $1.90: 
and $2.26 per barrel in New York dar-, 

‘ingithe year. Imported cement sold 
a eae 32,25, against $1,90@§2.10 in 
1897. 5 + 

“The increase in the consumptive de- 
mand was a great stimulus to the. in-, 
dustry, and several new concerns were. 
induced to engage in business, while. 

- many of the older manufacturers made: 
preparations to increase thvir output 
Jargely. The Lawrence Cement Oom- 

:pany began in October the erection of 
a large new plant at Siegfried, Pa.; the; 
Coplay Cement Company commenced ; 
‘the ‘erection of an additional, plant, 
with a nominal capacity of 1600 barrels 
per day, while the Atlus Cement Com- 
pany, at Northampton, Pa., made pre- 
‘parations to double its capacity..and 
turn out 2,000,000 barrels in 1899, ad- 
-ding 32 new kilns to its plant... -.2.. 3... 
‘The total production of Portland. 
cement in 1898 in the United States was 
stated to have amounted to, 8,584,686 
barrels, containing. 400-. pounds @ube 
The annual statistical ; number of. tuis: 

Journal, just issued, gives :the produc-| 
tion in 1809, at 6,146,084 barrela of. 400 
pounds each. Satie ono 
-; The model of Edison’s hew.’cement 
mill already alluded to is jcontained ‘in 
a building especially constructed for 
the purpose and some idea of- the size 

‘of the mill, which is to be ‘built entire: 
lyof steel, may be gained when we say: 
that the model is about .110 | feet: lon: 
and hos. number..of. wingg\abont 4 
feet in length -placed-atrigut:angles 

‘the main building, the intention being 
to enlarge the plant from time to time 
by. building new. wings.. When all the 
wings shall have. been. completed:.the 
mill will have a. capacity, so it. was 
atated,- of 1000,barrels a day. But, 
paginelly constructed the output. will, 
be far less-than this, althongh the main 
portion. of the mill of. full..size., 
* Mr.:‘Edison’s reason;for,constrnoting. 
so large and costly a. model is in order, 
that he may be, eae. day, by da: 

every, detail of the new features, whiob; 

‘will be introducedand study the modesl: 


Sees Renae eee Veta ony 

of all the m . 
aufllelont alas eee Which are not of 
a Bive a fair idou of their 
ppearance and knowled f th 
working ca: nei Wledge oO () 
chines, Whilo i of the full-sized ma- 
attempt to pive it is not advisable. to 
scription ofthe Herein a complete de-, 
be stated, in? cement plant, it may 
scheme?’ '..-_&, few words, that the 
re , 18 to make the mill so complete 
uw iteelf that human labor will be 
practically eliminated; in other words, 
almost ali of the operations will be 
automatic; furthermore, they will be 
continuous, go that, once started, the 
mill may keep on day and night turn- 
ing out the best gra eof Portland ce-! 
'ment, packed in barrels ready for ship- ; 
ment, as long ns it shall be kept sup- 
piled with the raw materials, The 
arrels will be made on the spot in one 
‘or more of the wings. The whole ar- 
rangement of the machinery for grind- 
the materials, mixing, roasting and 
conveying them from point to point, 
even tothe final packing of the, pro- 
duct, isclearly shown in the big model, 
and it is expected that all experiment- 
al work necessary to develop any 
defects and show where changes may 
be made to advantage will be fully 
exploited and developed by means of 
working model, so that the big mill it- 
self, the first ofits kind, will be con- 
atructed on permanent lines. This 
feature is, in point of fact, character- 
istic of all of Mr. Edison’s experiment- 
al work and is largely the secret of 
his phenomenal success in under- 
takings which, in less competent 
hands, would have been doomed to 
failure even if they had proved’ en- 
couraging in ordinary laboratory tests, ; 
Tn various other departments of the es- 
,tablishment actual working tests were 
‘being made of some of cement mix- 
ing. machines and other apparatus, for, 
although we have called the big model 
a “working model,” itis not intended 
toactually make the cement in the 
model mill, but merely to operate 
upon a “dummy” material, to show 
the general principles, just as a huge 
working model of the eye may illus- 
trate to an audience of medical stu- 
dents the phenomenon of sight with- 
out actually having in itself any visual 
power. It may be said, in conclusion, 
that one of the unique features of the 
Edison establishment is the conjunc- 
tion or combination of purely experi- 
mental work, conducted on a small 
acale, and the manufacturing of Edi- 
ron’s specialties on a wholesale scale. j 

Big Plant. Under Way ‘Near! 
: Stay artsville, Oe 




Dalays:Now.Overcome—. : 
iterpriso With Many Special 
i. Characteristics, 

wartsvilic, N, J.,: April 6.—Wot 
-Edison- cement- plant -. fs unde) 
I way. The long-continued. res 
Ronen January. _ coats 

pril 1;was,occaslonedi| i$ 
hie priijelpal-one beltigthgiinal 
ompa vito tirest 

lel, in’ the way, 
<axtortion, and at’one time\appearances! 
yerevory.much against Jocating thé{plant 
jubon: the-grounds selected, notwithstatids 

‘ing:.thefact ‘of- the: purchase: of ovgryiod) 

ands ‘employed: in, Various ,capact- 
id ground is“béing: broken :fotithe 
uidations of the buylldligs to -be“eretted) 
Snty-six’in-number;.to be. builtroftirony 
: ta for. which; hay 

ninghslty.of ‘the plant: 
erstood, -perhaps, .when-. tlie e 
uildings 1s -known,. the largest of 
iI be-100 feeet by 600-fect andthe! 
leat .75-feot by. 350'feet,A temporaty; 
ecietess shop, 0. fess By. fase ‘hast beat 
erec ind Js.almost ready. for occupandy; 
% Enea easton after carldad ot:costly. 
fachitigry* have arrived :“and’ atoybelng 
: Good! 


placed “into; positio: 
descriptions ‘ 

ide, is one Vvast-deposit of cemen: 
Jimestone “rack, ‘tlie days. of “fdr 
the old-fashioned Way ‘are num 
‘policy would seem .to-dictute' the 's¢ 
‘old, worh' outs farms -upon.~whie 

Hardest tind of Jauor‘and. stric 

Omy:-the-teridnt farmorits oridbled™ 
, ut 4 bure- living, and it {s°an..uhdl 
tfhet -that.a mujority-of- them: a6 nowiown, 

their! Horsch, :.cattle’and. farmin 

n fee almple, 4V 1.57.45 

But:wosstrongly has the: pasion: 
owning for tarmirig purposes: been 



lente befor. 

TO purdases } 


farm. ow ers profited: 

this ‘business’. projdct,” 
tits and ausacent’ villagde—sicop ing, -it not 
ead, for yeara—haye,, advayced, ing valug, 
yapldly, in some. instances. 1f0 sper: sent, 


Tow, that direct trolley ‘communlention be-: 

enedth pani 
bP fidtaral iMyes,: ani 
@ nave: the) 



tween Easton ‘and Washington Is 
paNying’ directly’ through? this :-vil 


Hered a it 

ig vutenall 

le-. means 

tlon “zleaned: from=intimate“assocl 

a ginfanc 

; fatty ve: 
riet ‘perlta 





-conhected with“ thi 
‘of confident’ that: 
this “entire 'valloy™ will? 

‘os tina ne 1, 
A i 


ee As 


ong tn, 


ie behft 
$ 10} 

Sus itd, 


ny Bites 


‘o8 land: 
‘ “$natilted. 
into andjcultivated among the péople-that: 
it !s.a most alMoule ‘matter to‘ convinces: 

s Any, other way, of living; id 
(ey tke tact’ Uniit ai ef 
tiem, and 

Anstances, grey 
if! thelr: kn 
the Hal 
peopl out ‘of: th 
of-mortgages,-relloved-th 5 
ndtiert fiom 
Yon “during *th 
‘without. hard Jabor., Not “alo 



ligetand | 
; furthe 


Pah Ne-J—Advetsn, 

‘any. Newark marfutasturers and mati 
‘ufacturing concerns and institutions, ‘ad 
-well’as ‘many concerns ‘in other parts 0 

-the-Btate, have been honored with peiied 
at the Parls Exposition. The list ‘og: 
Awards‘to the American exhibitors was. 
{mado'public to-dny, = | we 

feAmerlea captures 1,981 awards in com 
petition: with tho world. “Of theso .220 ari 
8rand prizes, 486 gold medals; 683 silved: 
‘Medals, 422 bronze medala and’ 270 honor: 

ae HT There is also a long iiss! 
of’ gold, silver and bronze me oa 
allaboratore, Pet oun fo 
a.The- exhibit. of the Newark Board of 
Education in the department of lemond 
sary oaeation has been awarded a gran iH 
+, Much’ satisfaction was evinced by t! A 

‘Melals of.the Board at tha success of tnd 
Jewark, achools at the big exposition: 
When the exhibits were sent to Paria’ 
Sveral months ago confidence was ex 
iressed’-by the school authorities tbat, ad 

gh placo would be given the wofk of, 

he. Newark school children, It was not! 
joped,* however, that a grand Prize woul 

‘all ‘to-the lot of-this city's educational 
fepartment. Additionat satisfaction ts ‘ 
ireeacd. at the result of the judges’ a 

Paris ‘because it shows the public schoo 

iepartment of this city to be equal to th 
; raat Nee. - 

ees world. 
‘Newark is rated equal to the school des} 
sartments of Boston, Albany, Chicago and 
Denver; and is given supremacy over the* 
Itles’ of} New York, Omaha, Washington 


‘department.’ . Ms 
f:When:tho exhibits wore sent from ‘New= 
rie ithwhs the unlversal opinion of ‘those’ 
who:-had inspected -it that. the pritiary 
kindergarten: exhibits: wero. superio 
thosd contributed . hy |.the .grammai 
hool scholars, snotwithstanding the'fac 
atitheliatter were of-a'very high ofdedt 
etexhibits: ere “prepared ‘underftne| 
Tclty! .Superintendent-/Gite: 

“}the Depariment. of Chemichl Industries: 

Joo : Phew, ae Se | 

wipler-supervisdt of manual "training 7 

‘exhibits ‘consis 


Filth a: large number of photographs’ 
showlng almost ‘to tho degree}of.:min- 
litest detail -all the work’ dono \in'-thi 

schools, é Ps 
7, 4 Princeton Takes a ‘Prise. 4 
#Princeton “University also. recolves. a 
prize in the Department of Higher Edu-' 
cation, .This has been described already: 
in.the ADVDRTISER. ate By 
“Tiffany & Co., the Tiffany Glass andi 
Decorating Company and Louis, C,; Tits 

tany get many prizes. The Tiffany fac- 

torles aro at Forest Hill, in this ‘city. 

Tho Ziffany peoplo receive awards. in tho: 
Department of Liberal Arts, in the De-; 
partment of Electricity, in the Depart-’ 
nent of Forestry and Fisheries and. in, 
che Department of Varied Industries. . + 
‘Tho _Edjaqu..-Phonograph~ Company,: 
which Manufactures from the inventions: 
ot2Thomas A. Edison, of West Orange, 

wing a prize in the Department’ of ‘Elec- 
tricity, N84 Z 

i The Fairfield Dairy Company, whose 

extensive farm 13 fn. Caldwell. Township, 

‘and whose office is at Montclair, wins a 

prize in the Department of Agriculture. 

‘Phe Fairfiold Company was selected by. 

the United States Goyernment to repre- 

gent dairying at the exposition. It pre- 

pared an exhibit censisting of twenty-two 

large photographs, showing scenes~about 

tho farm and-stabies and two lay figures 

of, wax representing milkmen in the unl-, 
form of the company at work. The com- 

pany his been shipping milk to. Paris all 

summer, supplying the United States offi- 

clals there. / 

fa ‘Am Enst Newark Winner. - : 
One of the prizes in the Department of 
‘Varied Industries goes to the Stewart: 
Hartshorn Company, whose factory is th” 
East Newark. The company sent a fine: 
exhibit of shrde rdilers and accessories’, 
to the exposition. It was in chargé of the; 
head of the-concern, Stewart Hartshorn; 
-Wwho is still in Paris. Pod na ee 
{The Woodside Patent Calf Manutactur- 
jing Company, of this cityswing a prizé ii 

‘The company was encouraged by its -suc-} ee a 
(cess at the ‘Chicago World's Fair, to pte; | ares 
Rare. an exhibit of patent and --nanielle 
leathér, ‘This was taken to Paris-by ;Ar- 
yond Schmoll, the: president of the: coms, 
ny. Mr. Schmoll has just retyrned:trom fit 
Paris“and he. was much grattti hid! [das 
morning to,learn, from the- ADVERTISER, 

mitithe} applicant to inspect ati scr 

ye. bopks ‘and ‘papers of the company, on; tho, 
Jate*ot} October, -1896,: whén ho/bought;:the, 
afock’ he: holds. cHo saya:.that ijn ;the gear) 
part of 809 ‘the, company wes very!succosatul, 
and‘pald a ‘dividend of 1° per cent.‘ a month) 
fontthe\ capital stock of $200,000, .Since:.t! 
year,ch¢ :says,'it has pald ‘no, dividend. cin 
is90:the: company was dissolvai?and the. Na: 
“Gramophone Company. nf” New. Yt 
rmeéd the applicant nov-consenting: to; 
arrougemant, ; 33 
ays ‘that’ the directors made-no-sale of! 
the of the former company,’ but merely 
}transferyed' them to the new organisation. The} 
Gpplicant. asked for -information. after: the: 
transfer and-says that it was refused, .There-! 
fore;she: asks for an‘ inspection ‘of the books} 


iWaldo G. /Morse, in oppositio : 
fall-of “the affairs of the company: had. been} 
conducted tn’ an opes fashion: stock) 
was sready for-transfer at the ratecof; $60-a' 


‘f@hare;‘sJAn offer was. made to the app! 

cent’ Oce- 
eres ve a 

iat could Se 
fein’ ihe ‘Drona“atedot,y 
of Maury Smith, in i872 Me, a 
smanager of the’ conso! dated telat 
‘graph. ‘lines then in oppositio thie 
Western Union, Like all othe: mangers) 
the could make room for an expert ‘operas 
‘tor,.and told tho young rustle ti n 

srl a made 


acknowledged. to. be-foremost- inthe 
'=:Pringipal Examiner B, B.° Moore 
selected to. tako. charge of tho exhtd| 
he; willieavo for Paris on 


‘contribution. of, the Patent.OMce, 
Scontained In thirty big 
iot 2OB:MOMOIB.: 50.226 sAdzede se a 

The early patents of “Wizard” 
rand: hist first “modelsrofielectrical 

Dil: i 
Si“ Tey: me; I ‘can Keep up wi 

rae ‘om, " sald the stranger. |, 

Sworld,:will be exhibited, as well:as th 
Fredelp of auch other famous inven 
“electzicity “as Brush, 
‘Maxim, ete.:<The-firet : ‘electric. moto: 
iimithe: Patent Office,. the: conceptio 
Plate, ‘Jouepli- Henry; ofthe Smithsonian, 
fetitution, will ,be among 

‘made in 1834. ‘Thi 
iL be: , shown the early- electric 
‘polling ‘machinery of T. Davenport, 

a possibly with tho idea 
fun with him, he gave } hit 

7 s¥ou will have to “work pr ‘ai fast ‘ 
lwarned him, “for our Washington man {@ 
“in the, habit of rushing. things.? :. 
2 Asa; ‘matter.of fact, there, wns no. 
Gage. expected from ‘Washington,, ors 
ith owire lead there, Mr. Smith connected 
tha regoiver. with a “sender’’ me another, 

red-vagaries of an_unbalanced anlnd 

iaret printing: telegraph instrumon 

Ivenlea:by, Edison, in.1873, with bed 
(a Crreevrentotis=1 

who. Tater achiev: 

fiventive genie “otzAniérieans, who,al 

0: W I finmediately proceed to arrange: 
boxes and const 
Javhich Thaye revolutionized- the -mechi 


the tnteros ne 

In :1837,- when stich. thoughts were reonslday| 


lecbmotive: Ren RO 
a htt 

‘the Empire “of the Czar of Ri 

‘old Jobn- Bull foo 


Peteccsese-; . eas ue 
é oe evaalpenics.” 

A Mechanical Work. 
Mdison belioves thera:is tno 
as the telegraph fis 
ora’ ntors,. To. prove his deductions, (he 
| ores this incident;- “Ono night when 
I was a‘ ‘cub’ operator In Cincinnati. 
‘noticed. an immense crawd gathoring. § 
‘the street’ outside a nowspaper: office: 
gaticd the attention of ‘the other oper: 
fora tothe crowd, and wo sent..a, "mess 
;songer, boy out-to find tho’ cause of the 
(ou temont. Ho returned in a few’ minus 
ites and. shouted out: ‘Lincoln's * ioe 
instinctively | the operators looked: fro! 
= ane face to tho othor: to see Which mans 
wer recélved thi 

“pl | 
ha: atc aly the voting) 
feral evithout! ha: ala test: i 
itdsgignificance,"\L7 Tee AL 

Tine panatia inn Fine 




———— Ee Sian 
ass solation - of . old Timer 4! 

The. 1a Time ereleurapherst’ 
jit’ twentlethiannual;, 

7184; 19-and 2 
ded. by.4) 
Who. Wer ‘Ans’ the} 
yenrs' tag, Vahdtthes 
atid da, z between! ¥ 
he sreui inlon 

‘negie, a0a.8 
ic "Hop t) of 

Wi be 
via rH, 
aoe supe’ in a 
; legraph department -of- ‘the; Omaha‘ roads] 
‘Is. president, and HH.‘ ‘Tuttle of: thi i Nort 
Amperioan T legray 


ie @ 

AY! Binw wiLt, SOON moe 

‘demonstrate that by means of! ‘special: the transmitter'at the rate of one du 
fnventions of ‘is own telephone com-' dred and sixty times a minute. “() 

. and’Amer-| device would increnee the riumber dt; 
ppunlvetion Setican 2urons Asi ~« ands to two hundred a minute, and: ia} 

sa ible. theses 

= commerclally feasib spite.of the static induction the: wa 
%& e@ experiments thus far eonduct- ‘and’ would still be repeated too many. 
peas, said Mr. Edison, “have been’ so times in a minute by the, reoelver 
Satisfactory het weore negotiating across the ocean. + ¢ 
for!'the use ‘of a submarine cable to/ “Therefore, in order ‘to make! = 
‘Hake’ testa under tthe actual conditions; sound intelligible, the number’ of 

@ must meot. What cable we have In. brations Penondea tb - the recetver im: 
mind I'am not at Nberty to state; ‘but! be reduced, and tag 1s done by a‘ti 

. » 

tad soon oe ie reach a satisfactory, chanical device wttached to'tha recelvpr, 
|Sgteement with the owhers there, will. ‘which diminishes the vibrations to‘the 
abe no further reason for secrecy, ‘proper number. © ane result te that? 
t;wvord comes to the ear clear and shi 
-» The elongation is entirely overcome, 

;Present efforts will result in placing: at stiauotion poop lagrrebedig tere ne ‘tala 
iour’ ‘dlaposal a cable adapted to our: re Pid it ‘ts eounterbalanced by tie: eeoy: 
quirements. opposing force. eee 

i: “The special transmitters and f r esa 
‘ers for submarine telephoning w; itis our purpose to make our ast 


‘Gompleted in lx weeks, By. the. usd VRS bs fevere na posetple in order § | | 
‘of these transmitters and recelyerg afrangements are"made,we! shall: veel | 

jana of other, devices, ‘ve feel: confiden hibit: qtie workings ofthe system." ated 

ithat ive \can..overcome’ he many: Mr, Edteon explained that the“ Jength 

i erica ‘and 


the: summits; of::.the 
cean bottom - inktead: 

t hundred ected 
but. as he explained, this system 
r be go expensive that It was out et 
;. question. By our system, | ho 
© probably not more than one ‘a 
pwould be necessary, and could it be 
P ranged to carry the wird we “up 

\merican coast; this atatto ia 

rhaps, as r am. an javenen 2 
dison continued, “I may seem: ta:be 

that submarine telephoning fs bound: to 
“take. the place of the: sirbmarine} 
be;;8taph ‘in a great measure, becaug 
; alcwill-be gheaper and more satisfactory 

"If: necesaary to have the station: a -sure to revolutionize the ores 

faeo, ft would be simply a; great: enisson’Trates of transoceanic communicat 
"It 1s quite within the realm 

ossible that a person in New 

willbe able Some day to talk Ne 
“friend in Manila, e 
itters and recdiyers can, f think,: be". .“'By the way,” My. Batgon BAG PATS. 
derstopd readily, though I shail not’ the close of the Interview, ‘a curious % 
empt ‘their mechanism. One of. th¢ thing happened in connection roe 

Monet obstacles to be overcome js what “poheme of telephoning to Europ 
Wwn as static induction. It ts, so ‘friend: of mine who . was’ enth 

Bye tien 
Ftotapgal, a sort of pull exerted by tho: over ‘the matter,. wrote -to- 
Bin@gnhtic pole, and it impedes and:in-:;agers of the. Parls Expositlo: 
ony with the current on the eable,;J£ arrangements could not beiniades 
‘felephoning, its effect. ta to pr Provided telephone communicatipy yy 

n elongation of. sy)lables;.’ e~ westabiished between. New: .sYor' 

ee where-the distance {s great B AN i to have Pregident boast 
ung fof the ponweteesian. {a rome: A. big. fair. The management? 



ts! own exposition - withouti! 
‘\MeKiniey, or any: one’el. 

machines. tr 
fe work quickly 


Edison, Jr., have pag! 
the mfirket thai 
serene to be appreciated: It: Ja * 
crolley’ harp for electrical streat 
Awhich ‘will not lenve the nvite, ‘ie! 
‘Jotinson ‘is well up ja eectrical knowl; 
edge. He was superintendent of’ tho, 
Philadelphia and. Brigantine railroad: 
company and the Brigantine ‘Transpor:! 
tattlon:; company, - “Mr, Johnson refused: 
Ain oifer' of $80,000 from n*large:Ohtca-' 
Bo: house, nvho- Aakers fo- shelye: thy 
new thyention.: 


AFL IQ ye 


wo Men Wounded in a Ikeproduc- 
tion of the Engagement at Spton’ 
‘Kon, In South Africn, 

Brick Church, N. J., April 11, —Two men 
ero injured this afternoon In West 
range at uw sham battle in’ reproduction 
f the famous engagement at Spion Kop, 
ii Soiith Africa. James H, White, Gon- 
ral Manager of the Ej nn projecting 
tnetoscope business, had arranged It. 
ho, scono was on tho rocky side of the 
stern slope of the second Orange Moun~- 
in, near the Livingstone line. About 
men had been engaged, half of them in 
er ‘costume posted dn the top of the 
est, whilo the remainder attired as 
itish stormed tho heights. A good alized 
c&nnon wes used to heighten the effect, 
ad the kinetoscope was placed: in! Poe 
sition to take the moving pletures. 
‘Through some blunder the cannon .was 
‘discharged prematurely, and Mr, White 
and one of the ‘men, Willam McCarthy. 
of 33: South street, Orange, wero struck 
jby tho wad and burned by the powder. 
[MeCarthy" 4 injuries wero trivial, but Mr. 
tWhite was badly lacerated is well: a5 

burned,and his “condition ; fonlant: Is} iros, 

iported as serious. F 


nae i Seton Patina, Ur noro" 

+] . ¥ “TQear whist” sigs guns exclalnied” the 
e14a bi “This. is° where -Littie” Willie takes 
i M id he hid: If bohind ‘the 

fom Es EGar 38 

exp aniline: 


Ie shke~hn Garatted ent: 

fot ht ‘haye seen @ huge wheeled: thing, 
hrouded in black, with a brass-rimmed 
uzzle, wheeled on tothe fleld and pushed 

inton a-position that commanded the en 
eld; of battle. . Woh. 
saloon went-tha. 
He Ydischarge. rattled 

hi Dvorak ‘anne! 
5 Provectii nelaneape 
mpany, and Ham -Ofel Oe 
83 South Orange street, we 
. Gory” War, -This, 
The wheeled “Instrument shrouded ; 
black was a kinctoscope. The armed: mend 
- uniform, the cannon, the druma, the, ofe4 
ficers were all “props” inn carefully‘ ai 



nged stage pleture of war, which was; 
tobe photographed and displayed - to 
Iereduloug Jerseyinen as pleturcs of. gory; 
“battle hetween Bocr and Briton, hot from ? 
foe fleld of war in the Transvaal, © 

&: Alas for the plans of the igug-range pho- ‘ 
ftographers and mimic tactliclans, 
at Ischarged Itself prematurely, . wound. } 

Aation on Slgpe of Or- 
i ange Mountain, - ing the clnetonee fam ahd eupoaiag 

—_— 22 fis od. by which audlences in vandeville 

oukes ‘nowaday are thrilled unnecessarily. - 
And as the wounded were cnrried-off the 
ifleld,-aurrounded [impartially by Boer and‘ 
Briton,. the Boston hobo" Urose : and Peeped 

To: kinet over. ‘his kone and murmured: th 
"Geo whizt But these erseymen are the 
iy oe tle, first swab sour Teal ‘thing in the battle business!" 

‘ ton hobo, asleep in the lee ‘ofta 
ce ae fence on the slope of Orange 
i untaln, 

rT mon 



From Hs ‘leitscly 
[aéniééthore: marched :out oii to thi 
entzos which the hobo - stood try 

fest f soldiers in‘ the* Khakl. w 
wieish Dusiliers. - Office 

| Another Spion Kop. 
same moment, just. as th 
literj entrenched himgelf behind a low 

Yyfence, -two more companies: fot wv 

mn, When they discovered the 
ntrenched beliind the fence they 

ght: cover below the Ip of the gulley 
ie ee they bad Aebouched: on to. the 

tie howe time, men; -tnke 
D ja't3 fire’ until you're ‘rendy." 
"uges gSiwhiz i": muttered the hobo-again, 
panies it no dream, This is ithe real 
; one Sane 

0). ‘stead 7 cautloned-a-hoarsa 
yy low iteh-accent,: a8 
alowiyrrroileds. Anto<:4-com: 
iy joni & V/gunnwliguet else i: 
abou nal pposttlon) a the’-sunlight;.ai 
dentlyzan ithe; mirror of a hellograph. £52264 


= rape ee 


delivered at another part of the ma- | 
‘chine ready for the work of. the-refiner. 
‘Those who construct the machine will 
have no. iden of how it is operated. 
They will be glven certain parts of the 
i. ies machine to make according to designs 
7 furnished’ them, and they will have no 
From . to the purposes for which 
* Gamnden Sy the parts are intended. - Some idea of 
Doiachate Ahh ithe recrecy with which the concentra- 
a : \tor. has been built. may be gathered 
“rom the fact that although !t has been, 

arn LB, 1300 “A process of construction for more than 

' @ year -the fact that the strange ma- 
{chine was to be used for-that purpose 
was not known by any employe at the 
laboratory until‘a few weeks ago. 
-“Ag the inventor was per- 
suaded. that. he had accomplished his 
.|Aobject he proceeded to organize a com- 
nany .to, operate. the: machine. Mr. 
fdison then’ purchased the abandoned 
Irtez, Grant, in New Mexico, paylng 
pout $3,000,000 for. the 54,000 acres, and 
-is there that the machinery is now 
ang. Installed.. The first: plant is to 
‘located at Dolores, and others will 
let:up at different; parts: of ‘the ter- 

Ee , 

tye yo. Paes 
_ dolores Ucs‘tn the very heart’ of the 
\ tc Ortez Grant, but no:one would imagine, 

atte aad Be mito “look at: the: ‘surrounding ‘country, 

“Tt vas.announced some, time’ago. t],that. millions. of. dollars’. worth of. gold 
Thomas.A,: Edison had {invented se- |{wds concealed in’ the sun-baked sand. 
“eret.process by which the sands of.the ‘Metallurgists have estimated that there 
‘desert ‘could :bo.,relleved of the:gold'|-18. between $50,000,000 -and $800,000,000 
which Nes in-therh: OU fa oy’y--ey in gold. buried in the rocks and gravel ° 
-« Buti-the:scheme, while.--very.;com-:| of, those 64,000 acres of barren . New | 
mendable,, seemed. too ambitious ‘for.} Mexican ground. . ot 
success. : Lately, it has developed that | |. “While the history of the Ortez Grant 
the "Wizard". has not only completed'| has always been regarded as:somewhat | 
his tuvantip 1. but Js‘ getting ready to |‘romantic, it 1s particularly interesting,to work...” rey wt Mh 

ee _ | | ot this'tlme, when-the eye of the entire 
The importance of this.invention may | financial world !s turned upon 'this New 
‘be gathered from the fact.that such o: 

Mexican waste. , The original grant 
process,.: working: successfully, . would | Was madé to Antonio‘Ortez by the Mex~- 
multiply many. times the production of 

ican Government in‘ 1883, but at that 
‘gold. in: this country. There. are thou- | time ft contained more, than 69,000 acres, 
sands of .square; miles of--gold-bearing 

This grant was patented by act of. Con- 
‘lands in the United States that cannot | gress Jn 1861 and was confirmed in 1876. 
be worked on account of lack of water, A. number of years ago’ 15,000 acres of 
pe arite ade poate a a 3N 

this land was sold to the Cerrillos Coal 

and Iron. Compdny.!* + . 
bout this time the grant.was ac- 
qyquired ‘by the New" Mexican Mining 
Company, but In, 1896. the: corporation 
‘passed ‘into’ the..hands of Samuel H. 
-]' Elkins, as receiver.“ In spite. of the 
fact: that: the ‘property contained mil- 
lions of dollars in gold-no one had ever 
heen able ‘to. make -the property pay 
|. the expenses:of mining and transporta- 
,tion.. Under‘!the management of: Mr. 
, Elkins, * however,' ‘the property was 
:made-to pay so-well. that all claims 
iagainst~the: company. were settled in 
‘};full andthe grant was in many ways 
improved... Squatters were driven from 
;the -land,-. prospects. were .. leased for. 
;Jarge sums, and: §nally-the,entire prop- 
ferty was sold to Mr. Edison.«° ~~. 

“The Ortez mine, which 1s the largest 
and'oldest-of the ore-producing proper- 
‘lktles on the grant, was«located.-In 1833. 
, |: It was;soon in a condition to be worked 
:quite. successfully, mule. power being 
‘used for the. work. It was to. obtain’ 
proper-pasturage for.these mutes-that ; 
ithe, vast amount ‘of Innd was secured, 
(and it is: thisspasturage that now. con- 
stitutes the great placer which’ 
i Mr. Edison proposes to work.-: . 

“The -first. plant of the new. company 
$a to’ be-located. in. what {s known op 
unningham Gulch. During the past 
ear.many.- shipments ..of..the - piacer 
ground from the Gulch and other points 
hin.the grant have been made from Cer- 
:rillos,- which. is . the. nearest ‘shipping 
‘point to thergrant,’nnd‘all have been 
addressed to Hust-Orunge, N. J. “There 
they. have undoubtedly been ‘treated by 
‘tho inventor's new: process at his lab- 
‘oratory and: only: Mr.. Edison -and his 
e -confidants know: the. result of this work. 
mean’ repute,::says:«, J. -sa.'| hat the inventor has been successful, 
|.“Lo mining men thls'has been ong_of | however, is.quite evident from the fact 
the greatest problemsiand the fact that | that stich:a'large amount of capital 
a man: like Edison’ was engaged in‘try- |.was secured so-easily, as well as from 
ing to solve -it has-been a. matter: of ] the -manner in which the work-of pre- 
the greatest interest-to them..-In‘fact, |. paring for the great final being 
they have had‘ unbounded faith’ in: the'| New. Mexico. .- a 
ability ‘of the wizard -of. electricity; to From,reiiable sources. it is learned 
make:good his promises, and there are |.that the company’s first plant will-have 
few. people now-who will dare to assert |'a capacity. of 8,000 tons a day. :Since 
ithat the aecret-process will not-prove'a |: the. work’ of,preparing for the:installa- 

ng treat asthe -| tlon-of the*plant.has ibeen under way. 
5 GREAT SECRECY. . imany* experts .have -visited the -grant, 

“while, ore concentrators. are: nota |ibut:have returned without being wiser 
/new..thing,. Mr. Edison's machine‘ is ifor the pains they have taken. Still no 
unique in every. respect. * “The. only |/ arriér has’ been.raised'to,prevent the 
man, however, who--knows the ‘secret -|icurious trom ‘inspecting’ the -work, but 
‘of its construction fs:the inventor him- vhas: yet obtalned the least. ink- 
self, and even when it Is -put'in’ opera-: of the process: by ‘which .the in-. 
tion -no' other: persons. will share‘ the |sventor.expects to be ‘able to extract his 
secret, with the exception of a trusted: jpold .from:the sand; Wisacres and ex-. 
eniploye: who. will -be taken: from: his.|;perts.ceturn.from‘the gulch with .widely. 
Now: Jersey. laboratory - to: assist: Mr. latfterent: theories ‘Some “claim “that 
Fidigon in Ita operation. ..The only thing ae is_ certain: to ‘be’ th 01 

In_the-great deserts of the south and 
southwest there are:vast expanses of. 
rich-sands that ‘might be made to give 
«up millions.of dollars’: worth of gold if 
the necessary. water ;could ‘be obtained. 
A’ friend of. Edison's, a | 

: in 
‘that the outsiders, or even the workers |jthat: willbe-used:b; 'Mr: Badlson, white 
at the mines, will see of its: workings: 
Will -be~the: gravel: being: dumped ‘into; 
the hopper:at one end’ and.coming: out: 
atthe other ‘end, separated from’: its: #exce; 
which ‘will, 

others’ingsist that-the“inventor has dis- 
‘covered-some new. alr:process,and that: 
electricity will‘not figure in the schame’ 

the: motive 

he 2 




Kako mont 

With ap pleti fi created. by the com- 
‘mercial use of compressed air, which has 
been as. difficult of solution as. was. the 
| problem he undertook to solve. to make 
} commercially profitable. the. use of. the 
electrical current for lighting purposes. 
n order to produce: economies in’ the 
cost of production as well as. to: re-heat 
compressed air in a practicable way, a flex- 
ible tube, one that would’ resist a high 



td “obtain. : S 
this perfect | flexible tube capa 
Fstanding the pressure stat d- that 
: of ‘thousands of | doilars have: ‘been expend 

‘by its. “eeaployineat ih 

he ‘has been. oc-~ 

\pressure, perhaps as “great a pressure as a - 


solve the problem - -of utilizing re-heated 
compressed air. 

In the course’ of his experiments, " Edi- 
son’ discovered another: “quality in ‘this 
spiral tube which not even the inventors 
of it had- known it ‘contained. He hap- 
pened accidentally to put the tube to his 

-lips'‘and-blew through it perhaps to expel 

dust that may havegathered in it. It im- 
mediately gave out a sound as clear and 
pure as that which comes froma flute, and 
as Edison continued to blow that sound 
was followed ‘by another afterwards dis- 

. covered to have been just an octave higher 

than the first. - Edison blew again and dis- 

covered that by siniple increasing ofthe 

pressure of the breath, this tube gave 

forth four distinct flutelike tones. — 

The experiment’ was made upon alonger 
but of a smaller: bore and it was dis- 

Zone: breath through it | 

he snot being brassy, or. 
soetiot these that come from’ 

equire the skilful contraic- 
or employment of | the, 

- Riis 
ould<be.-able- to. 
_production of music and, that any new. 


“new musical instrument. 

Sy cttaty 

"hauisted all. th the. possibiliti sof instru imental 

struments.: would. tbe - ‘nothing. more than | 
modifications of those that are well known! + 

But this discovery stems to indicate that a 
brass. tube fluted or - grooved i in aspiral man- 
ner is capable of ‘producing musical tones 
withou any. arduous employment of the 
breath or skilled. use of, the tongue. 

The matter has. been submitted to. one 
or two bf our instrument. makers . and: they, 
will take the sitbject up. ‘with a view, -of 
making experiments hoping, of. course, . 
that these will lead. to the perfection of a 
It will be nec- 
essary for them first to discover ‘in what 
way the screw-like grooves or spiral * 
thread act upon the air when it is ‘plown: 

into the tube. There are two theorits:; ‘as 

to the reasons why fluting a tube in’ this 

‘manner makes it possible to ) produce! with, 

a _ Single. breath, increased “or ‘0 nishea 

tN ea 


Thay Relaté to Electiic Lig! 
"J “Ing and the Perfectioh; 
.. + of the Dynam 

Present, Laws,~ 1% 
| All the Advantage to the... 


Soven important patents.of: Thomas 
Wadlson expired-and became pu 
_orty last week. - 

Theso monopolies were tho result. of 

and sleepless nights ror: Mr: 
mn away: back in - 1883-at ‘Menlo 
“Park, Millions > of ‘dollars: have .;boeen, 
‘ot. them: for the: various core) 
thit: have operated upon: the 

sOarpon-in: OUD ang:zne'tnia' TENT 
exhausted? the bulb -an provided: tho’ 
spheré of «pi = 

. The: throo-patents of” Edison. cbearing 
upon dynamor which expired were: First, 
. the‘invention which has :tho' well-known 
+ Movable commutator brushes with hand. 

Second, ‘that which. claimed the connoc- 
tous with .the’ dynamo. fleld,:magnet, 
collg; third, :a dynamo rogulator. "ci 
When eWorld reporter called upon Afr, 
| Bilson ‘to“ask hint about. the -offeat; if 
any, the expiration of thezo: patents 
woul hava in a: commerota) wiyyupon 
tho electrical world,. ho was tolling, over 
plans in his laboratory at Orango, Nv J., 
Whero he works all day and ‘ate int. “th 

“I guess it-ia all- very trie that these) 
patents have expired,'" sald Iro,.:"Aa to 
tho effect it will have I can ‘make; no; 
statemont.that would bo.clear ‘or, roadily 
Undergtood. <All of-thoso patents wero ofa 
lino with the genara) improvemunt of the 
elactrio Nght and tho perfecting of the 
dynamo, nd were qwhat.solentists-call 
subsidiary paton: SMa eden 

“T deny that Tivo hod Bay: monopoly’! 

- With them or with any patentel ever s¢- 
cured, .An inventor has ‘no .show thoso 
days, ‘The: moment ho invants somethin 
that ts an epoca’ marker in the wortd of: 
commerce or solence thoro will be pirates 
to spring He Cy} all aides to'contest hig 
Tights to his ideas,. Those pirates can’ 
‘readily get millions at thet back. “Thoy' 

‘o to the courts and enjoin tho ‘inventor 
trom using his own. creation, By the 
faulty system of United -Btates courts 
these pirates aro enabled to hold the in- 
yontor for ten, twelve or fourteen years 
from the use of his invention. sean- 
Whilo the-court allowa thom. to proceed 

. With the uso of the same devi¢e}-do there 
ig no monopoly. The inven or ‘always 
Bota-the worst of it Q° he ‘courts, ever 
though he. moy Hol ‘4n his -hand. the 

patent, fro: ho Unitea States Go 

“Take that Jittlo ‘incandescent’ 1a: 
hanging ‘over- my hoad,: for instaric: 
fought for that in :tho ‘courts of: thi: 
country fourteen years. and py -nssogl+ 
ates and I spent'one milifon-dollara try+ 

. ing-to establish: my olaims:to -{t;: whic! 
hed “been vouched for by tho’ Paten 
Office. At'the expiration of: tho, fourteci 
years there wore but threo years left for 

} the Umit fixed -by. the Gavornment.”. 

but last-aveck the genc 
Intovits inhoritance from :tho: 
“1 Faur ‘of ‘the patents “which 
i th 
ing. Mr.,.Edison:3 
the system -.(patant. 278,418) of 
)Vghting in, which - the “mal 
: carried a ycontinuous ‘curren! 
tenston,, connected: with: a- consumption: 
“elroult-of Jow tension and the translat-| 
fing devices :in , muiltiplo-nre,. together, 
i, With an untermodiate induction appara-) 
"tus for-reducing: the. tension ‘of tho. our-' 
3 rent. It:was Jus 1888 that: Edison,appiied. 
‘ for. this ‘patent.-” Shortly-therenfterche 
became involvedrin-a: controvorsy withia 
» tival Inventor, @:man‘from Patis'by;the 
“name._of Gravier, 
broad . eleotrical-priz 
“@ \magnotic: body. exterlar 
mary:and secondary. coils {for :! 
ing inductive ‘action ‘was fought 

In. this “contest 
rinoiple : of “provi ing. 

Ig {for intens! 

i =: destroyed. -for “the ‘reason , thats 7 
f.-no--such’ thing in Gus country aor, 

‘ho patent to live, as | 

*. Tay oppononts were “able to’ keop me oui 
nf fie prota rene, patent. Rntit tha 

Pe nor aaplie WhB MS humor 
Sameent Hi an axchumori 6: 

fOr Yon. mata fa 7 

7 dg 

;thiscountry: that:cti 
" were Be 
have. re. podr.Thei 

i ; ED. tholr righ 
‘inthe: ; tuurpition “is” 
sticularly apt. to” result, Bites tho. cases 
Great epooh-making <:pntont,.. 
wrnlch might eo withouraegearte 
‘go. without..1nf; 
but the moment I take: ane 

Uke that -produoad “by 
mark ‘you how--the pira: 
imho patente which ats’ ir 
ws ents which .are-n 5 
Feb ataaien es Palate lg 
ae Y s-rathor than. 

The monopoly. of-'‘thotr ‘bee fina 

monopoly of:any Invont 

vo never h nonone pigations 
er. invented. 


Unran HH, Painter, & woll-known 
oharacter in formor Presidential contests 
“an this dlatrict, diod on Friday of fast 
wook, attor a year’s illnoss, and was bur, 
fod from-his homo in Wort Ohoster on 
Monday last. After the oloso of hosttl.- 
tes he zomualned I Washington as oor, 
respondent tor tho Inguirer and subso-. 
 guontly far tho Now. Merk Sus aud-the: 
YY yibunc, Ho was an intense Republican, { 

‘ attendod ovory national convontion, of; . 

‘ that party trom 1£66 to 1896, and was a: 
; Closo friond of Wado, Conkling; ‘Thad. 
; Bteyens and othor Ropublican Jeadore. | 
"Mr. Paintor was tho first finanolal backer: 
: of Thomas A. Filson in the launching of. 
‘ tho piviroprapt, md was also connosted 
with ;tho Introduction of tho Bell tolo- ; 
phono, Atonotimo ho hold the option | 
for the tolophono patente whioh ho on- 
 donvoréd to soll to Jay Gould’ for tho; 
i Wostofn Union Tolograph Company. —' 
Gould thought it would novor gmount to: 
: anything oxcopt as a toy aud doolinod to! 
: purchase, Tho local telophone company 
‘In Washington; ono of tho ara ith 
‘world, was organizod by Mr, |Palntor.} 
| Ho ownod tho opora hours at ‘Wost, Ohos-; 
: tor and: the Lafayutte Square Opera Honso} 
tim Washington, tho lattor boing: bullt on; 
| tho alte ot tho old Soward mansion, after, 
vward known as tho Blaino honso; In: 
‘qhich tho Maino atatosmau dipd. Mr! 
‘Paintor planned, -orgablzod.and Yullt i 
Now. York, FP. jadolphia and Norfolk: 
Railroad, now, a part! to;Penusylvania; 
*business in-} 




N. X. Bua. 




“inventor Takes Etectton Returns and Sends a 
geet a Mosnge at the Samo Time, = 
Onanag, N. J., Nov. 7,—Invontor Thomas ‘A, 
“Edison, who was a telegraphor in his yowm¥er 
‘daysrassisted In rocelving election returns at 
ithe Orango Club .in_ Prseies: sirest, \East 
i ’ jist to keep*hia han 
ore net ad tio not ony took messages: 
jas thoy camo over tho Western Union Fy 

ssago nt the samo time t 
put eo anacribing one that was being tloked 

out, tub? 

, With other members of the club,*, 
“nok beat anding, near where tho regular’ 
operator was at work, and after Matening to tho: 
{Instrument for awhile said ho would tke to: 
receive a few returns himself, He did 80,-and. 
then some one naked _ HF he. could recelve: 

nd send anothe : . 
Rte isdison anid ho guessed he hadn't forgotten ‘ 
all ‘the tricks of the trade, and forthwith’ did 
the stunt to the delight of his fellow clubm: 


JNuy & 190 

Z iy 
son, the 
wl 1s’ Younger, day 
> telegraphor, ~fistl--nigtt 
| mantpulated the key at. the Oranga.Club; ‘i 
: Prospect strest, East, Orange, and -aaslate 
i {n-recelving election returns, just. to. kee 
; his hand In, as he remarked. |: .-- we 
He not only received returns himself, t: 
ing. the mesange as It came over the West+) 
+-ern Union wire. to the club house, but he: 
j also sent rn message at the same thmo‘he; 
; Was transerlbing one that Waapeing ticked 
out -by the sounder. ty ef 
a W, T. Atno, of the Orange station of thé 
Lackawanna Ruitroad, was _recelving -the 
‘returns for the Orange Club, where ‘the 
+ Western Union had run In a wire, and, Mf. 
Edigon, with. other membera of ‘the cluh, 
was. standing near the inatrument.:. 
: Well-known. inventor llstened Intently to t 
tick of the instrument, and finally salah 
/ would Ilke to recelve a'fow returns himsol 
“These he wrote out In his boid, rouni 
writing. Some one asked him {f ha; cout 
-recelve a message and send another at. thi 
‘same time. Mr, Edison sald he sucased: h 
hadn'‘t.forgotten all the tricks of the trade! 
and forwith“ho ‘did’ the stunt’ tothe deligh 
of his fellow'clubmen., +” a 



\ SEN 


oe November: to, duo 

Tbe cerns - . 

oi pce srn Wl tare 


HL OB. Beate in cseteral cutecprises, Gude gov 
> World's Fair he leased avd ran the fiyde Bark 
J Chotels dn crecent: years Mr. lies Ind heen cone 
* nected with the Rowell & Potter Safely Stop com 
pany, but had devoted most of his time ta explou- 
“ing electrical Inventions, lor several yew he had 
‘van office in the: Masonic Temple, where his services 
ag_electriculyexpert ‘were often in demand. 

'Mr:: Bligs was also’ interested in silver and other 

Goorye H. Bliss. - 

Fo the elder electrical nen of the Wert the aud 
,detncenmnt of the death of George LU, Bliss... wih, 
pass a meurnful interest, for Mr, Bliss was oné 
' very first tu exploit.the incandescent clectrit 
Hight in Chicago and the territory: tributary toi 
Mr. Bliss lived -to be over, Go and hy lad a -bysy? "mining projects‘in Utah and other western slates, 
aul varied career, associated clusely with.the eloed: His last ‘trip -West- occupied the summer of 18uy, 
teal industry for the lighting business was oulyt when he visited Arizona and California, le w 
one al several electrical pursuits in which he ha f° shome sick {rént'the trip in September of that year, 
aged, ‘The deceased breathed his last at higt and although jie seemingly recovered from that ill- 
Lake avenue, Chicago, on October 3xgt.2 ness, he had failed considerably during the last sear. 
consumption, with which) "His: death was the culmination of the tubercular 
Mr, Bliss hid heen atllicted for some time 7“ disease with, which'he had been troubled fur six or 
George ‘H. Bliss was born on May 12, 1840, ‘at}: seven years -previous, 
“Worcester, Muss, and removed to, Chicago-atethe? ~+ In all his business connections throughout his 
ive Of 14. Tle way educated in Chicayo, bein a yaried carcer, Mr, Bliss bore the repulation of be- 
student in the first high school in the city, While]: ing an honest, faithful and competent man. Ile was 
stitl in his teens he took up the ‘study’ of the tele-$}: rather conservative in his business relations, but 
guaph ander the instruction of E.-D, L, ‘Sweet. possessed of‘ more ‘than average ability. Sle was 
Nis first services were rendered at Dixon, IL;.wheral: faithlul: to: bls employers and popular with those 
he was an operator for the old MlinotssimdeMides ‘associated. with him,  Althougl not as prominent 
sissipp? Telegraph company, He served-thig. cam=i},-in Wis ‘later. years, hig connection with the early 
iminy at Musvatine and Aurora and then was put-itt electsical di pment in, the West was an impor- 
charge of the main Chicago office of the:coipany sy “tant ‘one.; + ates eee 
In 1860 young Bliss entered: the service, pf that’ + At'the-tinic of:bis death he was a member of the 
Chicago ad Northwestern Railrondcompany (ae) Royal’ Arcanum dnd the Old Time Telegraphers as- 
telegraph operator, and in 1865 had so, commended] '‘seciation and belonging to the Kenwnod Evangelical 
hiniself by fidelity and skill that. he waa made suporsgy Church. Beds syrvived by Mrs. Bliss and {jur 
we wintendent of .telegeaphs..of the Morthwestrya, kus 
He was one of the very first superintendents’! tele: 
-graph in ‘the West.; He held this: position “for: 's, 
numbef of years, and during “that.:time, displayed; 
much ability ‘and progressiveness “ancithe* opexa 10it.” 
and development of the telegraph aystem; * 

arg? Edisdtt Bliss of this city and Dr. Gilbert A, 

; Bliss, instructor in mathematics at the University 

“of Minnesota. The funeral services were held on 

“.Friday afterioon, November 2d, and were attended 

“by a number! of the.older’ members of the electrical 

fraternit of thei city. a 3 ee Os 
a ’ 

Tea oy 

After leaving the railroad Sonipauy. Mr, -Bliss iif 
1868 organized the first electrical ‘supply“house ‘ini 
the West, under ‘th firm name ‘of Bliss;-Tilotsom'§ 
_& Co. . In connection with the general. supply busi f 
ness, the firm did repairing on ¢clectrical inst Ee ty y 
‘This business “was a successful. onc. “After being h 
‘burned out ‘in the Chicago’ fire o} We “Mg, Blissi§ 
‘bought’ out ‘the ‘interests of LG, ‘Tillotsbty, and: 8 

: ’ ; 
steceD raanised. i seasipidiedpareaies hm Boeke COI ;/ 
mate “pany med and. the-Gedrge H. Bliss Manalacturing: f 

company. In this company and ‘several other cn- 
terprises he was associated: with FE. B. Chandler 
oy and other well-known electrical pioneers! The busi- 
“ness gradually dropped away, the stock of imcr- § 
* chandise was oniered by a ‘sedond tire, and the 
company finally sold out to the Western Electric 
Manufacturing company, orgaaized, byt a short time 
previous." oe eric Wenrauan | : 
“About this period (1875-77) Mr. Bliss took up 
veral electrical inventions, one of which wag the 
Edison clectric pen. He pushed this-article vigor- 
usly and sent the late Col. George: L, Beetle to 
Paris to‘exploit it:there; However, his: anticipa- 
ions.were not realized and soon afterward he en- 
‘tered the employment of the Western Electric Manu. § 
acturing company as general agent. He «had 
harye of the sales department of this company, now 
‘the Western Electric company; for vasnumber of § 
years, ta te ee aN 
«Mr. Bliss had become associated: with Mr: Edi- 
son's inventions and’ interests. at an carly period, 
and when conipanies, were formed. to, exploit: the 
newly invented incandescent lamp he was *sum- 
‘ moned to .Mr. Edison’s laboratory at Menlo Park 
*. > to become the new -system, with the § 
idea of establishing a western agency. In Decem- 
ber, 1881, Mr. Bliss opened ‘up ‘his. office ‘in the 
Major block, af the corner of La Salle and Mon- 
roe strects, where he acted as representative of the 
.“ Edison Electric Light company ‘and the- Edisoh 
‘company for Isolated Lighting. During his agency 
in pie a 1882, the first incandescent-lighting plant F 
in the West was installed in the old?Rand-& Mca.& 
"Nally building. The new residence of J..W. Doane 
: on Prairie avenue was: soon - afterward provided 
ewwith a7§ 26-candlepower lamps, current being -sup- 
plied from an isolated plat in the baru,’ ‘This was 
_ the first residence in the United States, lighted 
«exclusively by electricity, 9: "8 on Mee es 
v + On June 1, 1882, the Western Edisoi 
pany was organized to. supersede Mr, Bliss’ agency, 
but that gentleman was made. the first general super- 
_ intendent, a Rosition which he held _for three years 
and.a ‘half, While agent for, the Edison. interests, 
‘and during his connectién with the Western Edi-: 
su company, Mr, Bliss probably did as much as, if, 
not: more: than, aay other man_ in‘ tie’ establishment 
yf'a practical electrical-lighting system in the city of 
At'that time the sect oliguae industry ~ 
was at about the same stage in its development as 
the application of clectricity to automobiles is to-day 
and: Mr, ‘Bliss’ engineering ability‘and faith in the 
"new enterprise did much toward establishing the 
industry on a firm basis in the West. It was during 
his connection with the Western Edison company - 
that ‘the: first central-station plant inthe United - 
States was operation at Appleton, Wis. ‘The - 
first theater to be lighted by electricity was also - 
wired by the company while Mr. Bliss was general 
superintendent, ©: Bo toe a WH a 
: After his retirement from the Edison company ins 
1886 Mr.’ Bliss became engaged jn various enter- \- 
prises in Chicago and the West. At. one time he 
Chicago manager” of the: Johuson ‘Electric : 
Service :company: of Milwaukee, and afterward 
built the electricystreet-sallway system in Dub 
He’ was interested “in. the. Electrical ® 
d hag, been: connected with 

sghildren,~Mret, Grace f, -Mellop, Julian PB. and 

SS eee ee et 

Ubicago,1! 1.-Inter-Ocean 
NOV 14 1900 


a pis 

roblem of’ Reheating Compressed’ 
Air,Be Solved. 


7 eta! 

mores 7 

: on LST Serer” 
|Dincovery. May Prove of. Equal Impor- 
jo. s:tance with Phat, of;Sir Wiles: 
yin a . Mant Bessemer. “57.6” 

(Copyright, 1900, ‘by the Philadelphin Press.) 

}. NBW YORK, 'Nov.'13.—It Edlson has real- 
ly perfected,‘ns he claims to have done, an 
apparatus which-wectires a satisfactory and 
economical refenting of compressed air, his: 
jfoventton . may. ‘have. quite:as important a- 
‘bearing upon the commercial development of, 
‘this some.of hla apparatus had in 
“the commercial, utllization ; 0 , electricity. 
Willian L. Saunders, the editor of the tech- 
‘nteal;mngaziné devoted to the sclentife and 
‘gommicrélal exposition’ of compressed alr, bas 
‘pean for somo time confident that Edison was 
‘approaching this dificult problem in a man- 
ner that:gave a satisfactory solu- 
thom oftte; ae ate ae one feath 
~,,Ong.of. the chlof: drawbacks, perhaps the. 
‘onl maining one that 1s important dn ‘the 
commercial, use of compressed alr appara- 
(us; has been thedlfMiculty In reheating the 
‘alr‘after' compression as weil as the consid- 
erable expengo and waste which all the re- 
heating apparatus up to this time has en- 
tailed. :It: was, invfact, Mr. Saunderg wha. 
‘called Edison's attention -p year. or. two aga. 
to: this, vexntious. problem, anying to the ine. 
yentor that if. he could discover & method of. 
reheating compressed ig that would be eco-,' 
nomical, sate, ,and’ satisfactory, he would * 
‘do the final thing‘necesaary for the placing: 
‘or. this. enorgy [n'ctmthecial use in‘success~" 
“{ur:-competition ‘with’ some of the: uses to” 
‘whidhelectricity has been applicd, and also. 
itacadany other-employmenta for which clec-, 
Furicity. or electrical apparatus I tas; 
factory. : oan 


: i. 
» Used in Rapid 7 
, McDonald, who is today : 
greatest single contract. givon by any Cors, 
iporation anywhere in the world, in speaking: 
\ottompresedd. alt and” its relation to. the, 
"yapid-transit”eyatota ‘of New" York, ‘ 
tha ‘rapid ‘transit ¢ommiilasionors al fow day 
ipgo that he had d6éided :to-place,at.vadi 
‘points along. the: Mne compressed alr plan’ 
"Fie ‘had come t6:that conclusion becaus' 

ay ‘carrylug.the 

risieeres = 
Compressed alr}: 

were ph 

averak Inclden- | 

piace-cfgtbawDy | -oning ‘in all fields of Induatrial energy.” 
ytor*tompressed alr injit D 

patruction.-..!/) of New. York, ~ 
I]a  sclentist 

Ho therefére‘annaunces to the rapid-tran- 
_sit ‘commisstoners that he hos atready tn- 
Rtalled a large comprossed-alr plant at Union 
aquare which will operate all of the machin- 
‘ery, between the city hall and Forty-Second 
gtroet, and it Forty-Second streot hohas in- 
stalled another, and further up town pro- 

poses; wlien the work 1s suMciently ad- 
vanced, to install sovoral more, 
---Here, then, We havo tho greatest, of con= 
ctracts..and Jargost; ofapublic works; making, 
selection of machinery, that ts to be oper: 
‘ated, not electric energy, but 
{by compressed-alr apparatus. And this ap- 
!paratus would bo “dporated at considerably 
} reduced: cost and there would be 8 perfect 
rand economical means for reheating the 
compressed air. . . .... 5 
Ohtinese Koot-Stove Iden, .; 
i That is exactly, what Edison claims now 
;to, have porfected,, "Ilo says that"hé has 
;constructed’ an apparatus,” the’ important 
“principle of which wis buggested to him by, 
‘the Chinese foot-stoye, ‘wherein‘a little plece: 
iof charcoal is able to supply suMicient hoat 
‘for warming the feet for two or three days, 
+ without replenishing... An oxplanation of; 
, the Edison apparatus, would Involve techni- 
veal and sclentific descriptions which would 
-be Impossiblo for laymen to understand. . 
But {t requires ho technical knowledge to 
make !t clear'to the lay mind that Sf Edison: 
has really done what he claims to have done,! 
he has performed.a service quite as. im- 
Pggtant for certain forms of Industrial de- 
\vglopment as any that he did when he was 
cupled with discovery and invention in 
he-flelds of eloctricity. In view of the fact: 
hat some of the. claims that-have been 
ade in recent years in Edison’s name have’ 
not-been justified by experience, there may" 
be ‘some doubt as to the value of this ap- 
paratua. But it should-bo said that Edl- 
son has ofton~been misrepresented; -many 
‘of the claims that-he 1g alleged to have made 
were not made, by him, although he has taken. 
no pans to deny any of the false reports un- 
{leas they affected his commercial Interests. 
| Mr. Saunders, however, who 1s an expert 
fauthority. . ot’ high’ character, is persuaded 
leer ‘Edison hbas:solved this‘ problem; and 
furthermoro,-{n doing {t may have hit upon 
(the mothod-by: which allrthe cnorgy that Is 
“forcuul-mirp-pe-utiaed Lor-uemiaveewted eades 
That 1s a secret which chemists and dclen-- 
tists have for many’ years been accupled in 
‘penetrating. Four or five years agot Edl-: 
son told the writer thatthe proposed after he: 
.Had perfected. his method of extracting fron. means of‘an. electric process to‘devoto; 
Bis attention..t ayproblem whoso solution. 
orld, in hls opinion,~to. 

“phat preblot Involved tho discovery. of tg 
‘method of utillzing or saving all ofthe onergy | 
-that-{s-tn conl,'or at least most of it. “Ail 
the world knows?" sald Ealson, “that there iv: 
a dead loss of from 80'to &5 per cent of tho: 
energy that fs in.coal wher it ts transformed 
into steam or-electric power, If we.can say2: 
that; if it would be, possible, for instance, to: 
send a atenrmship across the ocean by tho uso 
‘of 100 tons of soal instead of 500 tons a day, at 
{s easy to seo how vastly would be the cheap 

‘He was not the only ‘one who Intended’ te 
work upon this problem:In¢ ‘One of the suburbs < 
; peyond .the - Bronx,’ 
n- giving. all hts 
several -years to 

spare hours” 

the discovery of “some “chemical meth- ; 

od of so treating’-coal that its entire 
power, or at least 90: per cent of its Power, 
can be saved. Not long ago at the Columbia 
university laboratory an experfmental lecture 
was given by a actentist who actually eeved. 
80 per cont of the energy that is in coal, but 
his apparatus and method woro so expensive 
as to mako the discovery of no commercial 
valuo. So, in Europe, chem!sts and ectentists 
for years have attacked’ this problem whose 
Penpepiaed palutton promised’ not only to 
a to him who reached tha ’ : 
but also great riches, tai Serle 
sind Two Birds with One Stone,' 
ow Edison says that in solving the prob- 
lem of reheating compressed air ‘ho Rete 
expectedly discovered: how to utilize at least 
90. per cent of the energy tbat Is In coal. Ho 
says that his apparatus ‘not only perfectly 
and cheaply reheats compreased alr,’butthat 
dt-docs it through the -utilization.of a Httle 
oyer 00 per-eent.of.the-energy of conl—that is; 

‘to'any, with one-ninth of the amount'or coat: 
‘that ‘was necessary under the old’ apparatus, 
ipuch as steam:bollers, to get a given power, + 
she‘tan by moans of this new. apparatus secure ri 
:4he. same power. If that proposition be found 
.correct. Edison has matched tho  dis- 
Savery of Sir Henry Bessemor. ae 
It ‘wéems atmosi too magnificent and mo- 
mentous te bolieve possible. Of course, it ins ' 
Wolves the use of compressed alr for power’ 
‘of ‘all kinds instead of steam or.even eleo- 
tricity, Whether that is to be commercially: 
practicable in all directions can only be jle-- 
‘tormined by tests, If the “tests aro satls-. 
factory it seoiz. probable that we are upoi : 
tha-eve of a vast revolution tending greatl, 
:tofcheapen .tho cost of production ant yastly? 
to‘increase-the wealth of the world: Bdison4 
erts that ‘the apparatusiieralready: sud-} 

irine engines. © ge 
“ Reminiacence of 1806. : : 
vit Ja with the recollection of‘n purpose of! 
jhig that was foiled In.1896 that David B. Hi: 
“proposes a-reorganization of the Democratlu: 
party. Ja “this state, ard, with New York-act-! 
‘ing as a leader, throughout the United States. : 
7Hig plan makes ft possible and timely now to: 
‘Harrate a bit of. hitherto unpublished bis- : 
jtory. “In: 1896 Mr. HI, William C. Whitney, : 
“a ne or two other leaders in the -Democ- 
“pacy.‘of New York state wont to the Chi-, 
C8go convention in Mr. Whitnoy’s private car. 
“That fact was brought to tho knowledge of 
‘mhny, of the. delogates from the South and 
West, and was skillfelly omptoyed by those 
ayho. were preparing to oppose the leadership. 
‘of Whitney and Hill with the delegates who, 
wero In favor of the adoption of the radical’ 
‘principles that afterward became a part ot 
*the Chisago platform. -_ ote een sett 
Mr..Whitney early.saw that the new elo-} 
iment had control of the convention, and he: 
tecturned to New. York before Bryan. was, 
“nominated. When the nomination of Bryan: 
gs mads and the convention was asked; a5 
“Was ‘customary, to give ite unanimous: in- 
fdorsemont to it, the New York delégation! 
Spulked, nor did tt unite with the others to: 
jnako that nomination unanimous. On the: 
yay back. Mr. Hill determined. that/at os: 
carly as practicable he would havo, 
‘tha New York Democracy’ meet 1n convens* 
Ketan, reaffirm: the” gold-standard resolution 
[}which@had-been sdopted at tho convention 
iwhich’ elected ‘delegates ‘to the Chicago con- 

véntlon, Indorse the proposed nominations of 


Loge Ww . riate tan 

thé Indlanarolla convention, und thorehy 
make the New York Democracy stand for the 
regularity ‘of :tho Indtanapolis party. 
Flower and Whitney Holted, : 
Mr. Hill’s control over the Democratic 
organizatlon was strong efough to enahie 
him ;to accomplish that purpoge, hnd it not 
been for an accident. Before his pians had 
been thoroughly formulated, Roswell P. 
; Flower and William C. Whitney, and one 
or two others upon whose co-operation he re- 
lied \had not only reprdated the Chicago 
‘platform, but were Indirectly at least adyo- 
cating the election ct McKinley. As Mr, - 
Hilt relied upon Governor Flower’s Influence,’ 
which was very great with the Democracy of: 
Now, York etatc, this unexpected and awift, 
rsition on the part of Flower completely dis-! 
concerted him, and. at tha Namontatie-ntara: 
‘cunvanticn, held in Soptember, a .perfunc 
tory, latless, insincere declaration of ap- 
proval of the Chicago platform was carried,’ 
Hllt-had no part in that convention nor any” 
in-the canvass that followed It. 23 
Had his plan been carried to cuccess the 
| Palmer and Buckyer Democracy would have 
-had' control of the Democratic machinery in 
New ‘York, and probably fotlowing this ex- 
ample the Democratic machine in other Enast- 
ern states would in the same way have passed 

SOVillard's Hypnotic Power. - ake 
‘In the reviews of the Ifo of the Inte Henry" 
Villard, most of which havo been Just and 
kindly, no mention was made of a pecullar 
quality posstased by Mr. Villard, which was 
held by financiers to explain in great mens- 
ure his remarkable influence as A financier. 
“Fhe blind pool which Mr. Villard organized 
ig-spoken {Hustrating tho confidence: 
that, men otf the highest ability placed In him.” 
Yet that blind pool was due not so much to 
confidence In Mr. Villard as toa mystic fas- 
clnation which in the days: of his health 
and. mental vigor he seemed ablo to exer: 
‘else over m2n oven with tho strongest in- 
tellect. It has been spoken of as almost 

One of the ablest financlers in this city in| 
speaking of Mr. Villard to the writer sald: 
that he once. had an extraordinary experl- 
once withhim. Villard hada business propo- 
ition of much tmportance in which he 
wished to intorest this financier. One day 
by, appointment the two men met. a 

‘guadenly I found myself completely under 
no certain mesmeric influence whereby I was 
roady to agree to every proposition Mr. Vil- 
Jard mado,” ho.said. “I saw it ag he saw it; 
1 seemed -to think as he thought, and my 
impression Is that if his attention had not 
Into ta contro} of the gold Democracy. That | poen diverted for a moment by tho coming 
would, have In ail probabliity made the nom- “tn of the office boy I should have agreed to 
ization of Bryan at Kanans City thiasumimer his proposition and committed myself 
by''tHg Demaekacy impossible, and It was’the ‘gnanclally to hia plan. In that brief Inter- 
convention ‘of 1900 that Hit} hadin view when = yal ‘of intorruption I realized that I nad 
‘he corosived this plan. . ae aa “bean overperauaded by & psychic force, the 

It fs upon tho lines that he lald-down In ike of which I had never experienced, and 
the summer ‘of.1806 trat Hill proposes re- L.abruptly loft-the room. 
organization of the Den:ccratic party in New “TJ never afterward was willing to go into. 
York state, and will -lay his plans before | “atr, Villard’s presence to discuss a business 
that meoting of Democrats which Is to be} proposition’ unless with some confidential 
held in this city early In Jauuary. 'Theat-| ¢riond or associate. I dosi't mean to say 
tenipt will be made at oncs to securo.control | that Mr. Villard misused this power, at all. 
of; the regular Democratic organizations in| think 1t was unconsciously exerted on his 
the: Hastern states, so that thore con be no] part, but I have nover had any doubt that 
repotition In 1904 of the chief events that he bad a true hypnotic gift, and that It was 

hav ade the Kansas Cl nyention through the fascination which tho exercisa, 
to00 traditional. ” : ss ventlg ef ofthis power croated that he persuaded so 

: imany men of even greater financial abilit: 

“,\ Governor Roosevelt's Plans, ‘than himself to his own -way of thinking, 

Governor Roosevelt has but little important | After his health became broken‘and ho had 
biisiness to do as Governor of Now York be- fauflered reverses tbat Seat impale te 
fore tho oxpiration of his term, elx weeks smnens' smental.,\ re think 
thenee., Aftor Jan. 1 and-until March 4 he ithatipower.! a: PROLLAND, 
will -be in private Hfe, end the expectation 
{9 that he will take this opportunity to finish 
certain Hterary work that he has had fn 

-At..the lunchcon yesterday given -by the 
Governor in honor of the ‘Governor-olect, 
-Rookevelt waa irformed that John 8, Turay 
of‘Omaba had written to friends in this city 
“paying, that ft ‘was duo la great measure to 
tho caimpatg. that ‘Roosovelt mndo in Net 
braska that, thg-.state was oat. to Bryan, 
‘Roosevelt's gneeches were 50 informing, ap- 
pealed so strongly to tho intelligence of the 
great: throngs ‘that hoard him throughout 
Nebraska, that the powerful fnfluenco that 
. Bryan has maintalned: there -for six years: 

yas: for tha first-time impafred.” 27 OF: 3 
2fFutuy woe for many’ yoars the ablest of, 
sthe-postoflice inspectors. -It wasin Gresham's. 
“administration as Postmaster General that 
his ‘services as postoffice inapector ‘ endod,.| 
Slhce thon-he hag lived in: Nebraaka, 


“ Noy.15 11900 7". 

inyontor of Weat'0 
a. patent for. atne: 
meter. . Tt ‘is sald to! be 

ater. Tt “a voty linportat 
{invention and. belongs Tactician ee ce 

class. ‘in whiéh‘ohorploslregotions 
Joaliod into lay. Scientific men con 
{| tho.lngtrumoni of ospoctal Interest because 

of its groat yaluo‘as fn 
chanical counting method: 
shemical moter, | * 

entlon-of .ane- 
| do,tho-7ol 

may To ras as, 

Boston, Mass,"- Transcript 

~ Whee BE Taey 

A patent has been granted to Thomas A. , 
Tdlsanatorse now. type’ of electriclty*meter ; 
-DOlonging to! the which chemical 
reactlons:are called. info‘play.. Two lnc; 
‘electrodes ‘of equal, wolght’ are: suspended’; 
from a scale beam, each’ in a cell contains y 
ing.zino sulphato: solutio! . By 2 suitable | 
“phunt’ as small’ but, definite proportion’ of- 
tho-current:-to-bo*moasured- is-vont-through~ 
this apparatus so.that whilo ono electrode , 
dissolves away the | other Increases’ in + 
wolght. This causes the scale beam to tip; 
and, when ‘a certain definito difference in“ 
weight !s reached, to let. one tooth of:.a°: 
wheel ‘belonging to a small train of clock-.: 
-work pass, at the same timo throwing. o 
switch which reverses the current flowing « 
through the instrument. This reversal. . 
“causes the scalo beam, in time, to tip the ; 
other way, and tho clockwork'to move on 
by another tooth. Upon the clockwork are 
mounted tho usual dinls, such as aro found 
on the famillar.gas meter, which register 
‘the number of. excursions - of the ‘scale 
| beam. As these may be: made to corre- 
spond each to a definite quantity. of .cur- 
y rent passed by the apparatus tho Indicd- 
tlons of the dial give a measurement of the 
total current. “Tho instrument is especlally— 

Interesting a9.on.application=o Mechanical 
J-countitig, methods, -to” the old” chemical 

‘meter., » 

prcwian Iceseeree eed 


(Entered at the Post Ofice of Now York, N. ¥., as Second Class Matter. Copyright, 10, by Munn & Co.) 3 


Vol EXXXUIN0, 25;] rt NEW YORK, DECEMBER 29, 1900,’ 8 OuNTTS A CORY. 
zit aD ta ec Se es er Neon ss | BLORNTH (ALCOR Ys, 

AST i" 



et Nag itt 

i Wrrerting the Heneras ; ; iP : Dearest Testing the Phonographs, : t ssid] 


” present an illustration. 



The Edison phonograph has hecome such a familiar 

object in our modern home hfe, and its mechanisw, in 
spite of ita marvelous ingenuity, isso straightforward 
and,ensily dnderstood, that it is difficult, in giving a 
description of this prince of toys, to tell the multitudi- 
hous possessors of them anything that they did not 
know before,. If one were asked to naie the particu- 
tar part of the phonograph which possessea the great- 
est interest and which is the most essential to its suc- 
cess, he would have to mention the cylinder of wax 
upon which the waves of sound are cut by the dainty 
little sapphire turning-toolfknown as the stylus, 
- The great growth in popularity of the pliono- 
graph, and the necessity for keeping the {owners sup- 
plied with fresh “‘Hterature,” bas caused the mere 
work of manufacturing the records to assume truly 
enormous proportions, Evidence of this is shown in 
the storage room of the Edizon Phonograph Works, in 
which are to be found tier upon tierof storage “bins,” 
whose contents represent records of 8,000 distinct sub- 
jects, or nearly half a million wax cylinders fn all. 

The first process in the manufacture of records takes 
place in the melting room, where the proper constitu- 
ents to forin thespecial grade of wax employed in mik- 
ing the records are brought together aud melted in 
several large vats, each of which contains about 1,000 
pounds. There aro three meltings in all, and between 
each the fluid is carefully strained to remove any hard 
or gritty impurities which it might contain; for it is 
evident that the presence of foreign substances, even a 
few purticles of fine dust, wight easily produce fatal 
irregularities in the grooves of- the record. ‘Tho first 
two meltings take place in the melting room, and the 
third in the moulding and shaping room, of which we 
On entering this room, the 
most conspicuous feature is several lnrge, circular, ro- 
tating tables, set around the periphery of which is a 
number of round, iron pins which forw.the core of the 
mould, Concentricatly around each of these ping is 
placed a brass sleeve. The wax is taken from the 
melting vats in acan and poured into the moulds in 
the manner shown in our illustration, ‘The tables are 
constantly rotated, thus bringing the moulds, which 
cool very rapidly, round to the workers on the opposite 
side of the table, where the wax cylinders are removed, 
Tho moving table brings the empty moulds back to 
the starting point, where they are again filled from the 
pouring can, The cylinders are cast with an interior 
spiral thread, which adds somewhat to the strength of 
the cylinder, and forms the bearing surface when the 
wax cylinder is placed on the wandrel of the phono- 
graph. ‘After they have cooled, the cylinders are first 
reatned out to gage, then edged and rough-turned, and 
finally given a finishing cut, the finish turning being 

’ done with a fine sapphire knife, ‘The records are then 

given a final inspection, in which those that show tie 
least sign of imperfection, such as a hair crack, or a 
fullure to meet thé gage test, are rejected. The 
cylinders are now ready for the important work of 
making the records. 

It should be mentioned just here that in addition 
to the standard size of records, measuring about 214 by 
4 ches, with which the public fs more familiar, the 
Edison Company wanufacture a.larger size, known as 
the concert record, which is about & inches {n diame- 
ter. The advantage of the larger size is that the 
grooves are longer and the curves of the depressions 
are of longer radius, with the result that the ball-point 
of the reproducer is able to follow the grooves more 
closely and give a more perfect reproduction of the 
sound waves. . 

One of the upper floors of a large building in the 
record department is divided into a number of rooms, 
in which the specialists who are employed by the Edi- 

son Phonograph Works are kept steadily at work . 

speaking, playing or singing into the recording ma- 
shines. One of our itlustrations shows the methods 
adopted in producing solo records, whether instru- 
mental or vocal. In this case the violinist stands with 
his instrument fimmediutely and closely in front ‘of 
three converging horny, each of which connects with a 
recording phonograph. The only difference between 

a recording and a reproducing phonograph is in the’ 

nature of the little sapphire tool by which the dia- 
phragm rests upon the wax record, In taking the 
record, the “recording stylus” is used, and in repro- 
ducing the record, the “reproducing ball” is substi- 
tuted. The difference between the stylus and the ball 
is that the point of the stylus ia cup-shaped and 
ground to a fine cutting edge, which, as it travels over 
the surface of the wax cylinder, ts driven wore or less 
deeply into the material, and turns off a shaving which 
varies in thickness, according to the quality of the 
sound waves which fall upon the diaphragm. It is ex- 

* tremely interesting to watch the endless stream of fine 

hair-like turnings which falls from the little tool while 
the record is being made. One of the first things 
that strikes a visitor to the record room is the rapidity 
with which the artists sing, the speed being much 
greater than that to which one fs accustomed In o 
music hall or opera house, Moreover, the songs are 

> thon of a defect, 

* try (England) have devised a lady's motor bicycle. 

Scientific Americ, 

sung with the full power which would be used before 
a public audiences, As soon as the record is made, it is 
taken off the mandrel and placed in a phonograph 
and reproduced to test its quality. If there is the 
slightest defeot, it is, of course, rejected. 

Among the most popular records are those of band 
musiy, and for making these the company maintains a 
full instrumental band, which is ocoupled steadily, 
under the,baton of a conductor, in playing popular airs, 
marches, waltzes, ete, The tnusicians are so grouped 
around the phonographs that the volume of sound 
from each instrument strikes full upon the horns, the 
front row of the performers being seated on ordinary 
chairs and those behind on raised seats, Of tho occa- 
sion of our visit there were no less than sixteen phono- 
graphs on the racks in front of the band, each with its 
horn pointing toward the musicians. In this case, as 
in the case of solos, the inusic is performed at full 

The testing of the phonograph records is done in a 
separate room by a corps of experts, who are careful to 
throw out every record that gives the slightest sugges- 
Long training in this work has made 
them sensitive to irregularities in tone and quality 
which would scarcely be noticed by the average listener. 
It is to this searching examination that the uniformly 

high quality of the Edison records is largely to be - 


Our Inst illustration shows the phonograph test- 
ing room, This test is just as important as, and per- 
haps more so than, the testing of the wax records 
themselves. ‘he work done in this department is 
really a matter of testing the testers, for during the 
construction of the machines every part of the phono- 

graph, as it, is completed, is subjected to close inspec- . 

tion, It may happen, however, that in the assembling, 

- or in the frequent handling, a trifling injury may have 

resulted to some part; there may be uw slight lack of 
adjustment, or the bearings may be clogged with oil, 
and it is the nart of the final inspector to detect such 
faults and see that the machine works with tho abso- 
lute smoothness necessary to good phonographio re- 

The phonographs themselves, after passing this test, 
are put in cabinets and sent to the shipping depart- 
ment; the phonograph records, efter the final inspec- 
tion, are each carefully wrapped in cotton, then in 
paraMne paper, and finally pinced in cardboard boxes 

‘on which are printed the catalogue numbers of the 

records, The boxed records are then stored in num- 
bered bins, and on the receipt of an order, it is a sim- 
ple matter to select the records, pack them in cases or 
barrels and wheel thei to the cars, which are brought 
by a switch to the doors of the shipping departinent, 

In closing we would make mention of the really ad- 
wirable syatem of shop management which is displayed 
throughout the whole of the works—a system which 
displays very markedly that characteristically Ameri- 
can arrangement of the shops themselves, and of the 
machines with which they are crowded, which alts at 
wininizing the amount of handling and transpurtation 
to which each individual piece is subjected in its trans- 
formation from the crude material to the finished arti- 
cle. There are, as this journal has often pointed out, 
several elements which conduce to the commercial su- 
premacy of the country; and to nothing is the cheap- 
ness of our products more directly traceable than to 
that carefully-thought-out distribution of the work 
and orderly and consecutive arrangement of the ma- 
chines, of which these works are a striking example, 

—_—_—_—_—_————-09 Se )_.—C 
Automobile Nows, 

A prominent firm of cycle manufacturers in Coven- 
machine is of the conventional design, with the open 
frame, and the motor, which isa two horse power oil 
engine, is compactly attached to the rear wheel, The 
cycle is started in the usual manner by pedaling, and 
the speed of the motor is controlled by o stall lever 
fixed to the handle-bar. 

Next year the Automobile Club of England proposes 
& nore exacting motor car test than the 1,000-mile trial 
of 1000. The experiment will continue over a period of 
three weeks, commencing, as at present arranged, on 
August 12, 1001. The cars will leave London en route, 
for Shaftesbury and Plymouth, to cover which distance 
will oceupy two days. From Plymouth they will pro- 
ceed to the North of England through the western 
counties to Carlisle. ‘This journey will include a series 
of hill-climbing competitions on the two steep ‘sharp 
gradients Dunwail Raise and Shap Fell. 
will be the next destination, where the cars will be 
Placed on show in the Manufacturers’ section of the 
Exhibition. A short iudependent tour for five days is 
then projected through the Highlands, the cars rens- 
seinbling at Glasgow. on August 26. The return to 
London will be made via York, Lincoln, Norfolk and 
Welbeck Park, at which latter place the speed trials 
will be made, as on the Inst oceasion., It is contem- 
plated that the cars will travel 100 miles per day, with 

* an aggregate distance for the tour of 1800 miles, in- 
dependent of the flve days traveling in. the High- - 

lands. ,, 

Glasgow _ 

DECEMBER 22, I900. 

Sictonce Notea, 

Mr, Marshall H. Saville, of the American Museum 
of Natural History, has started for his winter work in 
southern Mexico, where he will continue his exeava- 
tions in the territory formerly occupied by the Zapo- 

An institution was opened In Belgium for the alleged 
cure of tuberculosis by the exclusive raw meat diet. 
After a trial of a few months, the experiment was 
abandoned, oa it was found that there was no efficacy 
in the Richet cure, 

The various solentific departments in England re- 
cently held 2 conference in which they sought to obtain 
government powers for protecting the delicate inetru- 
ments in the Kew and Greenwich observatories from 
any magnetic disturbances that arise from the work- 
ing of electric tramways and railways in thelr vicinity. 

The Duke of Abruzzi on his recent Arctic expedition 
carried with him a sinall balloon, stmilar in con- 
struction to those employed in the Italian army, for 
the purpose of pushing farther north when the vessel 
became blocked bythe ice. It, however, proved use- 
less, The duke fs now busily engaged upon the design 
of a new balloon, specially adapted for such an object, 
which he will take with him upon his next expedition. 

There is to be a ceramic exhibition In St, Petersburg 
in December. Its aim is to show the public the pro- 
gress wade by Rugsin and other countries in artlatio 
and industrial ceramics, Only works of artistic excel- 
lence will be admitted to the exposition, but also 
those which, Iucking the preceding condition, ara yet 
distinguished by the originality of their design, forin 
or mode of manufacture. 

The elty budget of New York city for 1901 calls for 
the expenditure of $08,100,418 43, an increase of $8,821,- 
440.05 over the budget for 1900. The largest suis are 
for education, $18,512,817.60; interest on city debt, 
$12, 100,200.05 ; police, $11,083,313.42 ; the redemption of 
the city debt, $10,882,173,18. It is curious to note that 
The City Record, in which various advertisements re- 
lating tothe city are printed, has $503,200 appropriated 
for it, an enormous sum, exceeding that appropriated 
for buildings. 

Sir George Newnes, who financed Mr. Borchgrevink’s 
recent expedition to the Antarctic zone, has placed the 
whole of the scientific spoils collected by the late 
Nikolai Hansen, the scientist to the expedition, at the 
disposal of the Natural History Museum at South Ken- 
sington. ‘The collection comprises birds, bensts, fishes, 
and an assortiuent of other innumerable curiosities, 
‘The authorities at the museum will select all that they 
require, and transfer them to the experts in the respec- 
tive departinents, to be duly examined and annotated, 

At a recent congress of German anthropologists, 
which was held at Halle, Professor Dr. Klaatsch, of 
Heidelberg, read a paper in which he contended that 
the hypothesis of the direct descent of tan from apes 
was no longer tenable. His conclusions were based 
upon the biceps muscle of the thigh. He stated that 
it wasa mistake to regard man ns the most perfectly 
developed mammal in all respects. His limbs and 
teeth do not show any high degree of development, 
and he is superior to other animals only fa his brain 

The Rev. J. M. Bacon, F.R.8., proposes to make 
& balloon ascent during one of the thick, fmpenetrable 
fogs which visit London during the winter’ months. 
He proposes to ascend to the higher limits of the 
fog and to explore scientifically its constitution, He 
also proposes to discharge small cartridges of cun- 
cotton at great heights, in order to ascertain whether 
the concussion will dislodge or disperse the fog in any 
way. He has already carried out several experiments 
with similar cartridges for acoustical purposes, at vary- 
ing altitudes. ; 

Arrangements are being made among the various 
scientific and mechanical institutions in London to 
hold an engineering congress at the Glasgow Exhibi- 
tion next suuimer, The congress will consist of nine 

’ sections, with Lord Kelvin as Honorary President. The - 

President of the Institution of Civil Eugineers will pre- 

“side over the first section, while other sections will be 

presided over by Sir Benjamin Baker, I.R.8., and 
Sir John Wolfe-Barry, P.R.S. Already a sum of over 
$10,000 has been collected as a guarantee fund for de- 
fraying the expenses of the scheme. 

The latest development of the automatic machine is 
an apparatus in which letters and telegrams may 
be placed to await,.the call of the addressee. The com- 

- munications are inserted in the machine in such a 

manner that the name and address is plainly visible 
through a small window. To obtain possession of a 
missive, one places a penny in the slot, Should a re- 
ply be necessary, the insertion of another penny into 
the instrument will insure the delivery of an envelope 
and sheet of note paper, and the reply may be written 
upon a sinall desk attached to the machine, It is 
stated. that the English postal authorities have con- 
sented to place letters and ‘telegrams in these auto- 
matts ‘' postes restantes” if the address of the particular 
machine is scented: 






ready for the use of the humblest and 
puorest infividyal. 

The consolidation of local organiza- 
ticns and the extension of wires 

* further and further from all the cen- 

tral points, which are united by the 
“long-distance” lines, are rapidly convert- 
ing the whole Western Continent into one 
grand telephone exchange. The subject 
of telephonic transmission over long sub- 
marine cables is receiving the serious at- 
‘tention of able investigators, and dream- 
ers, whose dreams sometimes come true, 
are talking of the possibilities of speak- 
ing communication between all parts of 
the earth in a universal language. 

The history of the telephone furnishes 
complete justification of the United States 
patent system. By the wise provision of 
the constitution “to promote the progress 
of the sciences and useful arts” Bell for 
17 years held the control and secured the 
profits of his invention; thereafter, for all 
time to come, it is given to the free use of 
the people. 

is the title frequently given the Bell 



telephone organization, but it is a imis- 
nomer. The business was founded on a 
basis of 28 per cent monopoly, 76 per cent 
sngacious, forceful enterprise. By the just 
operation of the. patent laws the first cle- 
ment is being gradually climinated and 
will soon disappear ; the second has stcad- 
ily enlarged the company’s field of useful- 
ness and strengthened its position, Tor 
clear comprehension of the proper re- 
lations of corporation and patron, for en- 
terprising anticipation of the needs of the 
public, for liberal expenditure of money in 
preparing for such necds, for wise and fair 
administration, it is not excelled by any 
organization in the land. After an event- 
ful existence of nearly 26 years it has to- 
day a splendid permanent equipment suffi- 
cient for all present needs with provision 
for extension to meet the requirements of 
the next 25 years, which in all probability 
will be absorbed in half that time. 


The history of this branch of the busi- 

ness is another story, anda long one. The 

time to write it has not come. In the last 

an 12,1401] 

Vol. 38- ! 

20 years hundreds of companies have |; 

organized and “financed” ‘The most 

them have disappeared leaving sent: 

a trace behind, exeept in the recol.-+ i 

of those persons who invested money 

them. ‘The really strong, well-mani: 

companies are prosecuting their busir 

with vigor and tho service furnished * 
them plays an important part in the ! 
iness affairs of the country. 


The twentieth century waits in hn; 
ful anticipation of good things the i 
vancing era is bringing it. Across its eu: 
morning sky streams a bright gleam fr 
the headlight of the train of progr 
swiftly ascending the last grade on t: 
divide between the Old and the Ne: 
laden with blessings manifold, the gut 
ered treasures of a hundred years, ‘Th: 
embrace many great instrumentatities 
earry forward the mission of promo. 
civilization, enlightenment, universal 1: 
erty, “Pence on Warth.” Of all these [! 
simplest, the greatest, the best, is 0 
speaking telephone. 

Mr. Edison’s Reminiscences of the 
First Central Station. 

M an easy man to find at home. 
~ During the day, and often far 
info the night, he is at the big 
brick Jaboratory building in Orange, 
N. J., and this building is surrounded by 
avery high and discouraging picket fence, 
in a remole corner of which is a gate and 
nearby a push-button. Once through this 
—and it is hard to get through it-—various 
dragons lie in wait for the bold person who 
undertakes to interrupt one of the busiest 
men in the world. 

Once inside the visitor is conducted into 
a spacious and lofty library. where he 
waits. Here, after a time, comes to him 
the genius of the place, and go it was when 
Mr. Edison talked with one of us the other 
day about the starting of the Pearl strect 
atasion in New York city and the birth of 
electric lighting as an industry. 

The passing of time has left few marks 
upon the veteran inventor; perhaps his 
hair is a little grayer, hut he entered the 
library with a springing step that would 
have done credit to a boy, and hailed, his 
visitor with a flash of the old-time enthu- 

“So you want to talk about the old days 
at Pearl street,” said he. “Well, I hardly 
know where to begin. Jt waa something 
like this; the central station idea struck 
me all of a sudden in 1878. In those days, 
you know, we had are Jamps. I had been 
down to see Professor Barker, at Phila- 

detphia, and he had shown me one. A 
little later T had seen another onc—I think 
it was one of Brush’s make—and the whole 
outfit, engine, dynamo and one or two 
Inmps, was traveling around the country 
with a circus. At that time Wallace and 
Moses G. Farmer had succeeded in getting 
10 or 15 lamps to burn together in series. 
It happened that I was comparatively at 
leisure then, because I had just finished 
working on the carbon button telephone, 
and this electric light iden took possession 
of me. It was easy to sce what the thing 
needed; it wanted to be subdivided. The 
light was. too bright and too big. What 
we wished for was little lights and a dis- 
tribution of them to pceoplo’s houses in 
just the same way that gas is sent around 
and burned at your fixture when you want 
it. I remember, along about then, Gros- 
venor P, Lowry thought perhaps I could 
succeed in solving the problem and he 
raised a little money and formed the Edi- 
son Eilectrie Light Company. We started 
the laboratory at Menlo Park. The way 
we worked it wag that I got a certain sum 
of money a week and employed a certain 
number of men, and we went ahead to ace 
what we could do.” 

Replying to an inquiry as to how he 
went at the problem, Mr. Edison laughed 
‘and said, “Why it was casy. It was ensy 
enough to see that the subdivision never 
could be accomplished unless each light 
was made independent of every other. 

Now it was plain enough that they on 
not burn in series; hence they must. | 
in multiple arc. It was with this c:: 
viction that I started. I was fired 

the idea of the incandescent Inmp as «- 
posed to the are Iamp, so I went to \~- 
and got some very fine platinum w: 
drawn. As well as I remember it wi 
made by Johnston, Mathy & Company, } 
London. We tried to make the platinu: 
work but it didn’t stand. Then we !re 
mixing in about 10 per cent of iridiu:. 
with the platinum, but we couldn't fire. 
that high enough without melting :: 
After that came a lot of experiment: 
covering the wire with oxide of cerium an? 
a lot of other things such us the Welsha:: 
people use nowadays, Then I gota y:.\' 
idea; I took a cylinder of zirconia nw: 
wound about 100 fect of the fine pls:: 
num wire on it coated with magnesin from 
{he syrupy acetate. What I wos air 
was getting a high resistance lamp and ! 
made one in that way that worked up to 
40 ohms; but the durned oxide developed 
the phenomena that Dr. Nernst has run uf 
against lately—I didn’t see i then na he 
does now—and the lamp short-circuited 

“After that,” continued ihe inventor, 
warming to his subject, “we went fishing 
around and trying all sorts and shapes of 
things to make o filament that would 
stand. We tried silicon and boron and s 
lot of things that T have forgotten no 



SE AL enn ae an 

edt Be 


SSW ee 

‘was what kind of carbon. 

January 12, 1901 

The funny part of it was that I never 
aught in those days thal carbon would 
vaswer beenuse a fine lait of curbon was 
-o sensitive {to oxidation, -Jinally I 
shought I would-try it beenuse we had got 
very high vagua and good conditions for it. 

There were quite n Jot of us in those days 

that used to tulle things over together at 
Mento Park. ‘There was Charlie Iuglies, 
and Bachelor, and Upton and poor Kruesi. 
C. §. Bradley came with us a little later, 
‘a our central station work, 

“Well, we sent out and bought some 
otton thread and carbonized it and made 
che first filament. We had already man- 
aged to gel pretty high vacua and we 
shought maybe the filament would be 
anble. We built the lamp and lighted it; it 
.it up, and in the first few breathless min- 
ties we measured its resistance quickly and 
found it was 275 ohms—all we wanted. 
‘Men we sat down and looked at that 
lamp; we wanted to sce how long it would 
turn, ‘Phere was the problem solved—if 
the filament would last. ‘fhe day was— 
ict me see—October 21, 1879, We sat 
md looked and the Jamp continued to 
urn and the longer it burned the more 
fascinated we were. None of us could 
go to bed and there was no sleep for over 
10 hours; we sat and just walched it with 
anxiety growing into elation. It lnsted 
about 45 hours and then I snid (1£ it will 
burn 40 hours now I know I can make it 
burn a hundred.’ 

“There we were. We saw thal carbon 
was what we wanted; the next question 
I began to try 
various things and finally I carbonized a 
little strip of banboo from a Japanese fan 
and found that that was what we were 

Uwasevident that Mr. Mdison was pleased 
vs he recalled these early days of the in- 
enndescent lamp and the joy of ereation 
that he must have felt in reaching his de- 
sideratum at last; but the lamp was by no 
means all, He continued, “I had the cen- 
(ral station in mind all the lime. I want- 
«i to use 110 volts. Now there is no use 

for you to ask me why, because I don’t 

know, but somehow that figure stuck in 
ny mind and I had calculated that, if we 
could get the voltage that high, the copper 
cost would be somewhere within sight. I 
got an insurance map of New York city. 
Did you ever see one? Muny big fat 
volumes, full of plaics, with every elevator 
shaft and boiler and house top and fire 
wall in town set down and duly colored in 
its place, T lnid out a district and figured 
out an idea of the central station to feed 
that part of the town from just south of 
Wall streot up to Canal and over from 



Broadway to the East River; but what I 
wanted to know was whether my lamps 
could be made in quantily and depended 
upon, We went to work and imade up a 
lot of them. W. J. Hammer had charge 
of the tests aud they seemed to work out 
all right. ‘hen it was that we invited the 
Bonrd of Aldermen out to Menlo Pack.” 
Here Mr, Edison chuckled. “It was a 
great day,” he said, “or a great night, 
rather. 1 have forgotten the exact date, 
but it was cither the second or third of 
January, 1880, ‘he alderinen came out 
in n special train from New York and the 
first thing they saw were the strects of 
Menlo Park all lit up with incandescent 
lamps. You know,” he explained apolo- 

Mn. Epon in [is Workixa Crorucs. 

geticully, “Uhut there was a land specu- 
lation out there then. We had the lamps 
strung along on two big wires and we 
could light or extinguish one without af- 
feeting the others, and this was a thing 
that seemed magic to the aldermen. I 
remember that Mr. Hiram Maxim was at 
this exhibition.” 

Fron the way he smiled at the remem- 
brance, Mr. Edison must have enjoyed the 
aldermanic visit. He went on: “Ihe sta- 
tion idea was still mighty strong with me. 
Why, I knew where every hatchway and 
bulkhead door in that district of New York 
was and what every man paid for gas. 
How did I know? Simplest thing in the 
world. I hired a man to sturt in every 
day about two o'clock and walk around 
through the district noting the number of 
gas lights burning in the various premises; 
then at three o’clock he went around again 
and made more notes, and at four o’clock 
and every other hour up to two or three 
o'clock in the morning. In that way it 
was easy cnough to figure ait the gas con- 
aunption of every {enant, and of the whole 
district; other men took other sections. 
Simple, wasn’t it? 

*T found there was 760 freight hoists; 


like Sellers, I figured every one would have 
& motor. 

“We were now fairly committed to the 
lighting project and started in to build a 
central station, You can’t imagine how 
hard it was. ‘There was nothing that we 
could buy or that anybody else could 
make for us. We built the thing with our 
hands, ns it were. We went to work at 
Menlo Park and started v lamp factory. 
Poor Kruesi* was set to work making the 
tubes over in Washington street,‘and we 
hired a kind ofa second-class machine-shop 
in Goerck street end there started out to 
inake the dynamos. We went at it with our 
own money and credit.” Here Mr. Edi- 
son’s eyes twinkled and he said, “I believe 
it was mostly credit. Anyhow, we strug- 
gled nlong and we got the money put up 
for the Pearl street slation by starting the 
New York Edison Illuminating Company. 

‘I planned ont the station and found 

where it ought to go, but we’ couldn’t get 
real estate where it was wanted. Why, 
man, they charged us $75,000 apiece for 
two old bum buildings down in Pearl 
street, where we finally settled. I tell 
you it made my hair stand on end. 
We had very little room and we wanted a 
hig output. There was nothing else for it 
hut to get high-speed engines, and, as you 
know, there were no high-speed engines in 
those days. I had conceived the idea of 
a dircet-coupled machine and wanted to 
hitch the dynamo direct to the engine 
without belfing. I couldn’t sce why, if a 
locomotive could run at that speed, a 150- 
horse-power engine could not be made to 
run 350 turns a minute. ‘The engine 
builders, when I asked them about it, hela 
up their hands and said ‘Impossible? I 
didn’t think so. Finally I found ©. H. 
Porter and I said to him: ‘Mr. Porter, I 
want 9 150-horse-power engine to run 700 
revolutions per minute.’ He hemmed and 
hawed a little while and finally agreed to 
iry to build it—if I would pay for it. I 

believe he charged me $4,200 for it. He, 

got it finished finally and sent it out to 
the Park and a fellow of the name of 
Ennis along with it. He was one of the 
nerviest chaps I ever saw. We set the 
machine up in the old shop and we had 
some idea of what might happen, so we 
tied a chain around the throttle valve and 
ran it out through a window into the wood- 
shed, where we stood to work it. Now, if 
you remember the old shop you know it 
stood on top of one of those New Jersey 
shale hills. We opened her up and when 
she got to about 300 revolutions the 
whole hill shook under her. We shut her 
off and rebalanced end tried again, and 
after a good deal of trouble. we finally did 
run up to 700, but you ought to have seen 
her run, Why, every time the connecting 
rod went up she tried to lift that whole 
hill with her! After we got through with 
this business we tamed her down to 350 
revolutions (which was all I wanted) und 
then everybody suid, ‘Why, how beautiful- 
ly it runs, and how practicable such an 
engine is? Now, don* you know, I knew 
they would eay that? Didn’t you ever 
find out that trying to do the impossible 

*Mr, Kroes! died Tecen ty.—[Eps.) 

L weet a 

cote tne SWS a oen ss 5 


makes about half the impossible seem 

“We closed a denl for six engines and I 
went to work in, Goorck strect to build 
the dynamos onto them, Of course, we 
built them by guesswork. I guessed at 
110 yolts—and didn’t guess cnough. 
Thats why, if you want lo know, the 
extra pole pieces were put on those old ma- 
chines. They managed to lift the volt- 
age to what I wanted.” 

Going back to the Pearl street station 
idea, Mr. Edison said: “While all this was 
going on in the shop we had, dug ditches 
and laid mains all around the district. 
I used to sleep nights on piles of pipes in 
the station, and do you know 1 saw every 
box poured and every connection made on 
that whole job? ‘There wasn’t anybody 
else who could superintend it. : 

“Finally we got our feeders all down 
and started to put on an engine and turn 
over one of the machines to see how things 
were. My heart was in my mouth at 
first, but everything worked all right and 

,we had more than 500 ohms insulation re- 

sistance. ‘Then we sturted another engine 
and threw them in parallel. Of all the 
circuses since Adam was born we had the 
worst then! One engine would stop and 
the other would run up to about a thou- 
sand revolutions and then they would see- 
saw.” Mr. Bdison’s eyes twinkled with 
animation at the thought. 

“What was the matter? Why, it was 
those durned Porter governors! When 
the circus commenced the gang that was 
standing around ran out precipitately and 
some of them kept running for a block or 
two. I grabbed the throttle of onc en- 
gine and Jo, H. Johnson, who was the only 
one present to keep his wits, caught hold 
of the other and we shut them olf. Of 
courso 1 discovered then that what had 
happened was that-one set was running 
the other one asa motor. I then put up 
a long shaft connecting all the governors 
together and thought this would certainly 
cure the trouble, but it didn’t. The tor- 
sion of the shaft was so great that one 
governor still managed to get ahead of 
the others. Well, it was a serious state of 
things, and I worried over it a lot. 
Finally I went down to Goerck street and 
got a piece of shafting and a tube in which 
it fitted. I twisted the shafting one way 
and the tube the other as far as I could, 
and pinned them together. In this way, 
by straining the whole outfit up to its 
elastic limit in opposite directions, the 
torsion was practically eliminated and 
after that the governors ran together all 


“About that time I got hold of Gar- 
diner C. Sims and he undertook to build 
an engine to run at 350 revolutions and 
give 175 horse-power. He went back to 
Providence and set to work and brought 
the engine back with him to the shop. 
Tt worked, but only a few minutes, when 
it busted. That man sat around that 
shop and slept in it for three weeks until 
he got his engine right and made it work 
the way we wanted it to. When he 
reached this period I gave orders for the 
engine works to run night and day until 

SO tg ae a Ae we 



we got enough engines, and when all was 
reudy we started the engine. ‘I'he date 
was Seplember 4, 1882—a Saturday night. 
That was when we first turned the eurrent 
on to the mains for regular light distribu- 
tion and it stayed on for eight years with 
only one insignificant stoppage. One of 
those first engines that Sims built ran 
twenty-four hours a day, 365 days in the 
year, for over a year before it was ever 

Questioned about the details of the 
work in those now ancient days, Mr. Edi- 
son snid: “Of course we had the whole 
thing to design in grogs and in detail and 
everything to standardize; there were me- 
ters, safety entches, fuses and alk the rest 
of it, but somehow we managed to work 
it out. At first we ha horrible misman- 
agement. ‘The only title to existence that 
such a concern had was ils aVility to make 
moncy, and we didn’t seem to make any at 
first. Finally IT went to Chinnock—of 
course you know who C, 1. Chinnock is— 
and told him that if he would take hold of 
the thing and make it work I, personally, 
would give a good big bonus beside his 
salary. Well, sir, that man pitched in 
and inside of eight or nine months had 
earned and received his bonus. 

“I don’t remember who it was who 
wanted to connect in a lot of places that 
used the light only occasionally, but some 
such establishments were on our mains and 
one of them was the Stock xchange. 
Now the Stock Exchange isn’t lighted very 
often and there were a good many lamps 
there. I remember that one day, along 
in the holidays, I think it was, we were 
loaded pretty well up to our limit and I 
was terribly afraid that that Stock Ex- 
change would have its lights turned on 
and overlond tis irretrievably. I was in 
{hat part of the town and all at once no- 
ticed that the Exchange people had turned 
on their lights. I-got to a telephone and 
ealled up Chinnock and asked him how 
things were. 

“Wow is it with you at the station?” 
said I. 

“«O, bully,’ says he. 

“Are the machines standing up to it?” 
T asked him. 

“ ‘Sure,’ says he, ‘but everything's red 
hot and the ammeter has made two revo- 
lutions I” 

Mr. Edison went on lo recount some 
of the details of the work. Those were 
the days of the old chemical meter which, 
ag every one remembers, contained two 
jars of a liquid solution which might, of 
course, if the weather became cold enough, 
freeze. “Those meters,” said the in- 
ventor, “gave us a good deal of appre- 
hension. I was afraid they would freeze, 
especinily in the water-front neighborhood 
where the commission houses are. You 
know those people there keep the front 
door open nll the year round and it gets 
pretty cold inside their places in the Win- 
ter time. So I went to work and put an 
incandescent lamp in ench meter case, 
with a thermostat strip that would make 
n contact through the lump when the tem- 
perature fell to 40 degrees. Well, you 
ought to have seen the trouble that that 

Vol, 38—No. 

simple thing got us into. ‘here can: 
along a cold snap of weather and the fir- 
thing 1 knew the telephone began to rin 
about every five minutes and people woul 
“Our meter’s red hot; is that all right - 
“Then another one would call up ar 


“Our meter’s on fire inside and + 
poured water on it. Did that hurt it? 

Asked about measuring instruments an 
methods of keeping the station up to a 
accurale and uniform voltage, Mr. Edi 
son snid, “Voltmeters? We didn’t hav 
any: We used Iamps. Once, down there 
we found our insulation resistance hiv 
golten down to 100 ohms; the director 
secined lo be seared, but I told them thi 
if it didn’t get below one ohm we were a! 
right. I used to have a good deal of trou 
ble with mathematicians at that time, bi: 
T found after a while that I could gue: 
a good deal closer than they could figure 
so I went on guessing. Why, in our carl 
work there we used to hang up a shingl- 
nail, tie it on g string alongside one of th: 
feeders, and use that for a heavy-eurren 
amineter, Tt worked all right. When th 
nail came close to the feeder we screws: 
up the rheostat a Jittle and kept the lain). 
in the station looking about right. 

“That was the time that I conccis' 
the notion of pressure wires running bar! 
from the distribution centres of the var: 
ous feeders. You know, in those day: 
Edison said with an apologetic smile, “ou 
lamps weren’t rugged at all. What tly 
wanted was just 110 volts, and not anoth: 

“Yes, we were a good deal troubled * it" 
gelting fixtures and sockets and sum 
trimmings of that kind built right. Ber; 
mann had a little place on the east sist 
where he made gas fixtures, and he wer 
into making sockets and fixtures for 
and did well with them.” 

Here the conversation turned to day 
even older than those of the Pearl stre: 
station, and we talked a while about ds 
namo building in the Dark Ages. “Whi- 
T started making dynamos.” Mr. Edise: 
said, with an introspective look, “I «1 
told that to get the best effects the resis‘ 
ance of the machine must be equal to th 
of its lond! Did you ever hear of sue 
foolishness? I thought it was darn. 
alrange lo lose half of the energy I grt: 
erated in the machine, because what 1 w: 
after was to get the stuff out and sell i! 

T had an old Gramme machine anc 
worked over it. It had a terribly high r 
sistance. I figured out that if one tur 
on that armature would give one volt, ti: 
way she stood, by making great big mu 
nels I cowld get more volts, J went aber 
on that line and I remember I made om. 
litle machine that had a small armain 
nbout as big ag your fist and abont {. 
tons of enst-iron in its ficld ‘magnets. !" 
might not look like much to-day, but. : 
worked all right when the outside resis‘ ; 
ance was 30 times as big as that in th i 
machine. ‘That was what started me on 
the Inrgo field] magnets. T remember at : | 
dinner on the other side talking to We: | 
ner Siomens and Hefner von Altent: | 

January 12, 1901 

and telling them that what we needed was 
a great big magnet to bring the juice out 
of the armature.” They agreed with me, 
bat,” and here he chuckled, “do you know, 
both of them said they had thought of it 
before? When I got back I went to work 
and made my magnets big and made them 
long—made them too long, as Dr. Hop- 
kingon found out forme. Ie was a great 
man and understood his job. Ie figured 
out that making the magnets short and 
cutting down the air-space was the thing, 
and he was right. After all, in those days 
all of us were guessing—and I happened to 
te a pretty good guesser.” 

We were led to speak at this point of the 
recent death of Mr. William H. Moore, 
who was once associated with Mr. Edison. 
This started Mr. Edison on some remitiis- 
cences of the hunt for materials for the 
filaments at the time when bamboo seemed 
the most promising, “Why,” said he, 
“[ sent a school teacher from Orange—I 
have forgotten his name—to Sumatra, and 
another fellow up the Amazon. He got 
stuck somewhere up there but worked his 
say over through Bolivia and got back. 
Finally, Moore went to Japan and got the 
real ing there. We made a contract 
with an old Jap to supply us with the 
proper fibre, and that man went to work 
and cultivated and cross-fertilized bamboo 
until he got exactly what we wanted. T 
believe he made a fortune out of it. I 
tell you, in those days the boys hustled 
hard. One man went down to Havana 
and the day he got there he was seized with 
the yellow fever and died in the afternoon. 
When T read the cable message that told 
of it in the shop ubout n dozen of the boys 
jumped up and asked for-his job! ‘Those 
boys were a bright lot of chaps and some- 
times it was hard to select the right ones for 
a particular piece of work. T once got an 

_ order from Mngland to send over 15 men 
eaperi in telephone work, so I went to work 
and rigged up some telephones and did 
al sorts of things to ’em. J would stick 
the point of a juck-knife through the in- 
aulation in spots and cut a wire, and in var- 
i-us ways introduce ‘hugs’ inte thoseinstru- 
ments; then the boys were set to work to 
find out what was the matter with them, 
Ifa fellow could find out 10 times inside 
of 10 minutes what the various troubles 
were he got his passage pnid and was 
atarted. . About one out of three of 
the boys managed to stand this test and I 
telieve that everyone of them who went 
abroad made money. This was back in 
1878 or 1879.” : 

Asked about his carly inventions before 
he began to work on the electric light prob- 
lem, Mr. Edison said, “When I struck the 
telephone business the Bell people had no 
transmitter, but were talking into the 
magneto receiver. You never heard such 
noise and buzzing ag thera was in those 
old machines. I went to: work and mon- 
keyed around and finally struck the notion 
of the Iamp-black button. The Western 
Union Telegraph Company thought this 
was a first-rate scheme and bought the 
thing out, but afterward they consolidated 
and I went out of the telephone business.” 

Asked about the invention of the fuse 



wire, Mr. Edison Jnughed as he recalled 
the first occasion for its use. “Why,” he 
snid, “the night those aldermen cume out 
to Menlo Park [ had figured that an inter- 
ruption would be serious and had thought 
out the scheme of putting some fine copper 
wire in as fuses in various places. ‘here 
was a fellow in the party—I won’t men- 
tion his name—and he had 2 little piece 
of heavy wire in his hand. While the 
aldermen were looking at some lamps 
strung between two bere inains this fellow 
walked up and short-circuited the mains 
with his wire. 1 believe he was the most 
surprised man of the party, because only 
three Iamps went out. ‘The reason that 
led me to think of the fuse wire was that 
we weren’t flush of dynamos in those days. 
I had burnt out two or three and I saw 
that something was needed to prevent that 
happening again. After my experience 
with my short-circuiting friend, I had 
fuses put in all over.” 

‘The talk turned to-the early days of the 
electric railway, and Mr. Idison said: 
“Yes, I was in that, too. I had a three- 
mile rord out there in 1883, and we used 
to pull freight cars up to the laboratory 
on it. We made as much as forty miles an 
hour at limes. Now that railroad project 
seemed to me to be a mighty good thing. 
You know I had a board of dlirsciars in 
those days—men with bulging foreheads 
—fellows that thought away ahead into 
the future, and I went to work and care- 
fully elaborated all the ideas I had for 
electric railways and submitted them to 
the board. ‘They considered the subject 
earefully and fully, and unanimously de- 
cided that there was no money in the elec- 
tric railrond and that they would let it 

‘What was my first electrical inven- 
tion? You would never guess. It was a 
machine to record votes in Congress. It 
was a mighty good invention. I had a 
lot of iron type, each member’s name being 
set up in a line, and these lines were con- 
trolled by push-buttons and electromagnets 
so that each mun could bring his name 
up on the ‘aye’ side or, the ‘no’ side, as he 
pleased. I used ¢hemically sensitized 
paper to record them and the thing worked 
fine. A brother telegraph operator named 
Sam—I have forgotten the rest of his 
name—and myself were dead sure that 
we were going to ninke $50,000 out of it. 
He took the thing before 2 Congressional 
committee and the first thing they told 
him was that if there was anything on 
earth that the members of Congress did 
not want it was just that kind of thing, 
because the only right the minority had 
was to delay the game! After that expe- 
rience, which was in 1869, I knew enough 
not to invent anything again until 1 was 
sure it was wanted.” 

Going back to his own early history and 
the story of his connection with the elee- 
trieal field, Mr. Edison said that one of 
the first things he went into was a-mes- 
senger call-box or domestic telegraph sys- 
tem. “Wegot the thing into shape,” hesnid, 
“and made 200 instruments and then sent 
two men out to get subscribers, but they 
tramped around without avail day after 


day and our hopes sank and sank further 
and further, Finally a man named Brown 
came along and the first day he tackled 
the job he got six. ‘This sent our hopes 
up again and after he got the lines londed 
up with subscribers we sold the scheme 

out and realized a good profit on it, Af- - 

ter that I worked ont the stock ticker. 

“What were my principal patents? 
Good gracious, man! Oh, you don’t 
mean patents — inventions? Why, first 
and foremost, the. idea of the electric 
lighting central station; then—let me ace, 
what have I invented? Well, there was 
the mimeograph, and the electric pen, and 
the carbon telephone, and the ineandes- 
cent lamp and its accessorics, and the 
quadruplex telegraph, and the automatic 
telegraph, and the phonograph and the 
kinetoscope, and—I don’t cea whole 
lot of other things.” 

There was only one time during the 
interview that Mr. Edison showed any 
signs of annoyance or impatience. ‘This 
was when he talked about some of the 
daily newspapers and their treatment of 
him. He said: “I’ve absolutely been 
obliged to set this watchdog system in 
operation, but the worst of it is that these 
fellows who come out here go back with- 
out ever having seen me or heard me speak 
a word and write out alleged interviews 
that make me seem foolish to people who 
don’t know me. 1 think it’s outrageous 
that I should be subjected to this kind 
of treatment. Interviews, so-called, with 

-me have appeared lately when I’ve never 

seen or spoken to one man connected with 
the sheet that prints them. I haven’t 
seen a reporter for a newspaper to talk 
with him for four years, and I want you 
to suy that every alleged interview that 
appears in the daily press of New York 
city us from ine is a fake, and that 1 have 
no responsibility for any of them. ‘There 
are two papers over there in particular 
that have annoyed me exceedingly and one 
in Philadelphia—a weekly —keeps its 
man coming here and coming here, but”?— 
and here Mr. Edison smiled meaningly— 
“the man will never get over that fence!” 

Asked if it were possible, in his. view, 
to achieve the direct production of elec- 
tricity from heat or from combustion 
without the intervention of mechanical 
agencies, he said: “Yes, almost anything 
is possible, and I really believe that some 
day we may get such a process that will 
show an efficiency of thirty or forty per 
eent. Some experiments we haye made 
over here have shown an efficiency of four 
per cent, and, as little as this is, it is cer- 
tainly promising.” 

Asked if he thought the achievement of 
the twentieth century would surpass that 
of the ninetcenth in invention, and espe- 
cially in the applicution of electricity, Mr. 
Edison, with a glow of enthusiasm, said: 
“Tt cerlainly will. In the first place there 
are more of'us to work and in the second 
place we know more to start on, bul, all 
the same, none of us knows anything about 
anything. We are ‘only starting, The 
achievement of the past is merely a point 

of departure and you know that, in our 

art, ‘impossible’ is an impossible word.” 


' First, Best and Largest. 


From the 

| porns 3 



a le 

Brod | nite, n,- Clube Democrat 

FE3 27 \90! 


TnventoP Yo: Sinerintend Construction 

‘+ eSeeret Process Guarded. 
Sreciay Disrarcn to Tun GLone-Dexuocrat, 

* ALBUQUERQUE, N. M., February 20.— 
Reltable information comes from hendquar- 
ters that the Edison company, who have 
been experimenting with a small electric 
4 concentrating plunt in the placer fields 
‘} near Dolores for a year past, have decided 
that the process fs the Proper method for 
extracting vatuabie'ores from the cement 
and have concluded to erect a $300,000 re- 
i] duction plant on the ground in a few 

months, an : 
|, There wilt be sixteen large brick bufld- 
i{ ings, including a machine s op and foun- 
‘| dry. Tho machinery. will be made on the 
ground and in no case will any one not 
i] Connected with the-company have an op- 
portunity of Rotting any knowledge of the 
Workings of the plant. A branch rafiroad 
will be extended from ‘the main line of 
the Santa Fe to the plant. 

The inventor, Thomns A, Edison, of West 
| Orange, N. J... will arrive on the fround 
(| Mithin a couple c* months, when he will 
{Instruct his supetiatendents on the course 
to ppraue. When the mill is completed {t 
will have a capacity for treating about 1000 
tons of cement Per twenty-four hours. 
orab erunyl a shrdiu tuo! a aol anlonot 



First, Best and Largest, 

C No-~~——___. 
For. Cl d aN 


| \ fie PRPs 

be CIty 
2749 0 
| | luteex! 

~ Tess 

FES 28 1901 
ton, Sainte 

_—_ Ot 
Patent Commissioner Duell has com-, 
Piled a Ust of the 38 inventors who: 
have cach received more than 106 pa-: 
tents between 1872 and 1900 both years i 

‘exclusive. Thomas A. Edison with his 
‘inventions in “o¥a ety an coustes + 
and other lines heads the lists with 42 
Patents, The second inventor is Fran- 
cis 'H. Richards of Hartford the versa-: 
tile inventor and patent lawyer who Is_ 
president of the mertean Assoctation 
of Inventors, Mr. Richards’. Patents 
during these {tars number 619. ve 



, be Stree Fie ie : 

first, Best and Largest. 


farming, iricity;\an 1d. ,80. i 0 g 
I farincaa: intinllomss ate eve ca i | 


Lobe Vg Lesa a 

SFU t to give: thi 

if otek an’ ert 

yolent old gentlem: as ‘The 
‘the great Inventor, and scot 
top floor of the ci! lc 
the wizard. 422°" ¥ ss 
ts Ho looks just like his’ pictures, don’t 
“he?" sald one.” ie 
: “Noble co 
others te tee : 
: “I've been trying for years to see him," 
said a third, “ond now I'm satisfied.” 

| ‘The benevolent old gentleman was un- 
‘conscious of the stir which he crented 
‘until asked by a sceptic if ho wasn’t 
‘somebody other than Mr. Edison, He re- 
piled that.the guess was right; as he was 
Bf. (Harrison, a witness for the hotel 
people. ; Noe 



First,Best and Lavgest. 


From the . 


HeWyoRK cy be 

From Buffalo, N: Y. - Courjer 


The Great Inventor Will Make | 
-a Display in Electricit acu 
Building at. Pans 


American, 2. 

Representatives ‘from the Prairie 
State Promise the Largest 


Exhibit at the,, Ex= 


Thomee Ti adadlann representatives 
wan liv Bultalo yesterdny arranging for 
spnee to make an exhibit of electrical 
novelties at the Pan-American Expost-, 
lion, The dlaplay will be made in the }' 
electricity buildlng and will show al! 
of the recent Inventions of Mr. Edison. 

The Ilinols commissioners to the 
Pan-American .were in Buffalo in full | 
foree yesterday und were tho guests | 
of the Exposition officials. They prom: 
ise that the state will be reprerepted 
by the largest and best exhibit-of{finy 
rinate, and say they stand realy to 
make forfelt to this effect. 

She visitora are: James W, Temple- 
ton of Princcton, president; W. Scott | 
‘dmunds, secretary; HH. I Fivans of; 
‘Aurora, H. M. Dunlap of Savoy, WAGE 
Grler of Peoria, W. 1 Brinton of Lal 
Salle, (. A. Davidson of Newton, J. W. I. 
Stunion of Richview and J. M. White! 
of Champaign, state architect, 

After brenisfaat. nat the Iroquois, the 
comminsioners had 0 eonference with 
Plrector-General Buchanan reintlve to 
ihe smount of space required for thelr 
exhibit. The stute has appropriated 
75,000 for nn exhibit, of whieh about 
$20,000 will he expended Int the erection 
cof av boubicliny, which will serve 18 head- | 

querters for the peaple from Mlinols, 
Word was received at Pan-Amertean, 
hendquarters yenterdny that the Kan- 
gas Loglainture has appropriated $40.- 
000 for a cbullding nnd on exhibit. A 
dispatch from Grand Rapids aunouncest 
that the Michigan Proa-American come 
missioners have necepted the plans of! 

The estimated cost is $10,000, 

Supt. Converse yesterduy received 
word that the Holstein Breeders’ As- 
socintion will offer a special prize of 


First, Best and Largest. 

y c% : 

‘ L , 
re ats 



From B ualoN.Y. Commerclat 

MAR 2 1901 



Illinols Commissioners Secured, the } 
Original:Kansas Plot for their 
Pan-American Building. 
CED” emt geal 
‘Tho Tlinofs comimalusiongre. to ‘nea! 
‘Anorlcan3 Bxpoaltion ‘kept’; busy; yestor- 
rtheless’ithey '=enjoyed's,them, 

Jeage, them 


v' ‘hey-‘aaw| much ‘'to!p 
tholr’trip? aroundtis the,.= Q 
grounds and met: a” good; many, persons 
Who helped to take their.minds: off’ unin~ | 
teresting topics.’ ‘Cho commission -sclect- 
edt n sito for the Iiiinolg® bullding“and 
dickered very successfully for spaco'with 
several of the: department’ heads, The 
rite which was: originally set nelde ‘for 
Kansus will be used for tho building.’ 
liu dimensions are 80 by 120 feet." The 
structure to he erected there will bo quite 
ns good as any ottier state bullding and 
very likely better.” S 

‘She commissioners secured 1,200 fect 
of space in the agrienitural building and 
1,000 fect in the horticultural bullding. 
‘yhey had expected to get more and wero 
rather disappointed; but on belong assur 
ed that they had done better than almost 
any other body of commissioners .could 
hye done, they seemed satiaticd. 

Ono of the most artlatie booklets | 
hearing the Pan-Amerlenn stamp has 
been Issued by the board of women man- 
agers for cireulntion among the clubs of 
the country. It is efght or ten inches 
long, about five Inches wide, and in mado 
af the finest grade of paper. On the out- 
er cover, stirrounded by wide margins of 
white, Is n long narrow poster pleture 
done in dainty tints, showlng 0 weird va- 
ristion of the “Maid of the Mist." On 
the back cover is the Pan-American ein 
blom, ‘fhe book contsins a concise de-" 
reription of the exposition and Buffalo. © 

‘The following-named men were asalgn- 
od to police duty on the grounds yester- 
dny: J. W. Lockwood, C, J, Meegan, WwW. 
B. McCarthy, TL A. Hall, Pp, J. Tobin, 
Soseph Campbell, — Herman Heintz, 
Michael Donohue, 0. D. Marsh, TL. A. 
Hisher, A. O. Grabel, IL. J. Shepard. 

"The city and volunteer firemen of Buf- 
falo are looking with great expectation 
to the week Neginniug Auguat 19th, for! 
that ix to bo firemen’s week. Unless ally 
signa are misleading ft will be a memor- 
able period. Firemen’s associntions in 
citles all over the country are preparlug 
to visit the city. 

It Is nid that Lbomas A, Fullzon, the 

in the electricity putkiing. A nan from 
lls factory In New dlersey wan in the city i 
yesterday making Inquiries about space. y 

Louis Kamper for the state building. | famous electrician, wwllt*mmbewnoxhibit 

$1,000 for Heistein enttle. 
Hl folic adicaee eee 


First, Best and Largest, | : 
: INCORPORATED 1888, | First, Best and Largest. 


} First, Best and Largest. 

ae : e : : . . | — 1883. 
: From the i ee cee 
{fONCL Pree alr @ > ame 
ey oka, Ws 8 

{ From. owaric, No. ~ News 

2 0 P.0.Box ; . 
Peis (tr eG 
= We. Y: Run. 2 ! | lite xc 
Ma oe Ia} \ sue 


MORE row. 

E From ’ 
se : 

I. J—kevertiser, 
MAR i9 190} . 

| Attachment for $3 218. “Against Company 
of Which He Is President, 

Tho Sheriff has recelyed an“attachment of | 
$31,215 against the Edigon ‘d Phonograph, 
Company of 27 Willlai’ st 

i Lwhich John ’ : Y 
E. Searles !s Presiden: 18 £989 Of tho National f SOUSA 8. BAND 10 PLA 
Bank of North América-{® New York. The j ese 
clalm !3’on’a jiote mado“'by the company : WEEK IN BIG FUNNEL 
on March's, 1v0d,whtoh, MAgindarsed-by Mtr, Byte 5 
tb iirBC, and delivered to the bank. i aa lat a Talking Ma Yre-c’ 
fonry Chapiny‘dr., the cashier of the bank, Consolidate ies 
afd that‘on March 5, 1601, the note was pre. -l__gany of Cami 
‘fpnted for payment at the Guaranty Trust 
pmpany, whero it was made payable, and 

Miltary Organiznt 

i aes 
neclal Dispatch to the AY D : 
» Pyment was refused; $585 has been pald on ST DES. March 20.—-Sousa’s malitary 
a The a of jaterest,on tho nol. 3 ‘band has closed an engagement to play 


\ The attachment was granted on tho sroudit $1} Camden every day next week From 38 

of tho concern belny a New Jersey corpafa- 1} o'clock in the morning until 345 In th 

tion, and {t was: served on the Guaranty th ‘ith an Intermission of about 
Bt Company and also on the National  - ;#fternoon, w < of un hour at noon 

Bank of North America, the plaintift eine half or three-quarters a on the dbrarian 

aotion, Tho company was incorporated oft j for luncheon nnd to ena th 

Sopt. 24, 1800, with a capital stock: of $1,090,000 to rearrange the music, 

to Introduce the phonograph in foreign goun. Sousa will have forty pltces with him. + 
tries. The company was organized byqeuv- : | 

7 aowill' 
The auditorium in which his band will” 
* York . vo fiy y fifty-five 
wa ol hha ytoaea dehkettn we ree ae eee | 
rights for the Edison phonograph tn all 

‘dement held by 


pad ‘} feet, with a comparatively low celling. 

7 ber more than iit 
elgn countries excepting Cannda. ‘The i= The audience will not num! oy 
any did no business fa thia country: dull | @ dozen, all of whom are end ente. ite \4 
ts business was ubroad. The muchihes teach of the dozen paid his prop: eres | 
were manufactured at Orange, N. J, Sor price for admixsion, one saath pees a 
export. RN ie q . m theket w y 
Mr. Searles became President of the cori i celpte pala the Pei ° f th ‘ 
2 pany about throw yeurs ago. At the off fraction:Jexe Mine for records at the John- tce-Chanceltor Stove 
: of tho company, 27 Willlain ‘street, the re} |. Souss: wit iia ke. ON the enst side Of on independent pip @tcvens | 
2 porter was referred to the attorney of thes :s0n Machine Works. ¢ ve Market, helng Ust be made. and ap-; 
comnany, Charles E. Hughes of Carter, Hughes ; Front street, just above 4 Boe @ anld that) : 
& Dwight, who made the followlny state- | employed hy the beers ered ation with he Would do 50 
wet property of the Edison United Phono- i i Pea eon ian fanuel which col- solvency 9; sad aged on th ania hie}. 
graph Company consists of interests in fore nto: au when > e Edi + ged In- 
: alan companies, and in foreign Dutents whieh + lects the great mags of Fount: tne enter, FT8Dh Company, 50n United Phono. 
j AYO covered by @ mortzaue to the Guaranty | Fecordell Dy ft Hectet ie ere ibied’ at: Tee. “aye 
\ aes Gompany. a jnortgure sequren ull - ‘tain millions ot SIC shoes 
YY ations of the company, Includitur church fairs and vaudev: a 
{ the note in suit, and takes precedence uf tha: = a 
; Attachment.” ‘ 






are UGE 

Britlnt t 
bat the American Comb 
* ‘The organtzation of the gigantic America 
Steel trust is already producing a distinct ef; 
fect upon British manufacturers, They aro” 
putting their heads together, like wise men,” 
and considering how they may best prepar 

/ to“meet its menace, - That. this’monace is" 

very serlous.can_no.lorger be:disputed, 
weer trust has the immense American homo, 
market secured to it by tariff, and the 
which it makes'In this market’are i 
that it can afford to send abroad all 
plus, of’ which it ts not disposd “a 
lucrative rates at home, and to sell at’cos 
price, or even at a loss, in the British marke 

Stroyed, the trust would Have 

Well as the Aimerieaa market. 2 if, 

ing off all’competition by Jowering Its | 
; When Its position was attacked. -*. 
Help in this crisis has come to the Britis 
{ter producer ‘from an. unexpected ‘qui 

ter, One difficulty with which English stuel=”. 
makers have to- contend Ig-the seareity ot 
ore, The British supplies of rich.oré are be-: 
ing fast exhausted; the Spanish’ suppl! 
Upon which they are now-drawing. heavi 
will also last another seven years. But now 
British syndicate appears with the:nows 
teat it has purchased an immensely rittrs. 
fron fleld in Norway. The ore if not of the. 
est, but by means of a process devised by 
the Brest aventor, be. 
centrated. till tt*Bécomes. rich: enough ti 
einele eich Brent. Tt‘ls near at han eae 
je British may ; 
& good fight. Boer 


el Z 

Sir,—Tho lettor you published from dir. Lawrence 8 
fow days since in which ho announces tho successful com- 
pletion of Mr. Edison's mill for crushing and soparating 
Jow-grado iron ores withholds unfortunately sll thoso 
dotails which the mining world most wish to know. 

Thad on opportunity of discussing this mill with Bir. 
Edison io tho epring of 1894 at his lsborstory in New 

; Jorsoy, and he gavo mo his rossons for thinking the now 

‘ mill would rovolutionizo tho presont mothods of treating, 
not fron ores chicy, but also low-grade gold ores, Afr, 
Edison bad ovon then been st worl four or five yoars on 
tho mill, and ovidently rogarded its completion os tho 
most important offort of his lifo, 

Referring to tho notes I mado st the time I find that 
tho mill is 5 dry crusher, it welghs only nine tons, and 
will pulverize six thousand tons per day, the wholo of the 
particles passing through a “‘ fifty mesh” screen (2,500 
holes upon a square inch). The present crashing with 
stamps in tho Rand goldficld is to o fineness of 30 
mesh (nino hundred holes) ; each stamp crushes four tona 
por day and requires two-horse power. To crush to fifty 
mesh would reduco tho yiold per stamp more than ono 
half. Mr. Edison's Httle mill then does tho work of 
1,500 stomps ; it crushes nearly throa times as finoly, and 
this with only 350-horso power. 

I cannot say whother tho mill Mr. Lawrence 
ennounces 93 completed fulfils sll the conditions 

‘which Mr. Edison soven years since anticipated. It 
represents, howover, many years of unremitting 
experimont ond a vast sum of money, and coming from 
tho “ wizard of Menlo-park ’’ isa noteworthy dovclop- 
ment. Yours isithfully, 


25, Cucsham-place, S.W., March 23, 

Sir,—The lotter of Mr. J. Lawrenco, which appears in 
your columnsof tho °5th ult.,having como cnder my notico, 
. I would bog Ieavo to point ont that the writer appears to 
( bo under cn illusion—misleading to others as woll as 
: himself—in supposing that Mr. Edison bss tho exclusive 
monopoly of any process for the magnotic separation of 
fron from its low-grado ores. 

Lhavo before mo documentary’ ovidenco that such a 
process is already, and fora Jong timo past has beon, in 
operation at Pitkiranta, in Finland, and that by it two 
tons of low-grade oro, containing 31°45 por cont. of iron, 
are concentrated to one ton containing 58°24 per cent. ot 
a cost of 2s, Sd. per ton. 

Tho oro yielding this particular result is not from 
the nowly-discovered field roferred to, estimated to con- 
tain €0 million tons, but from another part of tho Scandi- 
nuvion poninsula, as accessiblo to British ports, said ta 
contain 290 milllon tons of such ore—from afield which 
had been worked from time immemorial up to tho first 
helf of the 19th century. 

lam, Sir, yours obediontly, 
Aoril 2 F. DUFFEI™. 

71h) fal 
Open l SGD! 



First, Best and Largest, 



: For . 

From the 


I "2am 

Orange, M. l,Journal 

APR 6 1901 

i  —, 



“he Grent laventor utente a New 
\ Tspe of Storage Bat~ 
i tery. 

Thomas A. Edson arrived heme 

from: Florida on Tuesday, He has been 
ers fur sIN Weel and bus - 

had un splendid time ishing and sate - 
ing. returning home in exvellent 
health and brown as a ber Mr 

Edison takes his vacation in Februn 
and March, and he enjoys bls outiss 
then ty the full, as he gaes away not 
only at the end of perhaps the busies 
paried of the years work, but at 

MOSt Upplensant Keasoy of hey eet 
when the March winds are especlliy 
trying te the srent inven incl- 
dent two his return home comes the 
announcement tant his lawyers are 
busy securing International patents on 

A new style of storage battery which, - 

it ts id, wlll revolutionize methods 
of electrie propulsion. It is 

stood that the battery is an unquall 

ted success, and solver the problem | 

of great currying power with the inin- 
imum of welght. Another feature in 
connection with this new invention is 
that his luwyers have not met with 
one reference in thelr work of secure 
ing patents, the Invention’ belng an 
entirely new one that has not etn 
worked out or touched upon by any 
other inventor in any recorded yut- 


under- , 


' First, Bestand Largest. First, Best and Largest. 

‘| exhibie 

“| formation: 

“| Edison. 


\z No. 

‘4 ny 


From the 





From g-inrk, Nut. Newa- 

: APR 21901 ~, 

ee CD 

ee & 

Tnventor, May_Dutld Addition to ‘Hts! 
“ Went Orange Laboratory, 

According to reports, Thomas Alva Eai- 
son, the inventor, whose home and Inba- 
ratory are: in. West-Orange, will Probably 

+ ts Jatest_ Invention, a“new storage 
battery, 4 the Buffato Expositio: 2 No in- 
ibe obtafied:. nowatoe ita 
entlon, either from Mr. 
,Of: his assistants;:: The 
i " its that he hag Invented & 
new battery, but he will not give out any 
detalls until all his patents, foreign and do- 
mestic, are secured, 

From what can be learned the new bat- 
tery will probably revolutionize the storing 
of electricity, By utilizing cadmium, . 
metal hitherto nat in general use, Mr, Edie 
son, It is raid, reduces the weight of the 
battery by half, and In addition diminishe: 
its deterloration to one-tenth, Althoug? 
not what might be called a rare m 
cadmium has has not heen used a 
deal fn the commercial world, Mr, E H 
discovered the fitness of the inetal for th: 
particitlar purpose after he-went neurl: 
the whole gamut of metats. 

Jf the new battery proves the success 
that ft fs expected it wil], Mr. Edlson may 
have a fuctory erected on his laboratory 
grounds in West Orange, and turn out hir 
own machines and reap whatever prafits 
may accrue, It is also itkely that a com- 
pany will be formed to bulla automobijer 
which will be equipped with the new bat- 
terles, 4 

OT re amaneee 

*regurdto “thie 

: , __ 1885, 
Kea ~ a 
From the 
| eee 
vy. 2. NEWYORK Cy 
i Pe f 
me inten 
‘ Feowa 



Toronto-Ont. - Wrorld 
SAP 22 1901 


Ta : 

TheMWBe desulte statement that has yet 

‘J heer made about Edison's new storage 
| battery comes from Mr. W. 8. Barstow, 
Seneral manager of the Edison Tituminat- 
tog, Company of Brooklyn, ‘In on address 
before tho Brooklyn Institute be referred 

departure from the lead. trpe of batt 

‘{be aunounced by Mr. Edison, Mr. Edison's 
battery contains no lead of any kind, the 
waterlals composing [t are chenp, tte 
velght Is only about one-third of the pre- 
sent battory, and Its depreelation low 
Altho It will be found, when a description 
of ft Jé-scen, that ‘it is not what may be 
called‘a new discovery, It Is, nevertheless. 
A suceessful develomnent of what many 
[se turned aside -as useless. In fuct 

this fs true of many of Mr, Edison's in- 
ventlons. The uew type of battery witi 
he announced within the next few weeks.” 
It fs about time we.hvard trom Ediso: 
ofain, Ag a rule he dées not waste ae 
time and something * usefi) ought to he 
the outcome of hix researches during the 
past year or two. For twenty years pack 
juventors have been in quest of the per- 
fect storage battery. Great linprovemonts 
sheve been made from time to time, pnt 
the storage Dattery Is still far from ratis- 
factory. If Edison Produces what Mr. Kar- 
stow foreshadows his Invention meer 
with untversal rejulclng. 

to the new battery a8 follows: “An entire; 

has recentiy heen Thvented, ana wir xeon 

See een eee 






From the ‘ 

: - ONAL PRE | 
fs i 32 SS 


: hae é 
a3 2747 0 
(3 | lees” 
, From. Sr. Louis, Mo.-Hopublic 



: en why: 
His brain it worketh Uke & clock, ' 
With vigor unabated, ‘33° 
fo structures of his arms to shock 
{Mankind are calculated. 3°", 
aoe eeraiaes ‘ 
{lalear‘it hearoth from afar, | °.¢ 
VAnd ‘balla ring out his praise 
hile'on his heart engraven are 
) manners, moods and phasca. 

-p-tthe world: of Hight Js at his fe 
«. To carry out. his orders,: * 
1 |. J Volces hia av'ry word repen 
‘ . | Invearth’s jremotest borders. 

:! Bo wlry‘and so active,” 
_Or. ono!whogo: personality 

\ves there a man fo quick-as he, 

+ | 0 ts equally ‘attractive The Hing! 


He yoRe cry 


i. J—hdrerlis 

t. “nit 

ok vereery covrnennee 


Ps" Balippings: and: Bulgaria at the 
thly meotiig) to-morrow afternoon, 


: ‘A gbdteor-raturned’ ta his hors! 

y ALEdison: returned to his y 

etrany) Kat Went Orange, Satur- 

day. plant, . afters n extende: stay In 
or! { 

ol 4 . 
"Phe Tory, Cornera Social Club will havo 
1S gheed ‘ ko-THOrrow Might: in Hedgo's: 

Hail. : | 

Bae ltt : at 
Alarcos accompat ‘from’, 
anit bek thy John Bottomley, nephew}! E 
Se.8let William’ thompson “(Lord Kelvin); |; 
Bt} ASHemphy Wo ofthe Norfolk dnd ‘Weat- 
er “?Mr,;Beach, of the! Gen 

aH z .! ithe 
‘Moyntain: Traction. Company ‘of, 
e ;Dayid » Young, gqneral! manager, 
eth thiJérsey Sireet Rallway Com-: 
DANY, /a0g Menara,’ Vivian And Blyth.) Tho-|! 
ipartywas'mat ‘at ‘Uo; laboratory by. Mr. 
S oni andy WV. 8, Mallory and; William 
Bi Hlmoro,.All the members of'thg party |' 
wei e'etiolned to secrecy. about tha ‘details |! 
otkthe itrip' ‘through tho’ works. ‘On the 
‘wayoutitrom iNew York the party. had an. 
opportunity! to view -a-plece, of Mr. Mar- 
cota apngretn ect cup ‘on the Hner 
chland, “which was | 5 
plein! Hoboken wpe tnopreasat neg 



To show how the instruments worked i 

aie & there hud been brought to the conversa . 

2 ee Beat about a doesn penne macula, for the 7 

7 AZione”~ — | ateuctor Willian Hy Wang, Bete 9 Fzead, In- 

Attractions at a“ Conversazion Shara’ tym ad anouneed that Bey 

j: i were i, ul ic ‘s ec 

+. at Columbia University: institution, “One. ris Benson, 

: Ate ete a was both deaf and blind. He cannot hear a 

eas “Ghoahs tative NE. Bercehing, “tho: vibration ot ends Only 
Ni bit 

ght THe Dean, Made te Hasees | Hegebend! siege eerpance wt 

Fs tA ae cs a 0! c a e 

‘ Light—The Deaf. Made to Hear— . specttors, Altogether ‘he has never, hed 

An Experiment that. Failed. 



but. five hours of Inatruction in-talking, 
His, yocabulary 

- : . ¥ y Is Umited to. ie 
First, Best and Largest. than a dozen wort: : é 

tle moro 
: ave 
. a r; 7 oie t ical E whe Sere ee Bpo! 22h 
The American Institute of Electrical En- over the instr Was wonderful. to 
INCORPORATED 185 gincera held Inst night in two of the build. Ser ite: Wroviounly cag gas that spread 
on > a 7 ings at Columbfa University what they’. that came sceming almost to reach: to-t! 
A called a “ conversazlono "—an exhibition of very edges of his Slghtiess, dull eyes; In a” 
zNo-———— varlous electrical appliances that had been Kinet mechanical volce he repeated. the 
Ps x recently invented, or the models of which j akouphone. He said "bad boy,” * papa,” 
Foe. CY, oe ot had been improved of tate. Theke wee a 1 ond several short words. Then a gsramo- 
=— 4 o ‘Pesta’ Mato: ‘ phono was attached to the {nstrument-and 
speclat display of Nikola ‘Tesia’s ose i i he iatened “tow gay march, smiling and 
From the the inventor showing an audience that | Dentin, time on the table with his fingers, 
packed a large auditoriiim in’ Havemeyer it Palmer's “ fac eimile picture tele- 
. ‘Hall how many kinds of spurks his .con- eielment’ int vention the frhiblts, eit ine 
j triv a netate, Hundreds: of “halt-t Jetu: etches, hand wie ' 
trivance could generate, dreds: balf-tone pictures, sketches, handwriting, ' 
10 ix ‘ guests attended the conversazione, aniong » Gnd the Ike employing meted over long ' 
S “othe : ° Y nary telegrap : 
32 m) patenea Seat clans. Prestnent: Bathe lage oe he grist fe ort io sphicelig i 
PARK PLACE } Was secompanied by the German Ambas- ‘yedueed™ to, its normal size when teeelved, { 
RI FUA | *Gt"ina thirtyctno exhivlta none seemed {taining a Seroater secotn ee seer eese, OF Ob | 
New 0 K IT to attract more general interest, both sro *tronamitting stylus "Cs SUPECe for the | i 
experta and cusunl observers, than the An attempt was made to send three plet- | 
POB | high-power electric lights exhibited as the ures te Chicago, the instrument on exhibi- | 
azar” FO) | theese sus explained apaw 90 aoa ae | | Hom hasine een connected with Celepraph | 
1, ires, le me, i 
‘47 f | the tilumtnating: x edluni, instead of & lm, }-although the efficacy of the oppliiance hag i i 
os in the uF yaa e acne ne Ta : Previously, been demonstrated over &reat , i 
: LIGE ‘Abe iene: Sag ie mercury vapors e tents ,distances.. Lute at night word was Te- | ij 
‘hottom® ot each is somen metniry trees been maderte MecHeO hat 2 here feo ae at 
‘ " ‘which, when the current of electricity has { and the ex, lunntion for the fallure wae that «| 
From Ay ‘ Referred dor Tee euerenr igteeesatn Per | | Tntieh induction At wate reg, weeless By too | | 
y the mercury direct, ard not by means of PA practical apmllance. " and ‘one that oa 
the usual coll, for which reason less power . everybody could understand the workings 5 
hoe lx needed to produce the same amount of lof was the telepherage carrier, for the at 
oN AFR Nght than Js required in tho old Incandes- j transportation of freight. in small bulk, | i 
Cent ecullar colored Neht’ ts emitted Above the carrier, which is a diminutive | 
from the ‘tubes. - ft ie halt pucplen hee curtent Dy eeatnae wee that: obtains a | 
F green: This, according to the explanation nbove. Along this supporting ¢ need age | i 
in of the exh{bitor, ip a disadvantage, but It le the I de t d : of 
can be obyiated by the use of counteract- ple the cur is made to Speed nt a Hehtning « it 
ing colored shades The senor counteract: rate hy the aid of @ motor. The vehicle | | 
reemed to bo espeainily Interestet: ie the will be used for transferring packages fram { 
long tubes was the fact that everybody | - ship to shore, from tunnel to surface, and ‘ 
who come into the room had his or hor Fra: rotk 
features so distorted that the skin of the | - trigal Inginesting a Gonmnt ee ter OL Elec: 
Fast Gofetcorsted aniatious, he iss |_| Bad on lew hs apatianee Yor whale ie 
that came under the Nght seemed purpish permeabillty. An ‘claborate displae of we : 
gray, the pupils of the eye lost thelr nat- M. I. Pupin’s long-distance ocean. telephony: ' 
ural ue, wl ever it had been, and as- war to be seen in model form. .--«s : 
on 8 ‘room near the Hewitt lights wore tele stdemar Fens eng chhonograph and | 
the akouphone _and_  akoulalion: invented tre me with much e thus am, Te gic: | 
5 Intely. by, My Re Hutenisone opp ees ricians nthuslasm, It’ is ani 
microtelephonite instruments, 50 construct- {ntrlen\ te appliance, to ge a eed tor. sending ' 
ed ag to reproduce and Intensify sounds away from home. The message is record a H 
and sth presen thelr quality. atte acon automatically, wand when the person returns t 
Sate of opera glasses with a. telephone ; the messnge remeniod nee a heae, ; 
receiver attached,. and. ma: Kern to i 

the theatre or other. pubile pince by. a a ear ae ma 
deaf person. The akoulalion, used for sim- 
ilar purposes, is not portable, but is used 
in the classroom for the :jeaching of the 
“deat to talk, : ¥ : ee 


| Fisst, Best a Largest 


cin ay 
pes rp dk 


[ti Par dl | 



101, by, tha 
perc ACes ait 
y.}—-AMONE tho 
ees ‘on? Priddy. 
lok, agent for. 
£ inyen' for 
By his, inves ntlon:: £01 

& inda’ thi 
The" sldry ‘of ber er 

“It has log: be i 
ecepted’ Axloin ‘that’ these lowrgra i i> 
re repelled by the magnet.” i 
rer, Edlgou put several’ 
nd “observed a moverne: 
{| Hetadded” severat’ othe: 
+] bY) 14, and then the Telrfarens tthe 
cathe under the -lutinvence -of- thie. ageam 4 
!] luted. magnets ynd-avas Attracted: from tik: 
‘| poorer cunstituen: ae this slouldSlh. 
i] so Edison ‘cannot: He uungelf 
;] astonlshed*at the ambeovery. en 
+] Sclentists In Europe: consider inne: pire 
sult Of this expertment is likely: t6: Day; 
stupendous effect on Industriqg} aifates;}/, 
The pivotal fact of: Edivon's discovery {! 
the posul bility. of" extracting. specuian bitin 
atte iy means of hingnets tog 
dem... This ts a fact whi 
Hevea Possible ‘before? “It ly 

(wehbe on 


First, Best and Largest. 

A Now 



: From the 



hy es ay 

When the he 
ceedings was beg: 

Jersey Citys counsel for the defendants, 
furnished a 
plainant’s ca rd W. Hayes, The 

nn nS RECS Intter bad submitted to the caurt a copy 
es of w Judgment for $1,309.69 held by the 

SURPRISED TO FIND Nailonat Hank of North America of New 

: : ‘ 
Inctdent ‘In Chancery tn Sanat 

and John EK. Searles, who was formerly, 
prealdent: of the defendant corporation’. 

and Mr, Carriele remarked: 

“We admit that there was such a judge 
ment, but I luive here « copy of an’ order 
of the New York Supreme Court vacating 
that judgment, Jt was, slgned only yes- 
terday." F . . 

Complainant's counsel evinced still fur- 
ther surprise when Mr. Carrick went on to 
. Tend an affidavit by one of the defendant 
4) company’s ofticers, setting forth that the 
b nota on which the Judgment was obtained 

had been taken up and a long-tlme note 
negotiated with the Bank of Amerlen for 

® like amount, 
GN. Ma secretary of the Edison 
“United Campnny, was called as a witness. 
by Mr. Hayes antl wis examined at length 
+upon‘the nature of contracts made by the | 
defendaut company with foreign corporn-, 
{tons tor-the-sale-of onvgFAplis abroad, 

With the Salé Brought Agaluat 
he’ dinon United Phono 
oy “graph Company. : 
* Westlmony ‘was’ heard by ‘Vice Chancel- 
lor Emery tospy on the'rpplication mado 
by the Edison Phonograph Works for the 
appointment of a recelyer for the Edison’ | 
Untted Phonograph Company.: The action: 
ix another pliase of the dght heing ‘mada 
hy the corporation's subsidiary to the 
Kdison Phonograph Company, the parent 
orgnulzatlon of which Thomas A, Edison 
Ix the hend, to recover the foreign salen 
rights held exelustvely by, the . Edison 
Untied Company, , ee 

‘The technical ground for the proceed- 
Ings ia insolvency. The allegations of In- 
solvency sire made, and in each inatance 
fre specifically dented. A month ago a On examlnuition by Mr. Carrlek, the 
similar quit, browsht on slmilar grounds, , witness sild that the company had on 
hy the United States Phonoxraph Com- laepoult with the Guarantee Trurt Com-- 

pany, one of the allled corporations, was ee ae New. oes cant necnunt on 

dismissed upon the payment of tho judg: ‘nearly 7600. ‘The possersion of these assets, 
ment held by the complainants againat the [ula ‘vielbly surprised the complainant's 
!dfean Untied Canenns, counsel, : 

‘terest in the English company amounting - 
“to more thar $220,000 nnd that Ht held $@,000 
In the German company. ‘ 

tn the present’ pra-" 
this morning, Charley ; 
t. Carrick, of Carrick & Wortendyke, of + 

tae for the come , 

York against the Mdlson United Company ¢ 

Tho vice-chancellor glanced at the paper, | 

“Via, testified that that company held an tne” 

First, Best and Largest. 


, No. 

G chr. why 

From the 

Jy ,o80l Res 





© United Unexpeetediy shows 
“that 1 Man Lasse, 

Aaneta, . 
‘Chancellor: Emery, In: Nowart on the 

‘sraph Works for the “appolat 
ment of 
Pitan the Tatlsa CUnttedt Pion 
pkravh Company, turnlahed a: serte; 
ae eenes for ‘the ahununt and fudlenter 
ie (lotermlned effort to prevent the tdte 
y8or. Phonograph Company, the ity 
osganization, of hich ‘Thomas Ad 
BulLJ8 the head, to recover “thi fre 

Ixhta, uw . regs 
the. Edigon United Cont gaciualvels by 

Tho gFaund for i) 
speclili Tie I, 

a cay dehest, a aheat can, 
many showed that “far 
Bia ta een ented anata 
ping had toga tn ene ce Hi 

ny, iat HAS on deposit, and 000 
ees ensh. The hearlie was post- 

Sete arid 

Ung In "nt 
‘ We wre 

i:Phe fieaflng yerterday before..Vioe- fh” 


application made by the ‘Hdlsan Thono- * 



[neers Gees 


yey ite oe 

eee OT SAM 
_ _ 
“| London letter to The Iron Age. 
“We have at last an authorized ‘statement 
&s8 to the Intentions and objects of the British 
syndicate. which: has been known to have a 
more or less organic connection with the Edison 
magnetic process, J, Lawrence, of the Ma- 
chinery Trust, and chairman of the Edison Ore 
Mining Syndicate,’ has’ made public the eitua- 
tion so far as his company $s concerned. From 
& mass of irrelevant detail, I subjoln the ma- 
terfal facts, as stated by the chairman: 
“Some three years 40 a number of us, large- 
Jy Influenced by the sclentific views of the late 
Dr. John Hopkinson, FP, 2. S., the electrician and 
‘engineer, became Interested, with Dr, Hopkin- 
s0n himself, in the dixcussiong of crushing and 
Separation of low grade iron ores, which Mr, 
Edison had been carrying on experimentally in 
America for. some years previously, and upon 
which he had spent some $2,500,000. ‘Being sat- 

- Se 
und (2) the scope of field in which they might 
be applied, Thirty-four Bentlemen accordingly 
subscribed an equal amount of money for this 
purpose privately. 

“After a careful examination of the mechant- 
cal processes we formed o partnership arrange- 
ment with Mr. Edison In his Patents, We then 
employed Beological, metallurgical and mining 
experts, and after several of us had visited Mr. 
Edison's works in America we began explora- 
tions throughout the Whole of Great Britain and 
the greater part of Europe and the northern 
Coast of Africa to determine -the most ellgthle 

:{8pot tin which to commence operations for min- 
- | ing and crushing low srace fron ores, 

“The most promising deposit that our expert 
Beologist came across was the vast ‘deposit. of 
+ [iron on the Dundertand iver, in Norway, which 
:/hus been known to metallurgists for a number 
C] of years to be the Brestest anywhere in Europe, 
. “The chief of our sclenilfic staff, Dr, Theodor 
C{ Lehmann, of Preiberg University, one of the 
+¢best: metallurgists in Europe, who had been 
conducting similar explorations for rome years, 

made elaborate horinzs, cross trenches and as- 

ays. ond shipped a large quantity of ore from 

Dunderland to Mr, Edison for trcatment. . 

~"This deposit, hag -Bitherto been commercint 

unworkabie, as lelng a trifle too lean for sil 
[ving direct to the bint furnace, although very 
rich for the purpose of crushing und concentrat- 

Ing. Another element that had farmerly barred 
+} its utilization for separating purposes was the 
t} existence of a large proportion of specular hem- 
-;atite combined with magnetite. , 
ef!) “It has only been within the Jast elght months 
“| that our codirector, Mr. Edison, has heen able 
i; ta solve the Prokiem of separating specular 
+; hematite, and as soon as we Were satisfied by 
h reports and subsequent personal obzeryations 
ef {1 Amerien that this could he accomplished and 

ave Erickson has sOctrod'a post. 
tion In the Birch Bollor Works at Dover, 
~—Willlam MeEnteo moved to 0 
lin last weok, Pe ae 
‘7 Samuel Cramer’ lias secured a post- 
cause Stockholm and moved: ¢! yf _ 
. . faa 

Avolt ait drying Inbaljanty ana’ une 
whic! -,cleunkes and heals the “moment 
Ely"a Crean Balm Is ancha remedy and cure: 
Head rani quiet 

vickly,~ : 

atte enews renner | 
Th canxed tiMentty th 

to a great extent ture of hearlng yee aac t 

F's. Cream Bio", dropping OF mucus hay f 

‘ofce and henting bave great! im 7 

JW. Di | 

in favor of the Edison processes, we formed 
What war practically an investigating commis. 
sion, to xo Into the matter further, because ‘if 
one-half of what Mr. Edison claimed for hls in- 
ventlons was realizavie. We were face to face 
with an industrial revolution of the Breatest and 
most far reaching magnitude. We therefore 
ought to determine (1) whether his Inventions 
were, mechanically and commerclally practicable 


oi wwidsony Attorney at Law 

at a commerelal profit, we at once exercised our 
option and fnaty acquired the Norwegian prop- 
erty. We are now enabled to take two tons of 
this low grade nor-Bessemer ore and, by the 
combined ldison processes, prodtce from it over 
one ton of high grade Bessemer ore averaging 
G5 per cent of metaltic tron. 

“We have proved already on a portion of the 
Property the existence of over eighty million 
tons of iron ore, and there js reasonable hope 
for helleving that other parts of this property: 
may turn out proportionately &oad, k 
| “It is our intention at present to erect works 
and ship this ore exclusively to British. fron- 
masters, there hi Ing already a market for it at 
& superior price,” : 


TSOrS Raa A ee 


fae eee 

go et as 


Ayres . 




From, a 

Tove. Nene 

MAY 3° J 9p}. 

Neriwe - 
are ee 

. —_—_—— 
Reported Discovery of Color Photog- 

on raphy. . 
e Announcements of, the discovery of 
‘color photography come along with the 
same regularity and frequency tis the ‘an- 
Touncements of the discovery of perpet- 
uaj sdotlon, and they are recelved by scté 
bi $9 : 

.ffeular mode of developing and printing 
from negatives. By the use of some “se- 
cret chemical solution" the Inventor, {It 1s 
‘Jaimed, brings out the natural colors 
of the objects photographed... ... 
‘The fact that most sefentists are skep- 
tical about color photography does not 
Trove, of course, that it is a sclentific tm- ! 
possibility. Very few scientists belteved i 
that a machine could be devised that j 
Would reproduce the exact sounds of the | 
human voice until Hprsox astonished the | 
\ world with his phonograpb.. Now that i 
“we are familiar with the phonograph we : 
| marvel at its simplicity, — adele 
It is a fact, however, that the advances , 
toward color photography have been slow : 
find unsatisfactory. As carly 151810 cer- , 
ain observations were made by Dr. Sce- i 
recx of Jena which tended to encourage ! 
the view that direct color photograpby Is 
within the range of possibility. Stnee: 
that time Sir Joux Henscier, Hunt, Bee- 
gurreL, St. Victor, Porrrevin, St. Fio- 
Rest and Captain Anyey have. expert- 
mented without reaching any satlsfne- 
tory resulta... aie 
The most distinct, advance toward ac- 
tual color photography, however, was 
moadtein189}-by-Professor-Gapnien Lipp- 
Many of Paris. -He suceeeded In fixing : 
“upon the interlor of a sensitive fila the : 
‘game colors that were Possessed by the © 
“Imagen the enamera, but every attempt ; 
“made to obtain prints from the negatives. ; 
‘showing the natural colors, resulted In : 
‘tallure. The details of the discovery of 
H the Bern photographer will therefore be 
awaited with muel Interest by scientific 

Fe A ME see gal tn e 

ae et 

First, Best and Largest. 


From tho 

- ee) | 


ithace,-N. ¥. News. 

ae MAY 16 1901 


Thomas A. Edison Will Send Espert to" 
; 7 oF: Crew Race and 
Observation Cars, : : 
Thomus A. Edison has decided to | 
send C. A. White, the expert in his; 
avorutory to this‘eity on ‘the suth uf! 3 
the month, full caulpment will] q 

de brought fur taking a” moving ‘pie- 
sure Of the crows and” observation , 
tain, A raft will be plated in the 
Nater aud the expert will place his 

tpparatus so that the crews will he i Cc 

detween ‘himself and the shore. 

“Mr. Edison bad heard of the: wen- 
lerfal facilities offered for the tak-. 

ng of such a pleture on the Cayuga : 

ake course which would include both 
he observation train and the crews, 
\t the Poughkeepsie race he was un- 
ible to take a picture of the train. 
When this pieture wll have been 
vampleted Jt will be taken Imme- 
Hately to the Pan-American expusi- 
lon where It will ve Shown daily. ¢ 

First, Best and Largest. 


From the 

[years , 
i Pane ance ‘ 


+ Phased 

Topeka, anJounal 
a MAY 22 190) 

Moving Picture of Mrs: Nation. 
Edison's ‘moving . picture of Mrs, 
Carrie. Nition “In action" will be o fea-_ 
ture of the kinematograph’ exhibition. 
to follow: the Scottish concert pro- 
gramme ‘at Odd -Fellows’ hall tonight. 
The picture hus not_yet -heen. seen-in 
~ Topeka,” but has’ proven art attractive 
subject wherever shown by the Scottish 
foncert company during its present 
tour. Most of the other subjects to be 

| shown by the kinemntograph tonight 
i are genuinely Scotch in character, and 

the highland dancing scenes and 
marches of the Scots Greys and Black 
3Vatch are sald to be particularly In- 
teresting. Another moving picture of 
interest shows the--Australian and Ca- ; 
nudinn contingents on the march in 
South Africa.. The entertainment js 
open to the general public as well as 
the Scottish residents of the elty. 


First, Best and Largest. 


From the 

pers PREs 

Hew yORK «Ty 

2747 (10 


ca dvortiser, 


ANY 14, 1901 

Delits and Asnets of the Creditors, 

Tho schedule of the debts and asscts of 
John B. Scartes, once of the sugar trust, 
who assigned on March 5, was made publlo 
yosterday afternoon by tho assigneo, Ed- 
ward I, Dwight of tho Inw firm of Carter, 
Hughes & Dwight of 16 Broadway. Fol- 
lowing Ia tho Hat of securcd creditors: 

Southorn Pacifla Company, $100,000; | 
Travellers’. Insurance Company, $100,000; 
American. Deposit: and Loan Company, 
$720,000; National Bank of North America,~| 
$175,000; International Trust Company of 
Daltimore, $327,500; Seaboard Natlonal 
Bank, . $100,000; Marcellus “Hartley, $50,- 
000; Amorican Loan and Trust Company of 
Boston, $0,000; Kings County Trust Com: 
pany, $28,000; G. 8. Weedon, 71 Broadway, 
25,000; H. H. Rogers, $26,000; National 
Bank of Pueblo, Col., $41,017.78; Wost- 
orn National Hank of Now York, $90,000; ; 
Johnstown National Bank, $10,000; Mor- 
chants’ National Nank, Philadolphia, $10,- 
000; First Natlonat Dank’ of Shenandoah, 
Pa., $10,000;--Gettysburg Natlonal Hank, 
$10,000; Cecl! Natlonal Bank of Port De- 

: poalt, Mu., $5,000; R. J. Kimball, 71 Broad- 

way, $16,000; Franktln Trust Company of 
Brookiyn, $55,000; Market and Fulton Na- 
onal Bank, $25,000; J. I. Carliste, 30. 



Broad streot, $10,000; Bedford Bank of F 

Brooklyn, $3,000; C. D. Simpson, 66 Broad- 
way, $10,000; W. M. Tuttle, amount un- 
known. “All the above aro secured by 
shores tn varlous concerns jn which Mr. 
Soarles was interested. Gonoral Electric 
Company of Schoncetndy, $14,039.38, on a 
contract for olectrical machinory at the 
Cornucopia mines; Motropolitan Life In- 
surance Company, $180,260; Pecoplo’s 
Trust Company of Brooklyn, $10,000. Tho 
fotal of secured creditors {s $1,000,657.76 
and the value of securttiog io placed at 

Tho upsecured creditors ‘are Duluth 
Furnace Company, $60,000; “Marcellus. 
Hartley, $60,758; :J, Foster Searles, -Ded- 
hom, Mass,, $6,102.45; Gdroline A Searles, 

$6, 612.20; "@, 8: Blackwoll,” $500; Wostern 
Natlonal. Dank of: Now-York, $23,000; Na- 
Honal Investment Company, $17,350; mor- 
chandiao and supplies, for mines in various 
small accounts, $8,000; various other debts 

In'amnali amounts, $70,000; Brooklyn Unton 
Gas Company, $16.70; the New York Ave- 
nuo' Methodist Eplscopal ‘Church, for un- 
rald-check for paw-rent, $100; other house. 
hold-expenses, “$395,052 Carter, Hughes & 

‘| Dwight, for legal expenses, $1,057.66. Total” 
| of the unsecurad debts, $296,801.85. 

To the Edison Unlted Phonograph Com- 
pany, ‘a ef. of Indorsed paper, Mr. 
Rearicn -_ i Knee. W. 0. Gay & Co,- of. 
Boston hold. accommoadatlan paper to the 
amount of $95,000, Tho notes were for. 
tho Amerlean Cotton Company, and Scartes 
was :the guorantor, . Tho’ Internatlonat 
"Brust Company holds paper made’ for tho. 
American. .Loom Company Sndorsed by 
Searlos, for $30,000. The Peoplo's Trust 
Company of Brooklyn holda indorsed ‘pa- 
per for $20,000, 

* ‘eis 


The asnets compriso real estate, por- 
fonal property and stocks and bonds, ‘The 
roat-estnto Is as follows: me 

‘Elght hundred and thirty acres of land 
nat’ Great Neck, Manes, comprising the 
Groat HIM estate, are valued at. $100,000. 
and ‘nro subject to an unrecorded mort- 
gage to Henry H..-Rogers for $100,000; 
the ;Cornucopia- Minos: near Carnucopla, 
Ore., valued at $000,00), aro subject to 
an’ unrecorded mortgage to Henry H, Rog. 
ors; Yollow: Jacket inlnos at Yollow Jackot, 
Idaho, valued at $500,000, standing In the 
namo of James & McChisney;- Columbus 
mines In/La Platte County, Cod, valued ‘at’ 
$200,000," tie: In namo ‘of Winthrop M. 
Tuttlo; one-fifth Interest in Monolith ming 
of Idaho,-valucd at $25,000, property. held 
by fivo parties who made uote to Western 
National ‘Dank, which‘ is now held by 
Thomas ‘IL. Rothwell; ‘lot on St. Mark's 
avenue, Brooklyn, valued at $20,000, sub. 
Ject to mortgage. to Hornco J. Morse; real 
estate, ‘plant and machinery’ of ‘Duluth 
Manufacturing Company; valued at $200,- 
000, ‘aubject to mortgage to Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company for $1 
eatate-bulldings and machinery of Ironton 
Structural Steel Company of Duluth, mort- 
gaged to Central Trust Company of Now 
York. to secure bonis of $440,000; lot In 
Greenwood Cemotory, $11.50, and Jot in 
Evergreen Cometery, New’ Haven, Conn., 
$577.50." Total yalio’ ot real eatato, 3h. 

Among. the personal property (s included 
worthless cliecks’ amounting to’ $25,000, 
household goods, vd stock, jawelry, books 
and: pictures..amounting ‘to $6,800; car- 
tiages, $1,500; sloop. yacht Alcedo, $1,500; 
naphtha Jwunch Gladys, $1,500, Also 
money‘ loaned to .the amount -of *$32,000, 
which: is ddclared’of-no valuo, and an‘on- 
dowmoent. policy ‘in Now York Lito Insur- 
ance Company,’ payable” Decomber, 1004, 
for $10,000, 
audi eae hotds" tho followin In. eatocks: 

a ron-Coz- (preferred): 
3,858 shares: Alabama‘ Consoll: 
Coal and ‘Iron Company: (common), 
4,00 shores, American’-,Loom * Co. 
1,890 shares. Fisheries Cc isteaeicdd » 14 1750 
1,184 shares Sprogue,. Electric Co. 
(preferred) Ae eceseereceeee 69,200 
1,008 sharca Electric Co.: | 
++..No present valuo 
Coal and 
«No Poort valuo 
950 shares Tyatt toiling’ ‘Dearing Co. 
(COMMON) + ..>..0++ ” * 19,000 
600 “shares: ‘Union Typewriter’ Co. 
+ 23,550 

/ 70,000 

206 ahares ‘Whiltney Manufacturing. * 

100 shares” “American Grdnance: Go. 

(preferred) eeeee 10,000 
80 ‘shares “A: . 
(common) . « 10,000 
100 shares Am 10,000 


100’sharen.Minneapolls Har St. Louls . | 

Rallway . Co, :(common)....« _ (8,000 
120 ‘ehtires HAR. Worthington Gor. 

(preferred) ... 13,800 
40 shores Pullman Palaco Car BY 

64 shares -Amierican .Suger Re! 

Co, .{common).. * 9432 
5 shares ‘Ame: 
Ca.‘ (nreferred) 6,688 

200"ehares Terminal Warchouse Co., 
‘No. present value 

2300 shares Natlonal Investment Co... 

No prenoat valua 
intla 1Kby Washi 

fo: peenent valua 
600, hares Standard !Telephono Ca., 

150-shares Diamond: Truck ‘and .Gear, 

ares fiector Stave Co, 
lation); valu eatinated 
it share Greenport Whart.C 
1,600 “shares - Internatlonal . 

phono Co, and 34,666 shares Inter- - 

» hattonal Gramophone Co, ond Edl- ae 

son’ United Phonograph:Co.; held 
subject to agreement with -O. F., 
Morlarity;estimated valuc. 

ds nton Structu 


gaia ‘ferminai Warchouse'Go: 
39 bor pds ,American . Typo .Foun 

No present’ value | + 

serene” present, ralug: : 

oe ean RARER Bhd Ses 




The ves aly 

1 PO, Box’.” 
BAT: a 

From the 

a Ago 

i Pe’ PLACE 
th, oe ary 

Ihe f 



stead? Bredério! 

Sc . 
Heeeee Eee 

| First, Best ze ae 


d First, Best and Largest, 

oe 4 No. 

: oe 

PARK ta 

From ie a 40) 
Me hil eee Pa Pre 

Berbatcn to “The Presa, - 
ay 15—‘Thoms ade Edson 
6 the port jhat ho was forced out 
he directorate"of the General Elec- 
“at* the annual, meeting 

‘His business partner, W. 3, Mntlory, 
+ gaia, to-day that Mr. Edison resigned 
H ‘from the directorate two years ago, but 
“nis? -tollow-directors had not seen fit: to” 
eptt his. resignation. ate wae. at we 
‘qwn’ retterated. tha th 
to, be. director. 

: "yenterday. was 


pce Ne Ps, 


aeemceenee enemas: Mn 

First, Best and Largest. 


From the 

First, Best and Largest. 
lee ot First, Best and Largest. 



GC , = ' . 

From the ' AN a ch? For-—= — _— 
| jong bs Tusa oe 
! fo | 
ae We ¥, Xx. Teibune: ; JONAL PRE. 
Dea ei BGs 
2747 = YOR “( 

ie thutigen 
Le N. ve sored 

MAY 15 190 

neers ‘ot ay 

1a entra 
ca Walson' gent: ine 

his. reste! 

toc! mere “ot the ‘General Elec! octrié 
Firananny esterday, ected tha’+ old 
Board o! pirectors wrth ie exception of 
0" Wasy succes ended : 

Oy sputtit was: motyaccepted ne! 
er attende 

pecnause he ‘wiot 

6 genre signed Be 
{wos lack: 

XS ene “untess there: 

a eet 

\ : 
i r+ = Schnectady, N. ¥., May 14.— ty in responee to atolent 
I stoc seholders of Ct nya At the annual meeting qand\then omy 0 Sana pressing hornets 
i Mt couti I he General Mlectric Company: to- -day, . tf ci gone Feapondea at’ Btockholders oF the “Delgware x 
} routine business was transacted. ‘The old board of direct venience.” Hie then weed that nis sce at Hudeee Boned of Me Hanne vith, the | 
: il was re-elected with the exception of LT. Asdidison neds TAS tated ‘on this eat re TON eee a. i, MALO no. ave | 
i ‘| succeeded by F. P. F * f nis name. a 
| CY fish. tof the General Blects 
j , ; ey e always been 

rt from * e direc! 

that he:-cannot f! 

First, Best and Largest. 

au | SES 
Fo Z. Pea ker ea Oe 

From the 

PARK Puce 


\ "rar £0 

i N. Y¥. World. 
“MAY. 26 1901. 

LEY epee cee The 
gh ae . 
Suh i ee ok : 
a Resigned _from Genernl ‘ Bleetric 
fobzcotay pit Ta tones Yenrn Ago. 
eae eon dentes the published 
Fone! the was forced out of ‘tho dle 
rectory of thé"General-Eleatrle Company! 
t the annual meeting of the, corpar 
old'nt: Schenectady, Tuesday, His buat. 
eas partner, W. 8. Malla; Y, ald yeater- 

ay that Mr. Ed 
Wireoterate two ee Prager she 



First, Best and Largest. 


 @ No———_—. 

From the 

ONAL Php. | 
i Pan Ae 8 , 


| (eg? 08 


Nw. M ocnung Journal 

J MIKC16 1901 

Qo aS, 
ut. ‘the: Wizard Wont: Telt Why He 
. Wanted to Leave the General 
v Electric. Gompany. 

Lpng story of the Wout Neheneetady 
af: Fgederick P. Kian ad ‘in director af the 
Benaral ; Klectele Company. “In place of 
Chowgeekdison, which left Kdldon out of 
hin' directorate, wax read With Interest yes 
fordny ! by (the. nuny | fetensde of the 
Wienrd."' ‘The story nixo moved Lilfson 
o write the followlyge lett / i 


rhe facts are quite, the 

pxlgned:two 'vears ano, Amd It was nly 
mat meeting. | 

i to glye his 

SMy,.'Gdlson, however, 
fayons: for-resigniug. 

First, Best and Largest. - 




From the 

sf hos (ITY 
aa Pease 0 
3 | leet’ 

Vm times. © 

° i | 
\ Edison's Retirement, * 
gwar7thomas A. Edison hod 
fpeant forced out of’ thé: Directorate rot the, 

5 % ‘at: the! anopal 
Genoral’ Blpctric’ iCompany. oe ip Pint 

iiMey E 
Matha: report ae 

antsy t was at hia owl 
etated: that -hig:retirement, Was Ot ON ctv 
“request, 1 See tooeouey athe ie Att a 

pat ‘ 5 
chnraholier invthe “company. 

ST Se eg pS Dy ee wen rm 

ae attra bp 38 . 


Po0 pnt ere oe eet 


add Largest. : 

irst, Best and Largest. 

. ‘ 

From the © 




~ gournal 

N.Y. More! 

stor, No He Union“ o a, 

AN.15, 1901: 

UeiAdepebeemlicixon, { 
eotrlelts. vas. forced dy 

Mlreetorate “uf. 

lectrie, ay 
onent. ‘ebinpanter, .! 
*Phocannial jueeting 
Held at! Schencetad 
or lee 

Ity;,;he’'setY forth -thati‘a , 
tlon'to' a peraon ‘ambitious 
gful-career, ahoutd: be avold. 
Whatover /of.mental’ discipline 

htshontd ‘be alpng ‘technical 
: ‘Andha attempted to sustain hig 
Itonebyvolting the-carcer ofa hale 
ida n Jor. ao} auccesstul»manufacturera 5 
vavho:-were not noted ‘for'thelr’ scholara 
v nd!'that‘he had ‘been recently In 
company ‘of forty leading -bankers; 
yitwo of-whom held degre, || 

i interesting to note ‘that the Blec- 

acy Sof: $100,000 a" seni, PM, ilah 
Alas oles ag! pregldent “of. thetAmorte 
jell Felephonn Company ntidiof the VA 
Apanstalatstnna! fatness 

+ thine: "Kdlson: lag met" 
nto 2b. the_handsve! 



P. is a 

botnnt, sas. forged sy 

lrasterute ot. the Ge eral “Wigetrles Co: 
pany, of: whieh ‘the: form Genory 

PAGANI UA) Meet hy 
pen ae Lrligres 

direct are” 
Lan omiuen 

jatont* Inwyer ‘of |. 
avus already: counsel to tha Gener 
eetrle soimpany, One duty 1i ne: ten 
Niry Sof; $100,000 av year, 2 Mrs, srl ly a 
Aoke: olen. na president of ‘tig 
Hell. Tetoplona Company iand: af ‘th 
i ‘lenuYelephone: & Telegraph. Company, + "i 
“henin Wis ’cholée by -Edlsan'as piace: homo see 
a ‘closer™ ayprouch' to cach! ather,:to way thef. 

making fortunes loniin : ‘eolar: ta, 
lat Bltvon. dns met ‘the cugiat 
at. the ham 

Hight per vent dividends on uloutstande| 
Ang Ktovk aud aS nurplux uf $155, ATR: canstid 
’ Auted: (he carnage uf ithe Chleago! Kdlson 
ib tas Old- “Tendency * Observed." - "| sstectele Light Company during tuo! yeur}} 
“Ayer! ‘nied, tha consoltdittan’ of thin’ “Thom which ended wth Marel tsi, ‘according fi 
Se son-Howston Coujuny and the, Btiven Gens o"the report Juet made publiesin’ QOhfengo. 4 nN 
erat Bleetrle * Company © the teidengy dng} ‘hu round tlgareys ‘the any's sineomes} 
i ‘peen ”” io’ ellminate oversthing aud “everys | wax $2,500,000, Hw operating und other ex. 
a ‘bods ldentitied with the Intter company, Denson Were $1,600,000, Wherefore S100,00! 1 
“The eulintnation was’ reached’ Yestertlay }remalued fo compensate Investors. THis! 
Wheit Hilson was thrust from: tho. director] $0000) qvonll have pat six per, cumebans, 
ate, Malnty it 4s tho wish of: the “omer ese th cis ERunaon, it * anstb a 
i , worst Beved that) the a0 Edteon. tangible 
Ants bebing “tue company and 1s! officers caperty IM wortl that gum, bes 
{to dlesoctite ‘from It” not - only ’ “Hdlyon's | Th he Compniny’s tu. ai vaniation— |! 
ame, but his porsonaliiy. —° F fal alin ta ts as S i TS, WRG | ity 
isi a bat y ret vn bapa 
Tt [e-anopen necrot that thelr relations: Fit ann of “ite bonited dent, wheels sf 
WN Edison ‘hare not been Torimontous for {$5508 000, 
feveral yencs; “The Wirard’ has not + Having abnoriualte Jarge varnliga, tle 
lted; the company”: B works at Schonectad 1s, rived from excesst ‘gun for reivior, | 
Tor 'nat«lenat fur, yenta, and alt of ul the company lias ce that ft witt in. 
right-hand-men"’ it the company witehferenne la sto ie gradually at 

Jonst, of. Athe: . three! great ecumpuiiles sin 
whlel! Mrviiah Ix 50 ‘deeply. Interesfed,! 1‘ ‘| 

Hore bla naine are now with him at. Medio} $6,400,000 to $10, LINC y 
Park, NT, stock would swallow up the i of net 
The oMleera of the company at Kehoe | Arcot Mn tividends at the rate of “en 


~ tady, last ulght, absolutely refused to mr ber cent. 
any piatement to reracd, fo Hlnon’s reti 

“Edison Declines to Talk.’ 

‘Aroporter’ for Ue Jonenal tlalted Edison 
at at Menlo Park last night. ‘the 
{nventgr sent out word {hut nfter.the day 
ene ‘te, works, he Wau too tired to be’ Inter- 

Slee. “Halkon ‘kindly ‘conveyed. to bor hus- 
band :the ‘facta Just murcated, and he wis 
arked to tell thafr algnfeance.. ‘He aw 
‘ered, by Mre, Edinon: 


t Ble the first J have heard of the Te. 

| eult: of jthe Genernl Mtectric Companys’ td | 
meeting, “and I do not care to disenss ithe 

ysyMmatter until T kuow more about It.” 

Ay iM. Fish wan counsel for the Thonn. 

\ Touston Company before Its consolidatlh i; 

i he ‘was principal counsel for the New York 
Ale Drake Company agaluat the Werting- 

‘house Company and ling siso heew retalped 

iE hy the-FPoliman Falace Car Gompany, Me 



A forty-seven years ol] and was graduated 
ron) tarea University Law Nehool, 
It ta sald. that for sureral years past. Mr. 
the # hae argued more cisen before the 
* United + “Btates courts than any lawyer in 
athe couutry. He Is most Inilmately nc 
natated : {With ,the- congtruetton of: electric 
nachines 91 

the Itlgation over' patents 

‘or’ them 
ne race’ that ‘moat ofthe electric aom- 
: ‘ : 


a ee 


: "PARK PiAce 

‘NEW yoRk CTY 

N He _ = Unirt 



anon ‘atfontion’ fon q 
raceme of" Prealdent, 

be that sha 
} cae 
nie polng. { 

fee f 

is‘address!to the}: : 
training’ - school: in} 
vmet® forth’: ‘that: |, 
o'a, person ‘ambitlous 
bareer, should be avold- 
er, ‘of meniai dlsciplinu 
PAG Was, wmought should: be along technical 

¥ : fIinebt ‘And"he attempted to sustain hid 
; conditionsby-elting the career of a halt 
2 jozen' Jor’: 80). successfulmanufacturers 
pie were not: _Noted ‘for thelr’ scholar- 
“iand!thet’he had been recently in 
mpany ‘ot forty leading bankers, 

jie same’ doubts’ about: ‘the’ ‘utility of 
ptechnical ‘education that Mr. ‘Schwab 
aa" about the academic, and aske jt] 
A; does ‘not toad! rather‘ to’ small im- 
fa (provements: in-old.methods ‘than to the 
oe Zimaking tot origina}:and Important:con- |. 
He tributions :to ‘the’’ industrial art. It 
‘émentions’ Watt, ‘Stephenson, and‘ Brin- 
ley’ ag;great men whose technical edu- 
ation: ‘was by: no. means thorough, ‘and 
Fyn instances ‘Harrison, the carpenter, who 
‘gave us the chronometer; Arkwright, 
“who collected hair from barbers’ shops 
efore he turned his attention to spin- 
{ng by machinery, and Dr. Cartwright, 
who\never saw a loom until he: made 
is{own. Eden, Gramme, and Swan 
“were ‘without ‘sclentific training in the 
¢Modern:meaning ‘of the term, and Bell 
r wes more of-a philologist than a 
ybhysielst. “THe conclusion of The Blec- 
‘trleat! “Engineer ts that’ nature en- 
‘dowed these men and others that might 
- easily be named with Inventlye powers, 
while education endowed other: men 
jequally, wvell known with the acumen 


to, Investigate, the power and abliity, to |} 
pluggeat Vandgexecute ‘the alterations | 
; Tequired \ to, bring" about: greater perteo~ 

t perdcial ‘theory. “Tho, facts‘ are, as ‘the’ 
i experience of mankind. a through’ ages be- 
1 fora Behwa : 

Bich} wouldin 
Dress paver Santo 

80° lnenenoutce to-the. ‘upmetting: 
‘of, Mr Schwab's - ‘theory:based upon’ juat 
isiot exceptions. «: “hei. olleges need’ 
{not! prepare’ to! olose’ thelr: doors'almply 
because; ‘the {Bteel | trust-president” con= 
1 i}tende manual, straining schools are. to’ ‘be 

‘preferred, “" } d 




| (Fi irst,] Best and Largest 

f Park 2) 

He yaRK i 
ase , 0: 2 
{h ied 

Fon fot, Cann: “Times : 
may 17 1901 2 




x 7 
ica tand- Interesting ian ab 
stead: to jaan shee tte 

fore, ten a Ror ‘ rt Cn bes 

2 or: 8: en, 

crore ee Ea ee 

t . aL REO} 3: 

| nature,’ even: ‘to! mitng rich‘ ‘tn’ electrical 
knowledge. - They- will cutlroly newn 
and: Ifsthe fame‘af:. ‘Bxdlson'/ca ba*in=! 
tensified* beyond ‘the: high* point he‘has;! 
attained,tlt may bo'set a. facts|{ 
that | ithd. Edluon‘:exhibit “at “the, P: 
merican Exposition: “Wilido ft. 
{ ‘Thomas A-* Edjson;; who‘ will. th 
| 80: smuch to, énterjaln and, {ustruct’ vist! 
storstothe | ‘Pan-American ‘ Exposition, 
: epresented'at the’ exposition: by § 
W. at i Markarat,: man 



entlon Vi this “inveéntlye: 
géniue,Sand the} ‘importancalor”thia' Ja 
bestt, {understood ‘3 when fit ist considered. 
that} Edison’ hasstaken tout’ patents:on'l 
more! than* “700finventions,” included *'tn f 
whieh’ number: sare) the/phonograph,tha'|! 
pundruplexsy. a davice; ror! sending ‘four, 
jesse 8 nt, 7, OHCROVET. aitelograph wire, 
stieg he lows realatan: 
octet ting. ¥; 
KItywas'Hdlson® whi i 
i ‘deacont lighting? each ine the: 
[grounds ot! “shosEx sas t 
fr srgottinventionayt Spthase: 
¢ ally: placed. the: ng ‘Hdl. 
19) ghest ri ngSO adder. 
fot Tramorinut\ceogit obs Saat oa ae of, 


pSeP enema ern 

iy First, Best and Largest. 


ek “From the =, 

i ioree Pris 

HeyORK (ly 
rar £0 
i Ls usa 

e May 20 190 . 


‘The Announcements th: t Mr, Edison 

fas’ at last! aucceet ed inventing an 
plectricai’: storage ‘be sttery which la a 
nugCEBS: hoa created a: good * deal 'of-ox- 
‘those. partite {in 
rotrical’: -solenice : an 

ery, ‘are tta\iwelght®: a ottthe at, 
hatiits’ 8; ‘plates ‘aro; iof heavy Toad, “tHe 
mit tq te?copacttyy' ‘and, : “eongequents, 
yrto'thelldataneas’ ‘whlch ‘a*‘vehtele| 
provided with “itienn: travel, and: the 
Pomparatively; brieg: ‘dife: of tha’battery 



From the ema % 

- Ages 

Hew YORK Ty | 
hs ‘2747 He 

w= rtford, Conn-Times. ' 
* may 17 190b| 

Cee 8 Fost wpe re) eae FERNS Vat ten a for 
Y ; - 2 bubts  ] naturo, even‘ to’ minds.,rich' In. electrical 
anette oomataeargiat r ulteitort nore | knowledge, « They: will-be entirolynew 
‘than: ordinrytiim Or int Navael bet gnd'iftthe fame'of;Edlsan'can ba"in-; 
Storashany'a. hortountay axle been. tensified ‘beyond ‘the high‘ point hehasi|' 
abroy! idea ‘with, age anebedutitur esting’ | attalned,tit may bo!set down ns a. facts 
ka ” Sr {t?proved:|\that “the. ‘Edlson:.oxhibit “at “ithe,.Pa 
! CUA ats gu gS ‘American4Exposition:\willido it. '"s, 

h{ Thomas ‘Ay Edison; wha! will: thus do, 
. atti h*to, entersaln and. {ustruct’ vials: 
;tors*to\the ‘Pan-American ‘ Expoaltion,} 
~'} -wilt:be!represented’ at: the'ex position: by: 
v Hi Markgraf, manager fj dl, 
xbibit department.$- 

ry PaaS tho 
‘Sachence "has bocome. M 
much “tnierestd’ over..the s fact! that 

hgmaa A. Edison, Hogalnventedia tors 
lis marcreryenwntch it isantd lag 

ete has 
sth jn. te, Jone: 
entionssiwhloh,! thisiiwo 

: tothe: world 


2Tt, ath 
‘battery: wil}ebe a 
‘greatest Inyention’ Sof! this *iny c 
senjus,\and*{he)tmportance lor“ thig ia 
besti undorstood : when !1t" lu{congidered. 
that} Edison’ has;taken iout; patentson' 
more! than™'700;4nventiong,’” included tn |; 
which’ number ‘are: the/phonograph,'tho ‘|! 
qwadruplex, ya" davice 
alensages ae cei ove! 
{nde he's low - reaistan 
qtwaasWdlson: who credted:the"inca y 
'dexcent lighting? system‘ by,which" the 
.srounds "of: the "Exposition are Hilumi- 
nated, Buch Sreattinventions’.y “these: 
heve naturally placed. the:n mao Hale 
‘son ‘onthe: highest: rung-of'. the: ladder. 

4 je; butidespity. his: multiplicity: of 
HHvention~ during: }the® nineteenth’ cen-, 
‘tury,:-he: greets ithe: twontleth century, 
ond the Pan-American ‘Expoaltioniwith 
aniinventlon ‘which ‘ an‘ authority! con-: 
nected with’ that United 2States: B; ent |* 

‘| OMeoy who; tsconversant with! the bat- 
story, aay ‘nexticocthg:telephone'l “the 
Jimost: togvinesy 


revolutionize; the “storage' battery: “. 
struction’ of: thesperlad, and “carry.:the, 
Avorid” forward “many. materiall-nointa;| | 
‘trom ‘the’ darkness* Iniwhich't this Aield:, 
{has hitherto; been ‘ancompasged NP Nir) 
“STt" wap ‘at theCantennial, exhibition:| + 
(in{Phitadel phiasthag,theztalephona!war: 
ifirst? shown “tofthe= public, Mandidtawnl. 
(dss! at - the Pan-American” Expositlon} ; 
that the public will get its first ‘glimpse; 
lot:this new and ‘great. storage battery |. 
}of Edivon'’s. 2.2 eons 
WeThia i's feature - ‘alane™ “witl:’ ‘pos-.]' 
se88 ‘unusual ‘interest “for every person 
"Who hag any connection: witht the elec- 
itticaland sofentifie fletda..-"Tt: will in-. 
terest. the world’ because: the’ battery 
promises"! to: become * exceedingly - val- |: 
uable. in the deyelopment ‘of various. 
‘ineg’of industry, -the- growth of which 
Noa’ been retarded. by «the lack of’ a'|: 


‘device “ similor” to? this new: battery, 
Sapeclally whl it:beof’the highest .Jm-]. 
‘portance to ‘the automobile “industry, |; 
;Where a batte! Ighter’than?-those .at 
present” in uae: fs ‘mitch: needed". t 7 
ht Edison's, new. battery’ Is: exnected, to 
ibe of-only hait'the:welght! of ‘the: pres- 
ent’ day ‘batteries,%iand an’ ‘{mportant 
statement ‘Is. that it will not beia}iead- 
{| accumulator," A’ “complete “description: 
Jot the battery fa‘ not :yet- obtainable: 
| from. the ‘fact. that’ the: Amerleanpat-. 
-ents“have not’ yet-'been ‘Issued, .“How-" 
it,\‘they. soon'.will- be, and: then ‘the: 
world will know: more ‘about: the won- 
derful sterage battery. to_be exhibited 
at the Pan-American: Expoaltlon.~ “*: 3 
The prediction “wan made, before the |} 
National Electric Light: Association, at:}; 
one’ of 'thelr’-Niagara ‘meetings, ’ that }: 

the/time would come when ‘the electri. ! 
cal‘ energy of the: Falla: of Niagara: 
would ' he. shipped * throughout .--the |. 
||. country by. the “carload..o8 0 ;result of, ~ 
:the:'nerfection ‘of’ the storagt battery.’ !* 
[Tes not known: whether Badlson's iat {° 
est Invention‘a-reallzation 
of this promise;:but“when it is stated §. 
| that Invention the:battery, ranks 1° 
‘{Next*to the telephont in: the(list ‘of im- * 
| portant: iuventions‘’of the “nineteenth; 
century, ‘it may~bo ‘imagined: that: it. 
will-demonstrate ‘its full“ value ‘very |: 
soon after reaching the market, |. :)- 
The exhibit:af, the aauison: Manutac= 
rturing Campany of Orange, De Wl 
(be ‘located “in nection’ D,“oppbsite."the 
General: Electric.-Company's* exhibit, | 
in the Electricity . buliding. : tIn’ addl- 
'tlon' to the ‘storage, battery ‘Inboratory. 
Droducts' of. a-new-and: Important -na~. 
ture will be for the flrat time exhibited. 
‘Several of these-will'be‘of-a surprisin 


af * pad 

om jour 


ats, HA: — Team, 
MAY: 20 {901 (9° 


', The announce 

: ‘Mr, Edleon 
has at dast' aucce j 

pupcess: 1a8 .cLoated! 
pltemént \' among. 
plegtrical,: science ;'s 

‘Mhe¥ deflotenctes’‘o¢'' Ch 
Bi welght,"/duo ‘to.itho : 
lates ‘ara jot heayy- lead: the 
y tayce: which:‘a'-vehiala'| 
Provided “with ritiican’ travel, and: the 
Pomparatively; brief ‘life: of tha 
And : the ' necessary, 
complete renewal, "*" + 

} @dison olaims ‘that he has made dla-. 
coverles which obviate 
the most: part, 
he has at last 4 
battery avhich’ ‘wit 
Practical and willbe 
‘near future, 

It. is significant that. do 
‘pressed ‘by those: 
sclenca concernin, 
‘and advantage o; 

wholly or, for 
these obstacles, and 
vented a storage 
bo found to be 

out Into general 

Posted’ in: electrical 
g the practicability 
f Mr. Edison's tatest 
¢ Such , wizards os’ Edison 
iand''Tesla have made a 
,astounding., electrical 
MApor of lute, but thelr promises have 
not ted to fulftiment thus far. 

i dt ds now’ clatmed that 
itable'of Ealaon's triend: 
about the tual -outeomn 
while uncharltabd: 
Profess the “boldest sort 

tolam."” Others, however, 
faeliities ‘for observing 
e&perimonts and progreas, 
‘das: nade ‘a. grew 
at ha will soon be abte to prod 
¢ in a- commercial’ shape,: 


dixcovertes on 

tho most char- 
8 evince doubt 
@ of his Intast 

Mr. Edlyon'a 
» bellave that 

ye chs 

5 Eyer nm 



Brooklyn, N.Y. ~ Eagie. ; ' 
MAY .9'-1901 


‘Vingare Falls Will Supply the. En~ 
orgy That Will Run the Machin- : 
ery and IMuminato.the 

5 ested 
ware UEOTRICITY 1s ‘playing & cone 
mal splcuous part at tho Pan- 
bay American Expositlon, ‘It 1s ‘tho 

3 onergy “that makes -the 
OE ‘wheels ‘go: round," it cre- 
nies, now add startling offects on the Mid- 
way) iti propels ‘the, Iaunches on tho canals, 
‘nd! it's ‘the force” that carlos mill- 
fens: of people to,and’ from the grounds, At 
night oleatrlelty “ Ughts “the grounds ‘and 
fMuminates {uo buildings, ‘fountains! cascades 
ond Yalta. a degree of beauty and bril}- 
\nncy'nover- witnosmed before. Ani all this 
forco {s gencrated’ at Niagara Falls, 20 
milles away. par ot “ Re oe 

Antdo from tho wide uso of olectriclty oso 
metlvo * power,” there fs. 0 “magaificont 
exhibit :of electrical appliances in ‘tha Bloc- 
trlofty Building. This ‘structure fs of Span- 
inh Renalasonco: rehitactura,- covered ; wit! 
staff, artistically’ colored ‘and ‘adorned’ with 
sculpture, its dimenstonn belng 600 by 160 
faot, ‘Two of tho splendid towers of tho 

no. to - holght of 168 ‘fect, while 

. nari AO, Cnet. 



Tho Btanloy ‘Electric Manufacturing Com- 
pany hos a 1,000-kilowntt {equivalent to a A 
4,500-horas power dynamo) In its exhibit. 
‘This machino fs not in oporation. The clalin |* 
mado for it Is that It fa bullt on tho lateat 
“}ines, and Is capable of gonorating 12,000 
-yolta’ "+ aeeie a 
- Students ‘of electrical energy ara interested 
‘+ tn tho two models of tho Ningara Falls trans- 
“S30! gormor plant’ shown hore. Ono shows tho 
goneral Inyout of the great power bullding at 
tho Falls and tho other cross sectlon of the 
> pyeasnt station at the Falls, with ono of they) 
*~+ unite fn operation, ‘ 
Tho Kulson Manufncturing Company haa 
+4 porsonal inventions of Thomas A. Edison on 
exhibition, and creatuonaaithesmfiny, too, | 
¢ ‘Tho new Edinon stornge battery thermo-alec- 
trio battertos aro shown hor, Considorablo 
entorpriso js shown by tho Stromborg-Carlson 
Tolophono Manitfacturing: Company: in ox- 
» ploiting its system. This company has In 
~ operation a freo telephone system connecting 
all of the bulldings on tho grounds. 
+ xc The:Kollogg Switchboard and Supply Com- 
pany of Chicngo has as tho most striking: 
+ , fonture of its -oxhibit a complete contrat 
"phono office, with “hollo girls” at work, as 
well as a romarklibly interesting abowlog of 
thol latest appliances and dovicos in tole- 
.phonia mechanism, : ‘ . 
‘Anothor display around which many linger 
Ae’ that of tho National Carbon Company of 
. Pittaburg. This concern has {ts many prod- 
ucts arranged In attractive shapes and housed 
fn a commodious booth made of large blocks 
Qf carbon, ~~ . 
; , Atiothor branch of elootrical industry {8 
._ WOll iMtustrated in tho exhibit put on by R. W. 
. Waguer & Co, of Chicago, which conssists of 
_  @lsctric-thorapeutical “apparatus, including 
two largo stactic machines and an intoresting 
essortmont of X-ray appliances, Blectric 
slkns, “excessively brilllent and original Jn 
design,. aro senttered through tho building. 
Its interlor In the evening Is bathed In a ficod 
pf resplondent brightness, . r 

collective hintorfcal exhibit, which furnishes 
+, oppartunity for study to those not familiar 
-with tho beginnings of the art. It includes 
Ploncer work by the Edison and other com- 
Many of tho things shown look ro- |= 

seh: Sens ae: 

Ban tte. naman catane | atan_Penhahly...tho._.montyalabornta and’ 
it Se eet San as 

; In ‘the woat end of tho bullding thore ts a |FR7 . = 


Brooklyn, NY, ~ Eagle : ; ; 
MAY .A9"1901 °° 

Hingara Falls Will Supply the En- 
orgy That Will Run the Machin-» 
ory and Uuminatethe 
Grounds, 2 os 

ees i 
AUBOTRICITY 1s :playing a con- 
S apicuous part at the “Pan- 
Amorlcan Bxposition. It Ja the 
energy “that makes tho |. 
Corea “wheels ‘go: round,” it cro- 
nica, now nod ptariling offects on the Mid- 
way Iti propela-the, launches on tho canats, 

it’ Ia tho force that carrlos mill- 
fons: of people te and trom the grounds. At 
night ojectricity: Ughta the grounds “and 
smminates:the bulldings, fountains} cascades 
nent imiligsta & degreo of beauty and bril}- 
Inney'nover: witnessed before. And all this 
foro {a gonerated at Niagara Falls, 20 
miles away. bog be 
‘Aaldo from tho wide use of oleciricity as a 
inctiva *, power, there ig. oa ‘magaificont 
exhibit of olectrical appliances in ‘the Blec- 
trleity Bullding. This ‘structure ia of Span- 
ish Tenntasanco: .architecturo,- covered . with 
ninff, artlativally’ colored ‘aud adornod’ with 
noulpture, Sta dimonsions being 600 by 150 
feot. ‘Two of the aplondld towers of tho 
nullding rise toon holght ‘of 168 ‘foot, whilo 
{hosp at’ tho narth entrance “are 128 foot 
High. qt wos: tho chict alm’ to ‘miko tho 
oloctriaal, oxhtbit..a collective : rather than 
un éxqlinively’ commercial one, Following 
out this’ purpose . there are o number of 
retrogfcc}ivo exhibits of o historical inter 
est, ‘showing "the advances jn ‘tho art and) 
selericg of, oloctrical' dovelopmant, Tho com- 
riorelal SOxbtbit-" in not» noglocted, how- 
over; and :overy: heart posseuslDE ata. 
(vo morlt is on exhibition. 
es of among tho. oxhibits in the electricity 
bulding Is tho showing mado by the ae : 
Bieatric Company... ‘Thin inaludes o ten jes 
mifithe locomotive of,the Intest type, Au cle 
trie holst and high pressure oloctrically opers 
ated’ puinps sich as are used ID minlng. 
‘Another Intoresting . fenturo domonstrates 
tho most improved electric motor arrange- 
ment for operating surface roliway and olber 
cars, This exhibit, conslats of tho floor of 
a car, with trucks attached, tho wholo sus- 
pended four or five fect above the floor of 
the building. Tho mative power 1a in the 
trucks, ‘Tho-whools revolve with lightning 
rapidity, but aro easily controlled by tho 
perfectod brake arrangement. Anothor in- 
structive demonstration 16 tfint of tha three 
rail electric traction system, known a8 tho 
surface contact system. ‘This conslets of con~ 
tact pointe placed equally distant along tho 
rail. ‘Tho rall $e made alivo by tho passage 
of tho car over theso points. ‘Tho Genoral |, 
Bleotrio Coinpany nlso Mustrates tho altor- |: 
natlhg constant current are lighting systont, |, 
by moans of which tho entire putlding - 18 
nated, °* : 
ape ‘Weatinghouso extilbit occupies the ene 

tira contral area of the bullding.* Among}: 

other things, It numbors a 300 horse power 
‘gas engine of tho latest type. This engine 

drives a dynamo, which furnishes enorgy for | 
‘the Nornst inmps and"electric signs, which |; 

Hight the domo of’ tho: bullding most brite 
Nantly.. Thora aro moro thon 100 Nernst 
lamps in’ the ‘dome, giving botween -40,000 
and 60,000 candie power Ight to that contor. 
In the’ Wostinghouso exhibit thoro ‘are as 
woll heavy mining locomotives, dynamos, ote. 

Tho Stanley !Hivotrlo Manufacturing Com- 

pany has n 1,000-kllowatt (equivalent, to a - 

4,600-horae power dynamo) in ita exhibit. 

This machIno Is not in oporation. Tho clatin|* 

mado for {t fs that it 1a bullt on the Intest 

volts = ete 

- Students ‘of electrical onergy aro Interested 
in. tha-two madela of tho Ningarn Falla trans- 
formor plant shown horo, Ono shows tho 
goncral Jayout of the great powor bullding at 
‘tho Falla and tho other a cross acction of the 

+ p¥eweht station at tho Falls, with ono of the} 

units ‘In oporation, . 
‘Who Edison Manufacturing Company haa 
st parsonal inventions of Thomas A. Edison on 
exhibition, and or y, tao, 
+ “Tho new Edison storage battery thermo-atcc- 
tric batteries aro chown hors. Considorablo 
enterprise is shown by tho Stromborg-Carlson 
Tolophono Manufacturing Company: in ox- 
ploitiug its system. This company has in 
* pnoration a freo telophone aystem connecting 
,  @ll of the bulldings on the grounda. i 
« ve Tho-Kollogg Switchboard and Supply Com- 

“.» pany of Chicago has as the most striking: 

+ , fonture of {ts oxhibit a complote contral 
‘phono office, with “hello girls’ at work, an 
well na a romarkibly interesting abowing of 
thol Intest applinnces and dovices in tale- 
.phonia mechanism, + . . 

‘Anothor display around which many Inger 
ds that of tho Nationa! Carhon Company of 

. .Pittaburg. This concern hos ite many prod- 
ucts arranged in attractive sliapes and houscd 
in o commodlous booth mado of large blocks 
Qf carbon, 

_ Another branch of electrical industry !s 

| WOM Mlustrated In tho exhib{t put on by R. W, 

, Wagner & Co, of Chicago, which consslati of 
elootrio-thorapeutical npparatus, including 

, two lnrgo atactio machines and an intorostlug 
oa essortmont of X-ray appliances. Electric 
sikns, oxccssively brillient and original In 

.., Meglgn, aro scattered through the bullding, 

1 +a. Ita interfor in the evening Is bathed In a flood 

{ resplondont brightness. * 

“, In tho woat end of tho building thore ts a 
collective tulstorical exhibit, which furnishes 

+ opportunity for study to those not famiilar 

«3 >with tho beglonings of the art, It includes 

,-¢ -plonoor work by tho Edison and othor com- 

panies. ° Many of the things shown look ro- |* 

ys markably erndo in comparison with. tho croa- 
. tlons of to-day, ‘ 
While’ the Columbian Exposition was tho 
first. to romain opon at night, tho itumina- 
tlon thero was far inferior to what It ts 


sess eng neta oe 



“Ines, and Is capablo of gonorating 12,000 

at the Pau-Amortean. For tts powor, oles-|eion. Probably tho most elnborato * and 

trical! displays and nightly illumination, tho | boautltul 

olectrical © displny Is «tho 

exposition -recolves from the - power com-|Eloctric Towor and Fountain, Tho tower 

pany {about 6,000. horse powor,. which un- | Is 409 fect in height, the base being 80 foot: 

Gergoes’a Joss of 20 por cont. In ‘transmls- | square, on tho onat and weat aldes of which. 




two colonnades, 75 feot high, turn’ to tho 
south, Whon tho tower ts undor full illu- 
mination. !t is covered with more than: 
40,000 incandecacont iamps. Consummate 
skill: has dDeon omployed in placing the Nights, 
go that the Illumination !s evon * over 
tho ontiro surface, The interior of tho tow-" 
or is o hive of ‘Industry, Thore’ are 
restqurants, roof gardons, loggias, pavil-: 
ibns and cupolas. “Jn addition to tho'lghts, 

ypon, tho tower, there are Ulatributed |, 
dver,tho grounds more than 600,000 alectric | 

Mehts, the {iumination from which *ox- 
ceeds In quantity that of ‘any othor equal 
fron artificially illuminated. At: the’ baso 
of the tawor is tho basin, which dupplivs 
1,600,000 gallons of. wator por hour to the 
alectric fountains, Theso are played upon 
at night by’ 100 forge sized Acarohiights. 

During tho months Jn which the exposition |, 
-}18 to bo open the Buffalo-Niagnra region is to 
ho the scone of the greatest searchlight ex-'|: 

hibition over witnessed. For ‘miles on evéry 
aldo of Duffalo and tho exposition grounds 
thera; flash through the sky, and across’ 

the country, even to Harriton and. Toronto, | | 

beams of Hight projected: from tho lamps 

operated by. Niagara: powor. Two powortul |; 

‘thirty Inch projoctor® are placed on the 
860 foot Jovel of tho Electric Tower, and ‘tho 
rays from theso aro. -mot miles away by 
almilar beams from +n (projector of ‘equal 
Qrilltancy inetalled,’on. tha. top of tho 
great, Observation Tower. at Ningara Mails, 
tfventy-two miles away.’ The’ two bosms’ 
light ,meeting in the: sky‘ forma crown ¢ 
light, ‘not only for the exposition,,but for't! 

ontiro, ‘eurrounding;’ country. °'* 


_'Thof Children's Bullding Is alfuated on tho 

: south midway, adjolning:“Veriice in Amerl- 
peat’: It Ie a two ‘story’ biflding, 76x60 feat, 

and fitted with ‘parlors, reception rooms aud 
a dlot’ kitchen for the preparation of food for 
children, In tho second story thero ls a dor- 

.[ ailtory contalning tty cota, 

eas etre 

nts SEW dot 

| First, Best and Largest, 

. No,—————- 

aes : 

NeWyORK (ty 
; tae (A 
2 [hited 



me Ts Not’ Apprehensive. 


TIA ; 
as A. ,bdison, tha inventor, after} 
nat mratetig Sh unqualtttea denial toroue 
a subordinate, admitted: to-day that ae 
had received a letteF threatening in < j 
‘tect to kidnap his 12-year-old Saugh' eT e, 
iM deline, 1f a certain sum of money Aiea 
t forthcoming. Mr, Edison sald, ont 
ver, that he attached no importance wal 
he letter, and did not fear for the safety , 
tid, - 
The letter was printed, evidently ‘on am 
ordinary hand press. There are certa’ 1 
; clues in the nossesston of the West Orage } 
j authorities which Jeud them to believ i 
that the cplatic was sent by a young man} 
living in the font whose mind is snewn, 
unbalunced. + ” 
heres expected that the young man will 
be questioned us to the matter, ‘si i 

fom HOA, PL terete 


: First, Best and Largest. 


hes ay 
‘e749 0 
le raent ( 

; STONY Slandaeé-notoy 



o months five-year-old ‘Itala: 
E nb iné' of the children whom the 
Orptige: Kidnaperé, threatened to’ steal 
s ‘hidden with her mother and slater 
In: the bonrding house kept by = Mrs. 
Basso, ‘nt 295 South Sixth, street, this 
cht = 
At" the request of Thomas A, Edison, 
against whose daughter kidnapera also 
made” threats, Mra, Blanch, Itale’ ond 
the ‘older daughter, Rina, have returned 
to Orange to afd, if Possible in the de- 
tection of the criminals, 
. Victor Blancht, the father, is a whole- 
sale Hquor merchant, - Until a year ago 
not ‘a shadow menaced the happiness of 
his‘home. Then he received a letter 
prvarning him that untess he deposited 
$600 at a place designated Itala would be 

he to’ any one, but-complled with the 
rder, Nine months later canie a’ simi- 
jar: letter,” this time demanding $3,000, 
find the frightened father concluded that 
to. save his Mttle girl he must break up 
his family. ' His wife and daughter Jert 
Orange, dstensibly to go to Europe; but 
instead they came to this city." i 

“They arrived here March 13, sald 
Mrs, Basso Yesterday, : “For 9 month the 
mother would not permit: Italn to go out 

.on ‘the streets, During thelr stay -the 

second. threatening letter was recelved 

dn Orange. It threw, the family” into 

fresh- terror, which even the baby 

‘shared, for when the belt Tang” or.” 

: a 
stranger entered the house she. would 
rush-to her mother for Protection, They 
left here May 13 and are going to Europe 




{ ' 

First, Best and Largest. 

. “= INCORPORATED 1885. 

+ No, 

ee ee 

jor Ms | 


Ms,’ 40 

, From J ats, 
MAY 25 199)" 

et eee 


ae — ++ F 
‘Threatening Latters to the Wizard, 
"(' Sald to! Have ween Written by 
wt 8 Wicked, Orange Boy. 

} Dhomas,:A, Edison, tho olectrical fd \ 
nd,'who ives’ in a handsome mansion 
a LiLlowel ark)’ N.1J:;-has"mocelved, 
hal “all ceigned | 
kt and throatoning tos 
benutlful ‘daughter Madeline 
had'a‘Landioma:auni.of money 
} spot: in! 

Bay eee 
Izard.was annoyed. and 
‘even ‘somewhat alurmed. “Mien he dls- 
covered that bis neighbors bad received 
‘ahmilar ‘notes! They wero’ printed on 
‘ellps: of paper and erldently struck off! 
‘trom ‘a email drand press. ‘I'he spelling 
‘was. load, ‘but the threats vero blood- 
eurdiing.’ _ 
"Mr, EXlison ‘and his nefghobre, among 
-Yuem Douglas Robinson, B. O. Chisolm, 
‘0. D. Munn, J. Crosby Brown nnd} 
others, decided to employ two detectives 
to hunt for “Dare Devil Dick," who they 
became convinced was some Ind in tho I 
villayo that lind rend of recent — kdd- [fii 
napping exploits ‘in the newspapers and 
{|,Avanted to try his hand, 
{ Mr. Edison when aeen nt hia home at 
Llewellyn ‘Park by a reporter today was 
‘inclined to make light of the whelo af- 
tair, $ 
{It fa true," mtd he, “int myself and: 
several other cosidents ‘have ‘recelved 
i] threatening Ietters ‘aud that ave havo 
taken eteps to find tho sender, Tt'seems 
‘Yertala that somo"boy ts at'tho’ bottoni 
‘ot, tho whole affaip, for avhen the de- 
.pyand that money ‘ho left in the monntalng 
4s’ mado no, articular spot is Stipulated, 
‘It js, neva: Rs, uinoying to lave 
thrents muds /vlow up your house and 
jkidnap ‘or ‘shoot one's children, and I 


mi “aow't it where the joke comes in, 
[if ono is intended, But © hopo we will 
Veatch ‘Dare Devil Dick’ and’ find out 
i] what he means by St, anyway,’”" 
‘}. Meanwhile the wealthy residents of 
{| Liewellyn Park sce to It that watchmen 
gard their houses woll and that! the 
‘children do not wander far anvay. unpro- 
tected hy nurses, nee 

: Waispn’s. Brou. 

ugar Ren) Jara ans 
‘nvould |havejaiJob}totoy , 
sei sevbladelina iit 

‘bound for Paterson, ten days ngo. 

‘rprevented by the Gerry Soelety. ; 
oh te, 


> Dor, Our shoe patient | 

“well "guezded-and:ai expert Jddnapper 
ly: well gu aes 

inasigtnnt being ‘John (ennessey. Police- 
B ett oote, tho regular svatchmnan ‘of the 
ipark,yas nlso looling for intruders, 
said he. had seen the Jetter sent 
WSietEdlaon, but no one had any clue to 
i martte of tho writer. The writing 
t lehowod education. A largo baud of 
| igypaloa parsed through the Oranges, 

years old, is an avcomplished singer and 3} With the tlieats to ilduap, 
dancer, lifer father:is very proud of her 
‘| accomplishments in these lines, ‘Three| ; at, of writing io, kttinappinge 
ears ago she and ‘her brother were to yfOuly one Mnk tn the 
have appeared at a children’s carnival in} agalnat {its nan ts wisstue, the knowledge 

” First, Best and Largest 



=. For. 
From the 

pers | 

Ny Pare 610) 
s [eco 

|: Fray vier: inumal 
MY 69 6900, 
| 4 ( ¥ 




Jolin Melntyre,'one of the Proprietors of 
F/tho Ceutrat Hotel, Ornuge, N. J, Inst night 
f offered $1,000 reward for the arrest and 
‘conviction of the writer of this latter, 
Tlwhich be recived yesterday: * : 
Mr Melutyre~Dear,Sir: You fire Request- 
Meat by the Orauge Buonesa men of Orange 
Ty to glye ve Weylng.your Grocertes and meat! 
af fram 8 8a. tu other artkels (articles? 
>} We Rewnre'ta make yon Glye Up Selling 


on Buday, Untess this ts atopned by You 
and You will have ‘Troubel also with yout 
Voseene it not Stopped: 
} ‘The letters revetved by ‘Thoung. A, il. 
tyson; Warren Smith and Wietds” Banehte 
Orange, demanding money and threatentng’ 
| to Kidoap thelr children, wero printed from 
Hrubber type. the letter to Mr, Medutyre: 
Twas typewritten in lose §mttation of thy 
{ other letters, but on ifferent paper, Whel 
‘letter was Unpunetuated and was: matted! 
at’ the Orange Lost Oflee, at 1:30 Pe. oni 
on Monday Inat, oe 
Tho Pinkerton ¢ y t 
hunting for the welttten tho emeentette 
Jetters” to Kitlion nnd others, have been 
pucelang Mh at the Contrat Hotel. Mr, Me.: 
[tent to eeghten Ace We 2eeeled wig a 
“[the detectives, ae send ve awEy 

‘They left tho hotet sentorday, but |. 
tp less to any not becuusa of the fetter “to 
y) thetr hort. They changed thetr teld of, 
«| onerationx—wont no one knows where, 1 

Slace he ant hin brother rented the Cen.) 
2 tral Hotel three Htonths ago, Mr, McIntyre’ 
‘ portage ne buteher, Hut he Is quite 
ye nt ad nat prove! ; 
of the etter to nin * a“ writing 

Silson's hore ts Htitl warded by ari 
nen: the cldidren af the {Vatren Snitthe wad 
Mlancht tamltles ire hot permitted an the, 
fn By fiemselven, Md uty. other 

" ke “the “same” pre yi 
thefe cathe, fe precaution “with 
Leone Known yeaterday that ‘K n 
Freotnn, prealdent of the Moratawnnige 
I) Truse' Company, had recelved a threats 
eulogy letter, and Chict of Potlee Lent 
Wellt to ‘Mortlatown, Keturntug, thé Ghivt! 

el ee eee 

‘age nn 

at the letter oY i as 
Madclino ison, though but ewelvol | Sait Mean Oranzet tty RECem ne not 

had nothtug to 
; The Chtot ta gtlll closely watehtug ‘the 

man In Orange. who te AU Ktrongly suspect. 
echiln of ovlitence 

H nanetat transaction fn whieh he wag 

‘fGarnegic Lyceum, New York, but were af lately engaged, 

tl. Bala the Chict yesterday: i 
We are pretty near ta . 
{leont those. f aaniping Totter, nad fe rie 
fyosaiile to obtain: thy oxttcnce T shall ace 
nf che writer tp punlshed. thts kind of work 
Will be made dangerotts hore, Aa it ta, 1! 
muy lay the care hefore the next Untted’ 
Staten Grand Jury, aud $e that bay sees. 
ft to Indlet, nil rtiht, Anyhow, 1 shall put 
County Proseeutor Riker ‘tn Poasension: of 
Ppbe te, kone an 1 he ye to go before: 
* Grout dur; 2 j 
aithough elt, wauld ary ae dime 
se enn be mu: y 
woot the malts: Pen Oe male 
ie : * 2 

Fe rad 

Bf Wnt 


mn C Mpy 25,4404] 

ehev writer, He cattt the nttontion af hls corre 
spetent by cloghag bells by means of bar muy. 
ats. Hla eedies are aise toyed by bre mignetsy, 
wt the letters are fe by ane, two ae theee 
s okey to the cheb ag te the jet, 
M lentelona's tation) 

ats. Blundevilo, Thomas, 'Lheorlques of Ue 
seven planets: want descriptions of le, Gil 
t S$ two Instruments for seamen dnding he 


Lu00. Kopler, J. “Astronmmia nova.” (One of the 

West promlient works on astranomy ever publisticed. 

in the Mbrary will also he found the 1650) ed! 

th Midtey, Mark. “rentise of imagnetical 
(he Hes and mettons.” 

1016, Rarlowe, Willam,  “Magnelleall, Adver- 
‘iacmonts nnd properties of (he londstone,* (Iwo 

AULT, Stradue, TP. “Prolustones Acndemlcac.” 
(“Contulng Stridae’s curious verses upot an fag. 
Inary telograph.') x 
JUua5. Carpenter, Nath, “Geography delinented 
rth fn two boukes,”” 
fh. Le Stour Zaconl “tlvee @arithmetique 
un tral de Ja boussole,"” 

Von Etton),  “ieerens 

a Leurechon, ds ‘an 
Whithematlyae compo: eat leurs problemes, 
H a, 

Meo the Engliat edldor 

M27. Bromendh, Te Metcovologigorum, {orl 
Hop,’ This is the very secures tirst editlon’ which 
Ix In few Ubravles, 1s not dn the Beltish Mus: 
ony gor da Wt in’ the Ronalds Collectlon, Libel 
Caudogue of IKUL, page U2s, snys that it is a 
work replete with curtous Information, he pulwa- 
Ulons of Lhe heart, reckoned at 4,150 for each hour, 
tre employed by the author to ealeulate the dls 

ton ¢ thonde 

1629, Ca iM Nicolas, "Phtlosophin maynetica 
To qua wa; tie untura penttus explicntur .. 
C'sn tiportant work an the Joadstone, In whieh 
the author confites the published treatise of Dr. 
GNbert, of Colchester, aud quotes. the unedited 
writings uf 1. Garon, who, even before Gilbert, 
fad niade rexearehes respectiig: the umgnet. 
curla chapter In this work “institutes, a com 
on between electrical and magnetieal attrac. 


(udL, Kircher, Ath “Are magnesia’ (rhe 
libear Ukewlse, tha “Magnes Slye de 

rt of Wi, and the “Maguetleum 
of Lutz.) 

t willvo, “Dinlogo sopra | die slp 
femd del monde muco ¢ Coperntenne,” (This 
ie tho “euppressed” work whieh brought [ts muithor 

‘he dungeons of the fnquisitlon.) Mbrary 

Ke editions of 1085 and the “Systema 
. Gellthrand, ttenry. “A discourse 
Woon the Variation of the Magnetle N 
wise the Herlin reprint of 18 
$i, Mr. Ulundevile, tls exere! AD 
ordinarily ine cupy of S00 pa » partly ty 
clear Black Telter, and contulilng all the separate 

e regan 


tnventer,  Dantet “Deliela  Physieu- 

Petrus, "Pe natura artis que 

“SoM. “Cogitata Pnyateu: 
eContiulny tot any a very Tater 
HY naytgation, bat, lev 
‘om teading selentlsts of (Watt 4 
ow be fonnd.) 

Woot, Th “Le parfalet Souler.’ 

he Latte edition of 1047, 
IGG. Brows, Phomes,  “teendodaxia Lpidem~ 
fea (Ths ts Urat edition, Vhe }. y 
alse contains the ty Kearce “Lsendotoxia’ edie 
Mon uf 1058, 


1047, Arrigh), UW “Saplentiag pignus amatite 
philoxophin autversa.” (Treats ol many selences 
s-adlronony, ineteorulogy, ele.) 

WAL. Mtleeiod. UB. Almagestum noyuimn age 
{ sunomnlatn, 

Robert. “The notary art of 

ving the cabalixticat key of Bleal 
ay) ions, (This ts the frst Bagtlsh writer who 
Kived 1 figure of the mnagnetle dint) 

1001, Glanvil, J, “The vanity of dogimutizing.” 
Also Ute “Scepals selon of 1006, 

(aus, Garzonk I “ia pian universate df 
intte le professiont det mendo,” (Ag fis thle Ine 
dleales, the author has Couched upon almont. every- 
thing, fhe work contalns articles upon Astron: 
omy, Astrotogy, Alchemy, Arimumetie, etc.) 

472. Guerieke, Oto You,  “xperlmenta nova 
Mogdeburglca de vacuo spatio.” Contalns drawlug 
of the earHert form of the clectrleal tanchine.) 

OSt. A, Kubdman and A. Sleeher, "Epistolata 
de Arte magun 

16St. Lants, 
urae eb arils, opus physlco-mathematioum, 
verliatte cyclopedh of all selences connected with 
mntoral plllosuphs: ee 

aN3. Eredericl, Ik “Cryplographla.” (‘Cone 
he eariickl axuuple of tha ‘Morcke’ eile.) 
Hale, Sir Matthow,  “Magietlamius 
Nnelaphyeslent aud Vise contemplat tots 
the mungact or tondstone.” 

Allogether, (he Latimer Clark library 
proper embraces 5,408 books and OL dif- 
ferent periodicals and pamphlets  repre- 
senting 1,378 volumes, or a grand total of 
6,876 separate entries, 

The new constitution was adopted after 
discussion. ‘I'he reports of the secretary 
and treasurer were read and showed a 
total membership of 1,260 and a cust 
Dalanee of $1,451.48, Dr. A.B. Kennelly 


‘Tertius de. Magisterlum male 



then read bis paper on The Hdison storage 
Iatiory, as Pollawss 

I take plone tn bringing to the notlee 
of the Institute, this evening, a nove) typo 
af storago battery, recontly invented by Mr. 
Bdlson, . 

{t Is well known that the history of the 
storage coll Is assentially that of the lend 
cell discovered by Planté by £860, tn which 
lead peroxide 1s the depolarizing substance, 
An enormous amount of Inhor has, in the 
aggregate, been expended upon the improve: 
ment of this coll In tho. hands of oexperi- 
montalists, As no rostit of that labor, the 
storage battery has at last become 2 recog: 
nized adjunct to dtrect-current central sta- 
tions, but It has limitations that seem to 
withstand furthar attempts toward iImprovo- 
ment, Of recent yenrs, hardly any success 

has been met with In the direction of reduc: 

ing its weight for a given enorgy-storage 
capacity, without dotriment to endurance, 
and this weight {s the great drawback of the 
storage battery in electric storage traction, 
tnd has been the principal obstacle to: Its 
advance in this direction for the past 20 
years, F 

In practice, the storage energy por unit 



Tye ov Merautic Cran Us! 
Emegon Stonaas Bat 

tags of the modern lead battery, [5 from four 
to six watt-hours per pound of battery (8.8 
do 13.23 watt-hours per kllogramme). Bx. 
pressed in another way, u battery welghs 
from (24.6 te 186.5 pounds per horse-power- 
hour nt fls terminals (78.5 to 113.4 kos 
per kilowalt-hour); or, If 11s stored enorgy 
available nt lerminals were all expanded in 
gravitational work, a battery could raiso [ts 
own welght through a vertical distance of 
from two to threo miles (3.2 lo 4.8 kilo- 

While it {is possible to inerensa the 
energy per unit mass by making the olec 
trodes very light, yot this is always found 
to he followed by a very heavy deterioration, 

Many attompts have also been made to 
perfect storage cells of the alkallne-zlnento 
type, but the great difficulty of depositing 
zine in coherent form from the solution, ag 
well ns the lack of a dopolarizer that shall 
be Insoluble in the electrolyte, has stood In 
the way of this cell’s success. ° 

Mr, Edison sot himself the task of finding 
tecell which should possess the following 

1, Abeence of dctorloration by work. 

2. Large storngd vapacity por unit of mass, 

3. Capablilty of betng rapidly chargad and 

4. Capability af withstanding careless 
trentment, ¥ 

f. Tnexpens! veers. 

Ilo believes that tho cell here shown may 
claim thesa advantages Inn very ratisfaetory 

The negative pole or positive clement, eor- 
responding to the zine of a primary cell or 
tho spongy lead of a secondary cell, is Jron, 
The posttive pole ar negntive elemout, cor- 
responding to the carbon of a primary cell 
or feat peroxida of an secondary call, lp a 
superoxide of. nickel believed to hava the 
formils NiO, ‘The cell is theredore a nfekel- 
(ron cell, a name which suggests the sirue- 

Vol, 38 —Ne 

Laval material—nlekoteteel Che electrats 
it potash; fz, an aqueous solatlon cone 
fug from 10 lo 40 pes cent by weight 
preferably 20 per eent at polupshon hyde 
tde, the freezing tomperatirns of whieh 
20 degrees below zera Pahrenhelt or-t, 
lees centigrade, 

The initlal voltage of discharge afi 
recent chargo is 1.6 volts, ‘Tho mean valte, 
of Cull discharge is approximately 1b .. 
The normal discharging current rate yp: 
mit aren of actlyve elamont (positive + 

negative) is 60 mile or 8.04 - 5 

083 acumen The store enpaeity of the 
cell por ounlt of total mass of th 
coll is 14 watthours por pound = o 
$0.85 watt-hours por Ilo, Expressing th 
fame statement In another way, the welsh 
of battery por unit of clectrie energy at ter 
mlnals is 63.3 pounds per electrical horse 
power-hour or 82.4 kilos por kilowatt-hour. Or 
the battery gives onergy atiis terminals suit: 
clent to Lift its own woight through a verti 
cal distance of approximately 7 miles ou 
11.26 kilometres. ‘fhe mean normal «ls: 
charging power-rate per unit mass of tolu' 
celd $s 4 watts por pound or 8.82 watts jo. 
kilo, Corresponding to a normal disclitu. 
perlod of three and one-hale hours. The wi’ 
may, however, be discharged at a relative! 
high rate, In approximately one hour. Co 
responting to a discharglug power-rate per 
unit of total cell mass of 12 watts per pout. 
or 26.46 watts per kilo, Charging and qd} 
charging rates ave alike, That t. 
say, the cetl anay be charged at 
normal orate in three nnd — oned 
hours; or, it may be charged st 
relatively Iigh rate In one hour, with nob 
yirent detriment beyend a somewhat lawer: 
electrical charge efiiciency. In other w 
the cell does not appear to be tnjure 
overcharging or discharging. and only 
fers tn eleettical efliciency under such treat 

‘The pusitlyve and negative plates are u + 
chinleally wie, and can scarcely be tlatly 
guished by the eye, They differ only in ** 
chemleal contents of thelr pockets, ‘37+ 
samples bere exhibited, whlely are Intended 
for automobile batteries, Wlustrate the cor 
atructlon., iach plate is formed of as. 
piradvely thin’ sheet of steel, 0.084 4 
(0.61 mn.) in Uitckuess, ont of whielt ree 
lungilar holes tre slamped, so as to le. 
nogrid or frame somewhat resombline 
window-frame. [i the plate here shown 
thare are three rows of eight such re 
einem holes or recesses, or 24 recesse. 

Each opening or recess is fled with + 
pocket or snallow hex containing the acti. 
mnnteriat, These boxes correspond to tie 
pines of gtass In the window-frame anaiogys 
The panes instead of being thinnor than th 
frame, as In an actual window, are thlutes 
than the frame, or project slightly beyond 
the surface o€ the steel grid. ‘They are per 
forated with numerous smell holes to adi * 
the electrolyte, but entirely conceal the cun 
falned active material from view. All that 
meets the eye, therefore, in any of the plat: 
is the steel frame, and its embedded “win 
dows” of perforated steel, 

The actlve inaterlal ig made in the form of 
reetangilar cates or briquettes, and one such 
lriquette is lodged In each pocket or “win 
dow pane” of the plate. Bach of the plate: 
shown, therefore, supports, ar contains. .! 
briquettes of active material, all in right 
contaet with iis own substances, 

Rach briguctte fs placed tn a shallow 
closely fittlog ulckel-wated box of thin por 
forated cructble steel, cut from a long alriy 
of that material 0.003 Inch (0.075) mm.) 
{ek A cover or lid of the same materia 
is then laid over it, so thal the briquette i 
closely enveloped by the sides and walls of 
tts porfornted steel box, ‘The boxes are then 
placed In the openings or holes in the nick 
plated steel grid, and closely AL the saa 
The assembled plate ts then placed in a he 
Araulic press, and subjected to a total prue 
ure of about 100 tons. This pressuro not 

May 25, 1901° 

only thslitly closes the bexus, but it alse 
torees thelr metal sides over tha adjacent. 
sldes of the recesses [n the steel grid, thus 
clamping the wholo mass Into a single solid 
and rigid steal plate with the hollow “wine 
dow panos” Cull of actlye material ‘The 
nickel-plating of both grids and boxes aida 
fn securing good permanent olectric connec: 
{fons hetween them, ‘The finished plate las 
a grid thickness of 0,024 inch (0.66 mm.), 
and a “window” or pocket thickness of 0.1 
inch (2.6 mm.), ‘This js the maximun 
thickness of tha plate at any polnt, but be 
Ing of steal, the plate has ample righty. 



uvea of nearly three inches by one-halé Inch 
on euch face, . 

Tho negative Drlynette (earbon of a pri- 
inary cell) is made by similarly mixing a 
flnely divided compound of nickel, obtained 
by special chemical means, with a nearly 
equal butk of fine Makes of graphite and 
solidifying the mixture in a mould into brl- 
quettes of the same size us above, 7 

A suitable number of positive and negative 

plates are assembled together, being sap: 

rated from one another only by & (hin sheet 
of perforated hurd rubber. 
‘The assombled plates are placed ina vessel 

Curves or Discnanan of Epmon CELL At 

he positive briquettes (zincs of a pri- 
inary celly are made by mixing a finely dl- 
vided compound of {ron obtained by a special 
hemica! process with a nearly equal volume 
ut thin flukes of graphite. The graphite does 
not enter into any of the chomical actions, 

or extornal containing-cell of sheet steel con- 
taining the potash solution, which, of course, 
doves not wttrcK steel, There was, howaver, 
much difiiculty from the actlon of the potash 
on the sowered senms of the steel containing: 
vessel, After many trials, however, Mr, Edl- 

jo6-—-30 ——-}-—---+ 

vt 20 p———|] + 

*|ea-—- 40 on oo 

0 Wers “TF 



nickel compound, oxidizing It to the hyper: 
oxtle of niekel, NIO,, a) higher oxide thin 
the peroxile, In other words, the charging 
enrrent slmply carries oxygen in the opposite 
dtyection against the forces of chemical 
atiintty, trem the fron to the. nickel, and 
stores the energy In the reduced iron, which 
1s, of course, unaffected and passlve in the 
presence of the potash solutlon, On dis- 
charge, the current passes from the positive 
polo through the external clreult to the 
negative pole, and Its attached lron or posi- 
tlve plato, and then through the solution to 
the negatlye or superoxide plate, In so do- 
Ing tho oxygen moves back against the cur- 
vent and partlally reduces the nickel super: 
oxide NiOg while oxidizing the spongy iron, 
The cnergy of burning of the Lron and oxygen 
which would bo developed as heat jn the 
ordinary chemicat process is now Hberated 
in the clrcuit as electrical energy. 

‘'Vhe cell is an oxygen-lift. Charging pulls 
the oxygen away from the fron and delivers 
{t tomporarftly to the nickel, ‘he condition 
is then stable, until the clrcult of the cell is 
completed. Discharge then allows the oxygen 
to full back from the nickel to the Iron with 
the natural allinity of tron and oxygen. 

‘This action Is yery different from that 
which takos place in the lead storage cell. 
Here, neglecting compilcation, the action is 
usually regarded for practlenl purposes as 
Lelng ropresented by the equation 
PhO,-+-211, 80, 4-Pb= PbSO ,--21L,0-F PHSOy-+ 

WH) watt-hours, 
where the left-hand sito representa the con- 
dition of charge and the right-hand side the 
condition of discharge. Here oxygen is not 
simply transferred in dischurge from the 
peroxide to the spongy lead, but the solution 
{Is changed (theoretically) from an aqueous 
solution of sulphuric acid to plain water. Of 
course the discharge could not practically be 
carried to the point of denuding the solution of 
all sulphurie acid, und a surplusage of acid 
must be used, The equation gives a mere theo- 
rotleal outline of admittedly very complex 
renctions. In other words, the speeific gray- 
ity of tho sulphurle acid solution falls dur- 
ing the discharge, and tho solution onters 
into the chemicat combination. ‘fheorcti- 
eally, for every 445 grammes of active ma- 
tertal on both plates, 196 gramines of snl- 

ass Cinpere Hew: 

meen on irs 
3 ! 



Conves oF Discitange or Saati Mucrimes Enon Cun Werauina 25 Pouxps, : 

but assists the conductivity of the briquettes. 
The graphite 1s divided {nto very thin 
laminw by a chemical process, und these are 
passed through sieves or screens so as to 
leave ao size or aren of fluke that is much 
larger than the aren of the perforation in 
tha stecl windows. The mixture is then 
pressed [nto briquettes in a imould, under a 
hydraulle pressure of about two tons per 
sintare inch. ‘The briquettes have a surfuee 

son found a solder which seems to be entirely 
unaffected by the allcall. 

In charging, the current 1s, of course, sent 
juto the positive pole and ‘its attached negn- 
tive nielkel-plate, through the eleetrolyte, 
and Into the positive plate of the fron com- 
pound which carries the negative ‘pole, ‘Phis 
current deoxidizes or reduces the compound 
to spongy metallic tron und carries the 
oxygen through the film of electrotyte to the 

Phurie acld are required to effect the combi- 
nation, or 44 per cent hy weight of the ac- 
tive olements, and in practice ft 1s usual to 
alow a welght of sulphurle acld nearly equal 
to half the welght of the clements, or about 
one-quarter of the total wefght of the cell, 
In the new Edison cell, on the othet hand, 
the theoretical netlon of the potash solution 
is merely to provide the proper channel 
through whieh the oxygen lons may travel 



in one direction or the othor-—positive plate 
te negative plate jn charge, and negattve 
plate to positive plate In discharge. Conse 
tuontly, the amount of solutlon needs only to 
ho suffciont to fulfll mechanical require 
ments. It is belloved that the weight of 
solution will In practice be only about 20 per 
cent of the plate welght or about 14 por cont 
of tho cell woight. In fact tho coll may be 
Worked fn the same manner as tho so-caliod 
primary “dry-colls.” Morcover, If the soltt- 
tion should escupe, or be carried away, by 
gasing in charging, the ouly dotriment scoms 
to be tho loss of active surfaco thereby oc 
vitstoned, and it will only be necossary to fill 
up the cells to the proper level with water 
from timo to timo as evaporation or gasing 
may lower tke level. For the same reason 
tho specific gravity of tho electrolyte docs 
not appreciably vary during charge and dis- 

The briquettes of active matorial slightly 
expand on recoiving oxygen, and slightly 

ah aeenene cate eee 

Vantous Tyres oy Buiquertes AND Pi 

untract on delivering it, that ts to say, 
tha fron briquettes contract and the nickel 
'riquettes expand during charge, while on 
«ischarge the fron briquettes expand and the 
«iekol briquettes contract. Tho level of tho 
solution {s fn this way scarcely affected. Tha 
‘ypausions and contractions of the briquettes 
-s#pear to be well within the elastic limits 
af tne spring-stoal containing-boxes, and con- 
vequently the electric contact [ts always se 
ane. Tho covers or sides of the window 
pockets merely approach to or recede from 
each other slightly during charge and dis- 
‘harge. Fortunately, steel is a metal which 
vussesses this mechanical elasticity In a 
murked degree. 

‘Tho action of the charging and discharg- 
ing current upon the briquettes seams to be 
transferred from thoir external surfaces in- 
sitrds In a manner eimilar to the transfor 
ul earbon and oxygen {n the process of mak- 
Ing malleable cast fron in the furnace on the 
principle of cementation. No active material 
ius been found to be ejected from the bri- 
unettes through the window perforations, 
‘von under dolberate overcharging and 
‘Nacharging, Such gas as is thereby pro- 
Iuced’ makes its appearance on the external 
surface of the windows. 

If the nickel compound had no affinity for 
oxygen, 50 that energy was nollhor developed 
hor absorbea tn the deoxidation or furthor 
oxidation of that substance, then the energy 
‘sould be entirely that due to the energy of 
‘ombination of oxygen and iron, stated to be 
“7 watt-hours, and representing an olectro- 
motive force, theoretically obtainable, of 
1.47 volts. If the combination of oxygen with 
the nickel compound be oxothormic or 
“nergy-releasing, then the walt-hours deliv- 
ered (and the electro-motivo foreo) will be 
ie woned by the energy necessarily paid back 
‘o break up the combination. 



If, on the other hand, the combination is 
endothermic or onorgy-absorbing, then: tho 
watt-hours dellvored (nnd the ctectro-mo- 
tive force) will be Increased by tha energy 
restored on broaking up the combination. 
Sluice the superoxide seems not to have been 
known hithorto, no Information concorning 
its onergy of combination Is obtainable. The 
clectro-motive force of the coll seems to bo 
so near to that of the union of fron and 
oxygen as to suggest that the nickel supor- 
oxide is not far trom boing neutral, or that 
tho nickel compound has but Httle affinity 
for oxygen, although the superoxide appears 
to be quite stable in tho cell. 

The new coll does not seem to bo appre: 
cinbly Influenced by changes of temperaturo, 
and should stand a yory low temperature 
without detriment. Tho olectrolyte—potash 
—does not attack any of tho ingradiqnts of 
the cell, nor aro any of the Ingredients solu. 
ble thorein, No local action occurs In the 
coll so far as has yot beon observed since the 

electro-motive force !a below that necessary 
to decompose water, 

Tho cell mny bo fully discharged to the 
practical zoro‘polnt of electro-motive force 
without dotriment. In fact, a cell has not 
only been completely discharged, but re- 
charged in the reverse or wrong dlrection, 
and after bringing 1t back to its originally 
charged state by proper restoration of the 
direction of charging current, tho storage 
capacity remained unaffected, It would 
seem, therefore, that the cell should be capn- 
ble of withstanding much abuse. 

Diagrams are appended glying tho curves 
of dischargo of oxperlmontal colls. 

Mr. Edison states that “the negntlyo plate 
(nickel) elthor charged or discharged, can 
be removed from a working cell and dried 
In the air for a week without appreciably 
injuring it, and whon the plate fs flnally ro- 
placed in the cell its charge is practically 

The positive (iron) plate, if similarly re- 
moved from the coll will bo Iitewlse unin- 
jured, but it soon loses its charge by the 
oxidization of the spongy iron with accom- 
panying liboration of heat and apprectable 
riso of tomporature extending over a period 
of sovoral hours, On replacing the clec- 
trode, however, in the cell tho storage ca- 
pactty is unaffected on recharge. 

As regarda cost, Mr. Edlson belleves that 
after factory facilities now in course of 
preparation have been completed, hoe will be 
able to furnish the colls at a price per kilo. 
watt-hour not grenter than tho Provalling 
price of lead cella, 

Having now conaidorad tho action and 
properties of the cell, a brief description may 
be elven of tho diMeuitios encountered in 
devoloping It. 

The phenomenon of passivity has probably 
kept Inventors from finding thia cell fn tho 


Vol. 38—No, 21 

past. Mr, Hdlson bolleves that of all the 
very numerous compounds of fron, and of 
which ho hag tried many hundreds, the par: 
ticular compound which he prepares {s por- 
hapa tho only one capable of belng used, 

If tho dried hydrates or oxides of Iron, 
native or artificial, are subjected to otectro- 
lytle reducing netion in any alkeailne solu 
Uon, thoy romaln Inert and unaffected, 

On tho other hand, {f finely divided fron 
obtained by reducing a compound of iron 
under the action of a reducing agent such o8 
hydrogen or carbonic monoxide {8 subjected 
to electrolytic oxidization In an alkaline solu- 
tion it 1s Inert and can not be oxidized, It 
aasuimes the woll-known passive state, 

Tho same diMeulty of passivity affects the 
use of nickel or tho negatlye clemont. Fine- 
ly diylted nickel, reduced from a nickel 
compound, remains inactive when subjected 
to electrolytic oxygen in an alkaline solution. 
The monoxide and the black-oxido or per- 
oxide are also Inert. ‘No oxide of nickel 1a 

ATHA Usen in ti Eorson Storage BATTERY. 

active or can bo made active by electrolytic 
action, and the peroxide does not act as a tle 

‘The disenssion which followed, in which 
Messrs. Mailloux, Sleinmelz, Reber, 'lor- 
chio, Dr. Keith, ©. J. Reed, Intz, Hering, 
Lloyd and others participated, developed 
facts of unusual interest. Numerous ques. 
lions were propounded, to all of whieh Dr, 
Kennelly made some reply. In one or two 
instances, as, for instance, {he questions 
regarding the probable drop of internal 
resistance in the battery or how the drop 
in discharge vollage was manifested, he 
was compelled to reply that he did not 
know exactly, not posscasing full data on 
the matter, 

After a half-hour or so of discussion, 
President Uering calted upon Mr. Chas. 
1. Reed, of Philadelphia, for a few re- 
marks, to which request Mr. Reed re- 
sponded by gracefully waiving his right in 
favor of Mr. Iintz, to whom he referred ag 
a pioneer in storage buttery work. Mr, 
Mintz then spoke briefly, stating that ex- 
periments had been tried by himself and 
others on batteries of iron, but without 
{ho stieeess to which Mr. Edison has at- 


passe ce 

May 25, 1901 

Mr, Reed then spoke at length, as tol- 

Tt seems to me that this battery Is an oxecod- 
Ingly Interesting one, and I for ona feel Hke 
congratulating Mr, Edison on the results he 
has attained, ‘The battery fs Interesting 
from a chemical standpoint, belng of an on. 
tlrely different type from any of the accu. 
muldtors that has evar beon put into prac 
tical use, ‘There have been recently some 
others working In the same fleld, who havo 
produced batteries of this particular type 
but with other matorfals, not using Iron or 
nickel, but a battery of the same typo. I 
had occasion recently to examine such a 
battory and was somewhat surprised at the 
results, some of which were oxceedingly in- 
teresting, In tha partleular ease that I ro- 
fer to a battery wolghing about slx pounds 
gavo, in fts best condition, a enpacity of 80 
ampere-hours with an average electro-motlva 
forco of one volt, or somothing like 16 watt- 
hours per pound of complete coll, including 
not only the active material but the clec- 
trolyto jar and the negative conductors, 
One pecullurity in this particwar cell was 
that it showed ina inuch move marked degree 
than this battery of Mr. Edison's the success- 
ivo chemical changes which take place in that 
call. In other words, the curve instond of 
boing a curve of eharge and discharge—in- 
stead of belng stralght or being a single 
curve—was a multiple curve. ‘The charge 
curve was of this form (making a slotch on 
the blackboard), ‘The electromotive force 
here nt the beginning of the chargo heing 
about one volt, and at the end of the charge 
about two volts, ‘The discharge curve shows 
evidently that tho clectrical energy In not 
produced from uv single chemical reaction; 
that there are several chemical reactions tal- 
ing place in succession; that during the 
early part of the chargo thore Js a chemical 
change which corresponts to this part of 
the curve. When all the material has beon 
converted Into thase products, then another 
chomical reaction takes place which requires 
a higher electro-motive force, the absorption 
of more energy, and then 1 third, and in the 
process of dtscharging of course the chom- 
ical renction, which requires the absorption 
of tho grentest energy, bogina first to reverse 
and gives out the greatest energy. The 
electro-motive force drops down to this 
poiut and go on with the other two chom- 
fent reactions, One peculiarity of this cell was 
that at these polnts the electro-motive force 
actually foll down below that which [t at- 

. tained Inter, discharging In the same cur 

rent. In other words, with a uniform cur- 
rent the electro-motlye force dropped down 
to a certain point and then roso again 
slightly, then dropped down here and again 
wont below this leval, coming up again and 
going down, Now, it scems to me that a cell 
of this type is interesting particularly 
from three different standpoints. In the 
first place, an ideal battery ig one in 
which the. material will undergo as little 
motion as possible; the materinl which en- 
ters into the chomical reaction will romain 
in a certain fixed place. In any coll in which 
the electrolyte takes part In the chemical 
action and combines with the substance of 
tho electrode, that of course is Impossible; 
the electrolyte hus got continually to go Into 
and out of the olectrode, causing not only 
mechanteal disintegration but limiting the 
capacity of the cell by the quantity of the 

electrolyte. In other words, when the elec-" 

trolyte is exhausted to a certain extent the 
capacity of the cell is ended, no matter how 
much solid ,active material you muy have 
in tho olectrodes. Now, In thia type of cell 
that diMculty is oliminnted, As Dr. Ken- 
nelly has stated, all the olectrolyto that is 
needed really is onough to wet the plate, 
and the less yor have and the closer your 
plates are together the botter off you will be 
because you have less resistanea and less 
weight to carry. Anothor point whfeli, 
theoretically, is of advantage In this type of 
cell Ia that the resistanco tends to remain 
move constant. If wo have at the start two 
olectrodes, one of which js a motal and the 



other n metallic oxlde, the metal is a good 
conductor, the metallle oxide {s generally a 
good conductor, n much better conductor 
than maotalille sulphates in the solld state; 
fin the process of discharge of a cell of this 
lype, no matter whether these particular 
naterials are uscd or some other motals, tho 
process of discharge causes the’ metal to be 
come an oxide, the metal plates becoming 
an oxlde and the oxide plates becoming a 
metal. ‘The chango in resistance in general 
wo would not expect to be so grent as where 
the metal and n conducting oxide both be- 
canio ft non-conducting sulphate or other 
compound such as wo havo In tho lend cell. 
Now, experience with the various tynes of 
Alkaline zinc-coppor batteries has shown 
that also to be the case, ‘There Is one other 
chemical rengon why this coll seems to bo 
exceedingly interesting, It may not be prac 
tlent but It polnts to the possibsuty which a 
great many of us havo been looking for, 
If wo suppose these plates to bo mado vory 
thin, so that they could easily bo waslied, 
for example; If we imagine a battery to bo 
constructed in such a way that we havo a 
thin plate with a chin film of the metal on 
tho one and a thin film of oxide on tho 
other so that the alkatine solution could 
easlly bo washed out, it docs not requiro a 

wth | 

PS eins 

Ma. Crrantes 2, Stemnnrz, 
Tax New Parapet or tux Ixstiture, 

great strotch of Imagination to step away — 

from the dynamo altogether. In other 
words, when thls battery {s discharged, wo 
can take the plates out of the solution, drain 
thei off, wash out the alkali, and then we 
have got our oxygen simply reversed, trans 
ferred from one plate to the other as Dr. 
Kennelly has explained. What we want to 
do is to ravorgse those plates again. Now, 
-there are othor ways besides electrochem- 
feat action in which that can bo done. For 
example, wo have in this particular battery, 
assuming this to be the correct formula, 
nickel hyperoxide, as it is called in the 
paper, to start with, In metallic fron In a 
finely divided state the discharge of that 
battery would naturally result in the pro- 
duction of forrous oxide first. That would 
be the first stop at least, 

Whethor that would be final or not I 
would not want to say. And the final step 
in this would certainly bo the production of 
nickel monoxide, It might not be tho first 
stop. It might he, as Dr. Kennelly has said, 
the production of piekel peroxide Ni, Oy. 
But metallic fron would certainly not reduco 

the nickel oxide to any lower degree, In 
“ther words, it would not produce metallic 
1 ‘el unless the electro-motive force dropped 
(4 to something like four or five hun- 
ad dts of a volt. The chomleal relation 


between the forms of nickel monoxide and 
forrous oxide ts very little, I think the 
nickel monoxido Is 61 and a fraction calories 
and the ferrous oxide 68 and a tractlon-- 
about G9, But supposo wo have this battery 
in a discharge state; In othor words, this 
nickel hyporoxide is reduced to nickel 
monoxide; metallte tron !s oxtdized to fer- 
reous oxide and we havo tho plates cleaned 
from Impuritios, It js a wall-known fact 
that ferrous oxide can bo converted back 
Into metallic fron by simply heating {t to 
about 300 degrees in the presence of hydro. 
gen, and {t can he done with carbon 
monoxide. Wo can also find other ways by 
a dry process or a thoromochemical process 
of producing poroxide, I do not mean to 
say that we can produce this particular one, 
but I am speaking now in genoral of this 
type of battory. I do not mean to Bay that 
wo could do this actually with these par- 
ticular substances, With iron I think it 
would be very plausible that that might bo 
necomplished, But suppose we succecd (1 
working out @ process for dofng both, Thon 
we can charge this battery without the ust 
of any dynamo or any electric current, $n 
other words, the battery Js not only a storage 
battery but It is an Instrument for trans- 
forming hent and chomical energy fromm 
other sources such os carbon, possibly cr: 
hon monoxide or hydrogen, into electricnt 
enorgy. Now ‘that, of course, would not he 
a direct process—an indirect process 9° 
getting olectrical energy, possibly, out ot 
errbon; yet it might be a very oconomica! 
process. [ think, therofore, that a cell «i 
thls type is interesting trom these thre: 
reasons particularly, In regard to the es- 
pacity of a coll of this kind, I made a rough 
calculation of the relative ampere-hour 1:. 
pacity of tho active material considered [1 
itsolf, without reference to the wolght of 
electrodes or the olectrolytes of the ern 
taiiing-cells, which may be Interestin: 
In the caso of tho lead cell, wher 
a lend sulphate ts formed in dtacharr 
on both electrodes, thero would i 
theoretically a total capacity of 44 ampore- 
hours, about, to the pounu of actlye ma + 
torial, constdering botn plates, providing 
was all utilized. In this coll there would : 
about 160 ampere-hours theoratically to the 
pound of active material, Now, 1 do not: 
any particular reason in the abstract w', 
We should not be able to actually utilize u- 
high a percentage of the total active mi- 
torial in this cell ns in the load cell. In fae. 
it seems to me that we might utilize a hight» 
percentage from the very nature of thi: 
cell, that the products formed by discha:. 
are not non-conductors, as in the case of t-. 
lead cell, Ono of the reasons why wo enn 
only utilize a small percentage of the nr 
torial in the lead coll ts that the product .. 
discharge is # non-conducting substan. 
which obstructs the current; whereas in 
this case the products on both electri.’ 
remain the conductors, and the only 1: 
ference being that the metallic constituen:. 
and the oxidized metal change places both }.. 
charge and discharge. (Applause.) 
The American Society of Mechanteai 
Engineers. . 

The forty-third meeting of the Ameri 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers » + 
be held at the Plankinglon House, in Mi 

waukee, Wis., May 28 to 31, incluz!. 

+The mectings will be held in the areas. 

on the second floor, and a large and i: 
teresting programme of attractions : . 
been provided. ‘The usual pupera, whici. 3 
from the programme, give every indicat: 
of continuing the high professional sta‘. 

of the addresses presented on such oc. > 
sions, will be read. Members or o!* : 
desiring to altend should communi . 
with Mr. F. R. Hutton, seer:tary, ai 
West Thirty-first street, New York .): 

ee wW es sds Zs, 

First, Best and Largest. 



Deus 2 Ft 

From the 




: " OTE 
| FB oboken. NJ. Serres 




Sensational Clue to Kid={' 

Napping Conspiracy 
Traced to Hoboken. 
pa’ Toei 

“WOMAN AT THE HEAD) reau are taking pare in the Invescig: 


| She ts Prominent and Inflsantlol and 

* Lives on Hudson Street, This City 
*Pallce Airaid to Arrest Her Until 
the Chain of Evidence is Complete 
*-She ts Said to Have Moved From 
Orange Recently, 

Orange, N.J., May 27.—The. latest clue 
to the supposed conspiracy to Kidnap ihe 





daugtrer of Thomas A. Edison, and the . 

» children of Waret8"Smith and Victor 
Blanch, has been found in Hoboken, aud 
the Orange and Newark detectives are 
bending all heir energies to implicate a 
well-known woman who formerly Mved in 
Newark with the man who sent the lei. 
ters threatening to Kidnap children of the 
above named and other wealthy restdenis 
of the Oranges, ‘The police say that the 
‘Wwoman’s arrest would cause a sensation, 
but they are guarding her name as Cares 
fully as they are tracing her every move- 

The detectives say she was formerly 
wealthy, but recently los? all Ser money 
and property and has since been In Great 

_ need, 



‘alt knowledge of the kidnapping leesers or! 



She has heen so prominence and influen- 
tial tha: chey declare shey will not arres: 
her until chery have established her gull: 
beyond che shadow of a doubs, 

She fs said to have tecencly moved co, 
Hoboken, where she is living In Hudson! 

The woman suspect: has thus far. denied ! 
Of cho man who js supposed ko have senz} 
them, ! 
} The woman, fc is sznted, Geured in the! 
scories of the kidnapping of lixde Johnny | 

onway, of Albany, abouc iwo years ago.! 
| By tracing hep urchaser of a sec of rub- 
der lexter scamps and the purchaser of en-| 
Felopes ac che poszofiice in Orange, and! 
25 Comparing the paper on which che lec 
ers Were wriccen with paper in che pos 
session of a man in Orange, che police des 
sermined thas either che man under snis- 
Picton or some one In his employ had wric- 
ten che leccers and was in che kidnapping 

Further invescigation broughe co Uehz 
the fac: tha: the men had been jiving a 
donble life, paying considerable av:encion 
¢o che woman, 

Te Yovelnsed also that che man was in 
business qoubles, and that he was being 

- pressed on-every hand for money, 

Because of the man’s Prominence and 
excellent repuzation in Orange the police 
wre loach co believe him connecred wish 
a bidnapping fang, bue che evidence ac- 

Doreesives trom the Seeree Service Bu- 

This is the firs: sime thae che Uniced 
' Scaces auchorizies have played an acsive 
‘pare in a kidnapping conspiraey, 

‘Three deeczives, said 20 have been sent; 
to Orange by Posodicy Inspeccor Jacobs, : 
‘vere working with the Police and dezec-} 
Sives koday, Sending zhre ening lercers | 
through che mails Is an offense avainse che 
Tnised Szacos xovernmenc, and kidnup- 
Pings are becoming so common char In- 

: Speecor Jacobs, ic is said, is deermined to} 
ring che consplracors oo juyzice, 

The detectives Working on the ease de- 
elared this worning that the mystery was 
near its solution—-that the hunt had nar- 
Towed down to one man, 

‘The authorities have uo doubt that Bley | 
know who sent the Jetters Which created } 

, Such an alarm in the homes of the rich | 

: €d to take him into eustaly, 

‘ sald to be a remarts 

> men of Orange, H 

All they need is to have this woman; 
confirm their suspicions by prmonned 
ils name. She ean furnish the missing | 
ink’ in the chain of clrenmecantial evi-| 
dence, . H 

Dececzives are coday fullowing every; 
Movement of the suspect and are prepay} 

‘His motive for sending the letters is 
fable one, It had a 
Guancial end, but is was not to come: 
elther from blackmail or ransom, ‘ 

He ts deeply Interested iu the kidnap. 
Phig cases, aud ins tulked freely about: 
them with his friends and the pubife, ' 


The kidnapping of litde fiveever 
Tohnay Conway from his paren 
do Albany created og grear seasatha: 
tour years azo, 

For the crime three persons were sent! 
0 prison, Albert 8, Warner for fifteen ! 
gears and Beary ©. Blake aud Joseph i 
AE. Hardy for fourteen Years and six! 
months each, ; { 

‘The child svas recovered after he had: 
been held for duys for ransom, ‘The 
&mount of money ‘demanded for his re. 
turn was $3,000, ‘ 

The police of this city state thar they! 
alave received no notification as te the 
Tesidence of che-wonian here, i ! 
pee eae ! 


First, Best and Largest, 

i F trst, Best and Largest, INCORPORATED 1885. 
: No. § 0 For 
| For. ————$— ” From the : 
From the (ONAL PR 
jor Pep, | i mattis 
f Pare PACE : EWY ORK cy 

Bas IG 

P.O.Box | 
If 2747 ct 0 
From “ \ 
hire: ntine 

ff Way S@@1S%A ~* : 
eae fA FARE? 
i eles Soe RnTET YS 
: ’ 5 rors That R CFaink or Btinchtevons Noys 
ae Se eg TaN THF 
The would-be kidnappers who have F 
threatened to steal one of the children 
of Thomas A. Edison, the “wizard” Ine 
ventor, mustSat extraordinary daring 
and fearlessness, i¢ they really. intend 
to carry out their threat? The. man 

Who fools with him. sho~playecuwt 
“the lightnings, aliost as does a ghild 
4 With & rattle, is not the chap that the 
| ordinary crook cares to tackle;‘especiat- 
Jly when the-former has been * fore- 
‘warned, It Is a question; “Tiowever, 
whether the authorities did the wise 
thing in. giving the news of thé threat 
: against Edison, to the newspapers, The 
publication of the tact has notified the 
‘eriminals that the police are on thelr |. 
track and has placed in their hands in- | * 
formation which will’not tend to hasten 
the day of their apprehension, 

is 6 i —_———___. 

ected man with a woman 

In the Kidnapping 
way In Albany, N, Y. In 

af ng th = 
{thinking People of Orange that the aers 

touts Whose mind had been farmed ‘be ete ! 

5 + police Cantal ; 

Re ek Stil! apoaks of neodt 1 
ere f Re hut one mo; 
aL arrest’ oP Y of ovidence Boraee Bh g 

First, Best and Largest, 



me tee 

. fore Paks 

MAY 29 1901 

PRinniiiig CARE SU 


From tv. gy 

.eubaldting. . 
Tdiacoveraa” anges 
‘that’ the: patson oF: 
detters fo boma Ee] 
taney intent! oh" of ab. ucting 

a nie lepbject of 
; ALG orth ng 
HO had y 

me to 

‘ halt -do 
epma to me that: th, 
b ade out of ae th 

(| ee naeennee Veeeenees | 

From the : 



° First, Best and Largest. NEWYORK ay 
INCORPORATED 1885. i P.0.Box f 0 
No. If ¢ 
ae ! 


For. WN. Y. News. 

From the 

pin Soe 


Fri. ened Bianchi Sent 


hel td 

eward C 

~.MAY.29 1901 |; 

. Philadelphia, Penn, May 20.—1op 
More than two months five-year-old Itala. 
Blanchi, one of the children whom the 
Orange kidnappers threatened to steal, 
Was hidden with her mother and sister 
In the boarding house Kept by Mrs, Basso 
at 235 South 6th st, this elty. 

4; Rr ‘is be. : ‘At the request of Thoma eon, 

‘ mtd” Bites, hac iene ete amine de. agenst whose daughter the blackmatlers 

N. 33, May eirehuk tonday ot Hegre by Mr. Freeman to watch also made threata, Mrs, Bianchi, Itala 

of the Central Hotel, to-day of+ * children,-s st Sgecees and the older daughter, Dina, have re- 

Fig wha mailed in, (or, the arrest of the], sulson’s hosiac ts stiit Warren soured turned to Orange to afd, if possible, in 
rty ‘who ou fia we following letter: Beseet famaillen aro not permitted on the the detection of the criminals, 

y a af ¥ jest La Btrects hemsel yes, uy = 

H fe omaratiae, Dear men ‘Ot ‘Orange To Gire : The evluence agulnat the man suspected Victor Bianchi, the father, Is a whole: 

I ip Huying Your Groceries And Meat From: fins becn laid before County Prosecutor sale Mquor merchant. Until a year ago 

V-Riort ind Other Arkele We Snare To Make: | HIF! for his action. 

not a shadow mennced the happiness of 
his home. Then he recelved a letter 
warning him that unless he deposited 
$600 at a place designated Itala would 
be stolen. Blanch! did not‘mention the 
matter to any one, but complied with the 
order, ‘ 

Nine months later came a similar let- 
ter, this time demanding $800, and the 
frightened father concluded that to save 
his Nttte girl he must break up his fam- 
fly. His wife and daughter left Orange, 
Ostenalbly to go to, Europe, but instead 
thes came to this elty, . 5 

‘¥Xou Give Up Selling on © und, ‘ Philadelphia, May 20,~Instend of belong 
rales This Ls Stoned By Fou And Fon yout fin Suro eos was elven out in Orange, 
} Lissens If Not Stoned. * HM of orange, 'N, J. flye-year-old Ttula Bianchi, one of 
It was at the Central Hotel that the two tee etilaren whom the Orange Ktduappers 

‘ vegzed, to ster, was hidden for xwe 
private, detectives cmployed by Thomas Almonths ‘with. tec mother and sister In i 

:{ Edison to investigate letters tnpinge feat bourding tourse kept by Mrs, Masso, 

to kidnap bis daughter were stopping, ft at No. 235 Houth Sixth Street, this elty, 
Is belfered that this letter ts from the! “For na month the mother would not per- 

af y " 
“Jamo gang that threatened Eijigon, Casbler{ Dt Itala to go out on the streets” fain 

Mrs, Basso today, “During their stay 
Smlth and Merchant Bianchi, the second threatebing letter: Was recelyed 
‘TM, McIntyre bellever the letter yas in-[in Orauge, It threw the family into fvesh 

. terror whieh even the daly hured, for 
‘{fended to triguten him Into sendag away| ‘erro the Nell rang or a stranger outer 

the detectives. the house, ale, would rush to ber mother 

Orin, tnrententng Hoenig by forsp rotection.’ . “They arrived here March 18," said 






i Mvp, Basso yesterday, “For a month the ' 
toaaldent pegnuel Freeman, of the Morrie. mother would not permit Itala to go out | 
puis totter eee him to put $5,000 In a on the streets, During thetr stay the 
certaln stone near the entrance. to the gecond threatening letter was recelved in 
Freemnn: restdence Jn Ridgewood Park, Orange. It threw the famlly {nto treah 
. {gat Morristown, tI Ith, the terror, whioh even the buby shared, for 

ldnnpperst at nny got comple with, the [| {hen the bell sang or a stranger eafored 
-{Mt, Freeman's daughters and subject her {{ the house she would rush to her mother 
to tortures, ' §| for protection, They left here May 13 
and are going to Europe shortly,” 

The writer demanded that the money be! 
: flnced {In the stone before. the night of; 

Mra, Freeman ‘urged her husband to pay; 
the money, but Mr, Freeman refused to be; 
Uackmulled and inforwned the Police, } 
1 The drat letter was Belated on the sae | 

First, Best and Largest. 




From the 


NeW ORK (Ty 
i Peat" of ie 
PR chmod Va - Dispatah 
5 MAY 29 19617 

The great wines ticity, Thomas a 

A. Edison, promises to sive_ to the worlds: 
ty soon a discovery ote another vort, # 
one which secind destined’to revolu- 

tonizo the building trade, if.the expecta 
tions of the inventor are Feallzed.: He 
unnuunces that he hus discovered a twee 
thod of making Portlund cement ac chonps 
dy that ito must supersede wood, : 
brick, and stone as a bullding matertal, 
According to Mr, Edison, it will cost Ittle 
to build houses, they can be constructed ; 
and made ready for occupancy in an in| 
credibly short time, and, once constructed, | 
they will bo as neurly fireproof as ‘cons 
crete nnd steel frames can make them. 
Mr. Edlgon: has been working m this | 
cement discovefy fbr several years, and: 
Now states’ that it has been perfected. 
Under: the new plan houses, Will be 
“poured,” or moulded, rather than bullet, 
and will be not only less expensive, but 
far more durabli thin those constructed 
of other mateslals. “When the invention, 
has come inte general use there will be ! 
Uttle uced for carpenters, the tnve entor ! 
thinks, as cement and steed will srrer-, 
: sede woud cven in the constructian’ of 
: roof, floor, and stairway. The publle will ° 
await with pecullar Interest the pra 
demonstration of what the wieard ¢ 
for h 


First, Bestand Largest. 


Pare | zo 

P.0.Box f 

ieee Ci 

Rochester, N:Y.- Herald 
May 2a 198 

The best ‘trléna Sr “the late Benjttmin : 
Harrison will rejoice that. ‘he did not live 

| to see Judge Brown: write his fame high | : 

the ScroIr of fame alongside that ot 

Judas P, Bradley,. 

Y Wizard : Bison has discavered a way: 
to llve cheaper, Plerpont Morgan and 
his associates are WorklIng overtime to 
neutralize Edison's efforts by Serering 
other things wo ‘that ti will require $3 fo , 
buy $9 worth of stuff. And we' re bet. | 
ting un the Morgans. : 


First, Best and Largest. 



From the 

{fONEL Pre 
l Pane 2) 


th "28 (0 
From Aai/ Wiven Cuin- Register 
Mix. 20 i807, 

i - 
Through his, discovery of a new pro- 
ess for making cement Mr, Edison 
owever; promises to Place sE“withir 

athe reach of the buildér of the humbles- 

pottage. It, Swill be a8 cheap. as com: 
on salt,” and when" mixed with ‘sane 
fna broken’ stone in the proportion oF 
ane part of cement to three parts oy or 
fand and five parts of broken | ‘Blone, net: 
vi supply a concrete mixture 80 cheap 
ind so, durable that {t is certain’ to 
supplant pine, brick or stone fn ‘ali 
buliding operations, Houres, in fact. 
sccording to Mr. Edison, will almply he 

“poured” instead’ of being built. 1 A 
‘orm, patterned after a design furnish- 
2d by an architect,” will be made of 
xood or steel and into this wit] be pour. 
id the concrete mixture. After the 
foncrete solidifies the owner has a 
iwelling In which he cai defy the ele- 
nents and the tooth of Time. 

The “concrete problem" ig an old 
ne. Hundreds of inventors. have tried 

o devise a process for cheapening tts 
nanufacture, If Edison has solved jt 
te may not only stop the ruthless de. 
‘astation of pine forests by furnishing 


+ much cheaper building material, but S 

vill place homes within the reach of 
shougands who cannot now affo 
que. U 



TT ior 

§ Armed Men Are Guard 
ing the Residence of 
Famous Inventor at 
Llewellyn Park. 

i : ; y Sed wy . 

The stately mansion of Thomas A, 
Edlaon, the great electrician, at Liew- 
ellyan Park, Orange, No J., is delng 
guarded to-day by a force of. men arm- 
ed with riftes, 

This 1s because of @ letter received by 
8 the; inventor yesterday anying that if 

>} he ‘aia not leave n large suin of money 

tains ais, twelve-year-old |. unughter; 
Maddline, the fathor’s favorite child, 
woulll, te kidnapped an held for a ran 
{80m three times as jorge a as hb amoun 
now demanded, ee) 
vit lay be that some one, with 1 Q poor 
sensd of humor, is’ perpetrating a joke 
on Nr. Edison, but he was Fesolvod t 
take Ino’ chances, 

Hig wife was made very. 1 nervous “oy . 
the rpcelpt of the letter, and the ‘anxiet 
2} of the father was also amrked. 
. After consulting . with’ Hom 
neighbors, and most trusted ‘employoes 
i mregolved to regard the matter ser. 

‘of his friends volunteered to helps 
the big, housa’in the midst, of the: 

ging ‘at ite might, these, men; 

loyal friends of ‘the: Inventor,. patrolled 
the gro$unde, carrylng rifies, shotgtns. 
>Jund revolvers, They Jurked in the 
shadows for the most part,.for, if kid 
nappers did appear, | they, wi ed to cap- * 
Cure them. + * 
But je the attempt to. steal the child: 
waé to. be made there wae -no evidence™ 
of this Intention last night. - 
‘This: ‘morning’: the “same —vigil:” was: 

x6. the house they were halted within’ “ 
ards of the gfront entrance, ‘and the - 
ying dogs told that’ no one could ad- 
Wakes further with sufety unless his 
‘errand was. stated. 

‘The , were: {n com- 
'{mand. of o man. named Simand, his 
principal assistant being a John Hen- 
neasey, Policeman Foote, tho’ regular 
watchman of the park, was. also look- 
ae for. intruders; 

roote said he had seen the letter ecut 

Extison, ‘but: no-one; had any tre 

a ine. identity of the writer. Tue 
friting showed education. A large band 
of gypsies passed “through .che Oranges, 
bound for abteraon, ten ‘days ago, 
» Mudeline Edison, though ‘but twelve 
years old: is an accomplished singer and - 
dancer. Her futher very proud of' 
her: accomplishments in these - ines, 
Three years ago she and hep. brother 
Were to have appeared at a children’s 
carnival in Carnegio Lyceum here,: but 
Were prevented by the erry, Soclety, 


> Sem 

: (Bieotchoa from a Photograph’ taken ata children’s party recently.) 

AE SSEetR St eeeneersacon saseestoeie POOOSEEOIOT | 


>| in A lonely spot on the Orange. Moun- ° - 

maintained; Whon reporters approach- .' ° 


rather? tier run any ‘rsks— an 


. First, Best and Largest. 


First, Best and Largest. 

genmgg Ants 
Uae | b ibaacrace CP 
OO | ne yoRt ay 

We 8 -£(0 : POBox 1) 
na Mute 
From Phitadetphia Ps. - Tmes From 1a: 
nf err i re Oh hee 
JUN, £1908 a got 

= 6a W R 

gt Se 1. 
7 ini wg Com 
yhe Wagner Hleclrle Manutactur! «|. 
pany, ond Its agent, John Dluatard, fied an 
anawer in the Untted States Ulreult Court 
yeaterdny fo the bul in equity of the 
Weatloghoure Bleotrle and Manufacturing 
Company, In whlett mit Infringement taal 
r tented hnproements in‘ayatome 

a utente u 
lege dette Matributian. The defendant 

i, he 
na the validly of the patent! on, 

we of rlor {nvention: by Wille Bp 
renwyer and tp hommannvy Tidtnon.” a 

Br tcc 
baad feapntedjenceryere 
ee Tei 


oe , Finite iN 

! C SA cen ve f 
| Eats “for Ocean Itinets ' 

¥Y what device enn‘a steamship be“ 
omade safe ina’ fop?’ i 

8 This question, | discussed’ by 
Ienry Harrison, Lowls In, the World's 
ork for May, is belng tackled In a, 
‘practical manner by the great inventora , 
‘of tho world, Mee he rae 
i Tho heirs of Anthony Pollock, who. 
wont down with tho Il-fated:.Bour-’ 
gogne, have offered a prize of $19,000 for : 
{tho’ best device to, pravent shipwreck. 

Among’ tho compotitors’ are’ Thomas 
A, Edlson,’ Prof. -Qlivor, Lodge, Con- 
‘atruotor Bowles, of thig, Brooklyn Navy-' 
Yard; Admiral Makaroff, of tho Tusalan 

‘Navy, and ‘Philip Fllchborn, Chief Con-' 
(tructor of the United States Navy, ' 
Ait mannor of ingerilous devices have 
"boon entered for tho Pollock contest, 
and the competition ia now closed, The 
“judges havo not yet arrived at,a de- 
clalon, |. Re oft 8 ae 2 
* Of all. the inventions submitted tho 
most Interesting ard: those which pro- 
pose ‘to furnish care to tho occan stcam- , 
ahips. Tho!most dangerous enemy which 
tha stoamship of to-day hag ‘to battle 

{th ia fog, and no means has yot heen 
Jeneratly adopted to prevent collisions, 
Mr. Hdlyop's invention is an apparatus | 

riot tobe placed in the keel of the ‘ 
ossol, ‘Thi apparatus would both give: 

First, Best and Largest. 



From the 

‘ 4 




jot, transmitting, and recelving: sound 
rough tho. water instead of through 
ihe oir, By means of tho, Morse ode of 
gnats steamships which were invisiblo’ 
fo ono another could converse with each, 
ther during ‘tho ‘thickest fog. 
Dr. Joseph Schmitt, of Anticost!, has 
wbmitted an invention which resembles 
Bigantic wooden car,, to, bef placed vin 
position*on the deck of the’ steamship. 
fa funnel or car ‘fa ‘constantly re- 
_fvolving, and contains o- mariner’ cnin- 
pass to let’ tho Ilstoner know from. what 
‘RS airectton the sound comes, he 
§ It hoa also been ‘ use the. 
Marcon! system of wireless tolegraphy. 



4 S.sea8 and mo ‘ongmit At: 
iar et ‘irs to etten.” Predition, 
i 0 be added ol 
han el to mech 
isin alo { wilder ieee: 
, Wegraph and tete 
u i ele: 
ore the demonstration oF their feels 


nd receive sound. In brief, It would’. 
Fo’ combined fog-horn’ and ‘oartrum="! 



wn Story of How He Invented the Storage Battery Which Is Expected t: 

nan om bmn ewemenangn 

a ea Cnet ee Oe el lee Lala et a Leet et et ee ed 


- Revolutionize: the Commercial Use of Electricity. a 
| or aygaee gt ise BY JULIAN: | ee 

HAWTHORNE, = 5 a | 

nO PRES EH DDR EMP AN ERIM EMEMRHEMOME HER OU EER OR Omensadu dun grenguondneeedoudntubmers 

SLR Se ee ee 

; eH NT legen Sg i : Be a tg he an 
paused Sa moment In his Janything for himgelf untess constrained | at. the door :of ‘which I sounded an- 
ion, ooking down at the {to do #0, except, of course, the mil-| other summbns, - Soon came an, Irlsh- a 

yhischonds with @ re- Mons of dollars that he spends upon{ man; also with an Investlgating eye, . ; 
Yexpresaton; and then, apparatus and ‘Upon . experimenting. whom I molilfied sufficiently to Induce 
time with a sudden smile, His Inspiration t's to produce, not to] him to carty my card tao the boss. 
dee aed Bocuinulats,. Naver, wan phere anothet | Anon he betame my conductor to the 
a fie mant"* | Magian 0 80 je looked the char- | Interlor. I ‘followed him through ‘large 
" gee, Fein not a: nctonting boy, | acter In outward seeming; but there | rooms Meds with strange objecta, Ila. , 
ot wal ‘sincere.’ He had In mind (a in hin (a brain, a mind, an energy, | ulds in tuts, machines, {nstrumenis, 4 
x.) Or some other man'/2? imagination which make ail former | anomalous things, finally ‘bringing up 
ty who has lived In technl- niagians Appear bankrupt. .Whnta dif-}in a spaciols Ibrary, where In -was 
i atneé" his birth, and ferent world this would have been had] asked to -walt.. Studious. shelves of 
i ftxt-books. this farmer-man happened not to be] books Mned, the walls; there was. a 
eklkpow, began as a traln horn eve ; J marble stafuc ‘of a beautiful, voung 
Beis not a scientific man, he isa] - 7 , spent the better part of the Woman in the altogether, and portralts 
Per One effects results not according | °° a and rainy day searching for him, | of lstingulshed persons, Thera was 
Mmclc. rile, but because he is having at first Song off on a wild- also a tabfe covered with Jars contain. 
MUS diyins necessity to effect them. . chs : 
iy ar Eh (his career indicate It, and 
v a that he ‘says confirm St. 
he declared, with 
sls.* Have what?, Why, 
golem; he has been studying 
s*past, ‘and which has just 
eta frultion in the marvelous stor- 
try which is now tht centre of 
Cos the’ mechanical’ world, every- 
A: Kon Well with one excep- 
t.point nature seemed ‘to 
iS schecked the desired 
in the mid-movement of 

sticking out of the upper ends. Its sldes ‘enough to Intrust me with his memo- Edison, “was to make a cell 

' Were pancled, s0 to aay, with four and| randa on the subject; but presume the Wouldn't deteriorate by work 
‘twenty oblong excrescences, each of | render will not look in a daily news-| would have, per unit of {ts mass, ‘ 

them two and a half inches In length| paper for. technical informatlon of that of storage capacity, It must bo 
by half an inch broad, disposed In rows] kind, und bealdes I am free to confess ble of belng charged and dich 
one above the other, Theso panels ap-| I do not myself understand the formu | quickly; It mustn't bo expenslye, + 
peared on both sides of the frame, and | lac, Zs must he able to stand careless us 
between them was a thin sheet of hard| “It's the simplest thing in the world,” | “Well, there you have it! Four 
rubber, perforated. Edison, in describ-| Edlron said. . rn Per pound Js tho normyl discha 
ing the contrivance, used the almile of} Now In order to get a practical re-! power-rate per unlt mass of tota! 
n window, the panes of glass being sult these steel frames,containing the [and that answers to @ normal dise! 
thicker than the sashes and frame that | ranged celts are put {nto the tin off periad of three hours ‘and ‘a halt 
held them, These: panes, or panels, as can, and the potash added, and there] you may dischargo it, 1€ you Ike, 
‘you please, were each of them tho| you are, One of these’ cans will en-|#Inglo hour, corresponding ‘to -a 
essence or nuclous of the invention, the | able a bicyclo to run 7 miles without | charging Power-rate of 312 watts 
rest being but the appllances to bring | recharging, “We don't say 7 miles,} Pound.’ Thon,’ the rates ‘of cha 
‘them into action. They were the chew- except between ourselves,” Ediscn re-| and discharging aro the same, ao 
: . : ty : , you triple tho rate’ of charging ‘tt 
rence A the cell no harm beyond lowering 

. electrical efficiency.” 2°. 8°. 

Simplicity Is Evident. .; 

“Yes, it's certainly very slmpte. 
do you fasten ‘the ‘briquettes - on 
frame?" ” Pols ase at 
“Put thom jn the holes of tho f1 
and squeeze thém with-a welght 
hundred ‘tons," Edison replied, » 
you ‘sec, makes a ‘single, -'‘solld.; 
plata of the whole affair, with the.’ 
dow panes’ full of the active mater 
“How ‘ts the active mater! 

pared?” = 

“For. the Positive: briquettes irs 
pound of fron trented bya special 
ceas, with about the same ama 
‘| graphite; and the negative brique: 
finely divided nickel'and graphite.’ 
“Now, just what happens when’ 
charge and discharge?" = +. 1,474 
‘Edison had become very vdnima 
and he Mustrated his ‘expdaltion 
quick motions ‘of his hands, *** 
charging current carries oxygen: a 


‘@ against him, would 
nd’ retired on the spot. 
on,\ tecling himself under no 

tons, and feeling that ao 
hich wan so plainly In sight 
materialize, willy-nilly, 
‘and -‘finally’actually. forced the 
Possible to come to pass, 
it" sald he; and he got 

ALE te ne : 
.- Slaplest Thing in the World.” _ 
‘ SY ob hece,m" sald Edison, turning the 
thifig ‘around between his fingers and 
then replacing tt on the table, “It's the 
siniplest’thing In the world.” Ss 
} | Tslooked earnestly at ft, and almple |. 
{ M0 certataly dtd look, You can carry 
{ { dniyour-hand; you can stick it in 
our ;pocket.’ It lfos’ beside me on my 
leak Ba I write, and it ts almost of the 
precise Bizo and shape of one of those 
, eum a cks that you obtain by putting’ 
® nickel n'the ‘stot of the machine in 
une Fallvay ‘depot, y on 
inte ok B suck of chewing gum turned 
a 8 calnothing more, It is two and 
i oat giches long, two-thirds ‘of an 
nek, aha and an elghth of an Inch 
inatinet at’ isthe magic instrument 
i ute nave all been longing for ¢ver 
«ince the ‘Idea of traveling by machin 
ahs acne tous Soot 7 
nvarlably you will find space, welght, 
expense -and power ‘brought to'thelr 
ie €conomicat terms; and a year or 
two hence, ff you hunt for one of the 
Hreaent examptes of them ‘in museums 
of ‘curiosities, but not elsewhere. : 
+en Or’a dozen years had Ppasacd since 
J had met Edison, but though he has’ 
in that time done work enough ‘for a 
world ot ordinary Men, .there were !no 
(races-of wear and tear pon hia coun- 
tenance.”"He wore n‘atraw hat and an’ 
old sult of Nght gray.clothes; he looked 

more,than ever Mie’ o simple-minded 
faemmae whe had spon. tuo MG CUITLEHL 

Ing tho growth ‘of crops and the . 

‘easton of seagons, Hia gray. eyes . ’ . . 

eee honest,” confiding, com- oe eae tea 

onable expression; but then, at ‘ 7 A ed 

‘a, there came into ihem a light and |. f EDISON. 1N His y WORKSHOP A Ne 

arile that seemed almost to throw rr . ny Tae _ * ae . 

wdow, “oii Ue . <a ‘s as . * , 7 + ed Pars Varee 

> Bat relaxed : goose. chase’In the wrong direction. | ing something fn the way of a chetn!-]° During our transit through the sh ‘After condoling with Edison about his 

iing-bench ae he ieee When ‘at last I reached Orange I. went| cal solution, but of what nature I knew | Heus Mr. Dick had sald, “It's a new{ kidnapping trouble, which he. did not 

re, I suppose, most of his think-({ frat .to Edison' In Llewellyn | not. Sit thing In every sense; it involves a npw;scem to take much to heart, however, 
fa done; his: broad shoulders | Patki one of*those semi-private, cultl-|° In a few minutes appeared x young | thing‘In chemiatry: I've been watehh in| we began upon tho battery. - 

ped forward, and he was entirely vated landscape garden enclosures that| man with curly hair,. Mr. Dick, the | it all along, but I’ve only just begunito What. in the frat -applicat! lon of IL 

msclous of himself, Hls smal) but | the better-oft' kind of folks like to lve] confidential business ngent and com- understand It myself." a that you will make?’ I asked. | ; 

er hands were atways in motion, |! A’ beautiful and-roomy house ft {3,] panlon of the magiclan. He, too, was| “But Mr. Edlson understands 1t?'1 1 ‘Oh, I'm. not going to make ‘any ap- 
lng things, or making slight ges-| Standing amidst broad, green lawns, {an old acquaintance, and he sald, “You | sald. : 3 a pilcatlon ee sald he; ‘I'm just go- 
4, with a pencil that was his con-|, With trees grouped here and there and| shall go where nobody goes!" He inughed. “He has been worklhg| ing to: manu neat it, and “ney cal 
t companion, with which, ever and{® Sweeping drivo approaching it. On] Accordingly we set forth on a jour-{ specially at this for two years; Mit| apply It anyw hi) ney want 7 cre 
1, ho jotted down some figures or | ‘he doorstep was a child's toy. The| ney through ‘ labyrinth, room atter| really he has been on the trall for{ig| putting up a new fagtory over ere ( 8 
ched a diagram, What the straw | ald ,gervant. who answered my ring| room, turnings, corridors, out of door years, No other man could! have thumb. be rn ne joulder), and T exe 
tlpped back from hts wide fore- slancetl rather fiarrowly at me, but, | into the open, across &% yard, In an-j{ worked it out, because the mind of fo] pect ive ll be ready to begin delivering 
1, concealed I do not know; when | 8¢c!ns& that I had not the earmarks of | other dour, till, nil of a sudden, I found! other man ts so fillgd with knowledge | them‘ty: about six months, 

at saw him he had a thick thatch | 2 *!dnapper, told me that Mr, Edison! myself in the sanctum, where sat O/cn every subject relative to It, He 
savy, hair, beginning to turn gray. wom down at his Jaboratary. aun out-) man in gray, turned away from me,| knew what he wanted and what wis ally he baliece ‘4 
taps there is fess ‘of It than there side the park eaten. 0 thee a seine and unconscloua of my entrance; for] the meaning of avery phenumenon that ‘Where is the battery? asked I, look- 
» and it has probably become n trending. on Soar: pet el ong: ne Edjson Is a Uttle deaf, though no more! he met with during his gearch, © ing about me. f 

‘er In a dozen years, n°{ the low-bending branches, feeling as if} 50 than ho was when I knew him be-|. “A syndicate of scientific men coula| ‘There was an oblong tin can on the 

: . ; 2 England. fore, and perhaps not quite xo much. | not have discovercd it; only a, min] table, resembling a small oll can, about 

the force of chemical affinity,’ from 
{ron over to the nickel, and the enc 
is stored tn the reduced Jron;: But 
account of the potash solution the ' 
remains pagsive. When you discha 
the current goes by the outslde > 
from the positive to the negative 
‘and on through the solution to:the 
Peroxide -plate—the negative: one, * 
oxygen: ‘meanwhile -is° moving « b 
peslot, {he current to oxidize. 
tron, Sand ore ‘ : 
Iiperoxide. What would ordinaches 
neat becomes electrical energy.** - 
iveCharging, you see, pulls theoxy, 

away:from the fron and puts -it oy 

of? SPOS OT Nive * 
made hundreds of:them myseif, bug 1 
guess this particular one.that. I.hayo ft 
used here fs the only one that: Is-any 
good, 2 vr 3 


elty had been reached, and J. shall.leaf 
the story where It is. I only hopq tt 
no very. egregious errara are contal: 
in the fragments which I have recalle 
By,uext November, then, the new, ba J 
terles will. be ‘on the market, and ‘then * 
we shall see things: move. , Meanwhite. 
the inventor looks very happy,’ ind: I 
asked himif-ho wero not. now-soing 
into retirement. “Oh,